Life Events
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Doug Shadel ◽  
Alicia Williams ◽  
Karla Pak ◽  
Lona Choi-Allum

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 161-164
Author(s):  
Tatyana N. Shmeleva

The article deals with the typological parallels between Kate Chopin’s literary-artistic system and philosophical doctrine of transcendentalism. As well as the majority of the writers of that time Kate Chopin could not avoid the influence of the ideas determining the peculiarities of cultural atmosphere in America, Ralf Waldo Emerson’s ideas in particular. Emerson’s philosophical and aesthetic conception proclaimed individual freedom the highest value, pointed out the intuitive nature of creative work. American transcendentalism encouraged to depict even mundane life events, empowered the art with a special role in the discovery of the world. These provisions were especially close to Kate Chopin and were rather peculiarly embodied in her works. Thus, Kate Chopin depicted mundane events from American life in all their diversity. In her works art is a way to penetrate into the deepest core of existence. The cross-cutting theme of Kate Chopin’s writing was her heroines’ understanding of their own significance, the necessity of freedom and self-realisation and that coincides greatly with Emerson’s “self-reliance” doctrine. Nevertheless, transcendentalism ideas being a part of cultural code of the time combined in Kate Chopin’s works with her individual worldview and that reflected in special ironic implication of her prose.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1067
Author(s):  
Celestin Mutuyimana ◽  
Cindi Cassady ◽  
Vincent Sezibera ◽  
Epaphrodite Nsabimana

Background: Mental disorders continue to be a challenge for Rwandan society, especially for women after the genocide against the Tutsi. The risk of inheritance of mental disorders is eminent. We therefore conducted a study on the prevalence of depression among grandmothers and their daughters using quantitative data. This paper explains in detail why and how the dataset was created, and it describes the dataset itself. This will allow readers to easily access and use the data.  Methods: A sample of 309 dyads of mothers and daughters was recruited. Data were collected using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Life Events Questionnaire and the Social Demographics Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, logistic regression, and one-way ANOVA.


Author(s):  
Kerstin Viglund ◽  
Birgitta Olofsson ◽  
Berit Lundman ◽  
Astrid Norberg ◽  
Hugo Lövheim

AbstractInner strength is a conceptualization of a human resource that is generally considered beneficial for health and well-being. Previously, it has been examined in qualitative and cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal data are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine how inner strength, health and function, well-being, and negative life events, namely crises and diseases, affect each other over time in old people. A longitudinal two-wave design was used with data from 2010 and 2016. A total of 4023 participants, living in Finland and Sweden, and born in 1930, 1935, 1940, or 1945 were included. Data were collected using the Inner Strength Scale, the Life Orientation Scale, a short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale, one item from the SF36, and five items from the Katz ADL-index. Structural equation modeling was used to test for cross-lagged effects. Crises and diseases were found to be a positive predictor of inner strength, a negative predictor of well-being, and to have no significant effect on health and function over time. Inner strength and well-being had a reciprocal positive relationship, and health and function was a positive predictor inner strength. The study expands findings by providing perspectives of inner strength across time indicating that inner strength in old people increases when they have to face a disease or crisis. From a health perspective, the present findings reinforce the importance of healthcare professionals’ awareness and knowledge of the construct of inner strength.


2021 ◽  
Vol 191 ◽  
pp. 598-619
Author(s):  
Fabrice Etilé ◽  
Paul Frijters ◽  
David W. Johnston ◽  
Michael A. Shields

Author(s):  
Xiaoqing Zhang ◽  
Sharon A. Ray ◽  
Wei Hou ◽  
Xia Liu

In China, 61 million children were left behind in rural areas as a result of massive urbanization and migration of parents from the countryside to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This study explores the effects of environmental risk factors (i.e., peer victimization, perceived discrimination, and stressful life events) on depressive symptoms of left-behind children (LBC) and examines whether these risk factors have a higher impact on LBC compared with that of non-left-behind children (NLBC). Data collected involve 1548 first and second-year middle school students. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the associations between environmental risk factors and LBC’s depressive symptoms, the moderating effect of the parental separation duration on these associations, and to compare if the risk factors had a higher impact on LBC’s depressive symptoms than on those of NLBC. Peer victimization is associated with an increased likelihood of depressive symptoms for LBC who were left behind for more than five years. Finally, stressful life events have a higher impact on LBC’s depressive symptoms, while peer victimization has a higher impact on NLBC’s depressive symptoms. The results suggest that stressful life events are an important risk factor that puts LBC at a disadvantage in terms of their mental health.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elisa Cisotto ◽  
Eleonora Meli ◽  
Giulia Cavrini

In this article we explore the last two decades of changes in the demography of grandparenthood in Italy, by means of a set of measures: the proportion of men and women becoming grandparents by age and time, the age at transition to grandparenthood and its crossing with a set of life events and the length of grandparenthood. We used data from the four waves of the Survey on Family and Social Subjects carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics in 1998, 2003, 2009 and 2016. Overall, the median age at which half of the population over 35 is made up of grandparents moved forward by at least 5 years during the two observed decades. The postponement of grandparenthood is evident in middle age: between 55 and 64 the ratio of grandparents to non-grandparents decreased significantly by about 10 per cent. Overall, among people who had ever had children, the median age at the transition to grandparenthood advanced by three years from 1998 to 2016, both for men (59 to 62) and women (54 to 57). This difference is greater than that observed for age at parenthood and equal to the advantage gained in terms of life expectancy at age 60. Thus, although grandparenthood has been postponed over the last two decades in Italy, the great gains in remaining life expectancy result in grandparent-grandchildren lifetime not being reduced.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ferdinand Kosak ◽  
Sven Hilbert

In current research, variations in retrospective passage of time judgments for long intervals are commonly attributed to differences regarding the number of experiences in these intervals or the accessibility of the respective memories. This seems to imply the assumption of a covert retrieval, where authors presume that memories from the respective interval influence the experience of time without these memories being explicitly activated when judging. However, no studies have systematically investigated the relation between the experience of time and the respective experiences and memories. To this end, we analyzed data from three studies in which participants judged the passage of the last 5 years either before being asked to select outstanding life events from a list (Studies 1a and b; N = 293 and 263) or before recalling as many meaningful personal memories as were spontaneously accessible (Study 2; N = 262). Despite applying a statistically powerful trial-by-trial mixed-effects modeling approach, neither in the separate datasets nor in the combined dataset, passage of time judgments were predicted by the number of reported events or memories. This suggests that people's spontaneous judgments of the passage of multiannual intervals are not necessarily affected by a covert retrieval of memories from the respective period.


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