avoidance behavior
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Pedosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 487-494
Author(s):  
Jino SON ◽  
Yun-Sik LEE ◽  
Yongeun KIM ◽  
Kijong CHO

Author(s):  
Tali M. Ball ◽  
Lisa A. Gunaydin

AbstractAvoiding stimuli that predict danger is required for survival. However, avoidance can become maladaptive in individuals who overestimate threat and thus avoid safe situations as well as dangerous ones. Excessive avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This avoidance prevents patients from confronting maladaptive threat beliefs, thereby maintaining disordered anxiety. Avoidance is associated with high levels of psychosocial impairment yet is poorly understood at a mechanistic level. Many objective laboratory assessments of avoidance measure adaptive avoidance, in which an individual learns to successfully avoid a truly noxious stimulus. However, anxiety disorders are characterized by maladaptive avoidance, for which there are fewer objective laboratory measures. We posit that maladaptive avoidance behavior depends on a combination of three altered neurobehavioral processes: (1) threat appraisal, (2) habitual avoidance, and (3) trait avoidance tendency. This heterogeneity in underlying processes presents challenges to the objective measurement of maladaptive avoidance behavior. Here we first review existing paradigms for measuring avoidance behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms in both human and animal models, and identify how existing paradigms relate to these neurobehavioral processes. We then propose a new framework to improve the translational understanding of maladaptive avoidance behavior by adapting paradigms to better differentiate underlying processes and mechanisms and applying these paradigms in clinical populations across diagnoses with the goal of developing novel interventions to engage specific identified neurobehavioral targets.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryunosuke Harada ◽  
Hiroshi Yoshitake ◽  
Motoki Shino

Abstract To ensure the coexistence of autonomous personal mobility vehicles (PMVs) and pedestrians in a pedestrian zone, they should be able to smoothly pass across and avoid each other. Studies suggest that it is possible that PMVs and pedestrians can pass each other in a short period of time without compromising their comfort; this can be achieved through understanding how pedestrians react to the behavior of PMVs and by modifying the autonomous navigation of PMVs accordingly. Therefore, in this study, the avoidance behavior characteristics of pedestrians were investigated. Experiments were conducted to understand the influence of the selected avoiding behavior parameters and to understand the behavior characteristics of pedestrians in relation to the behavior of PMVs. Furthermore, a path planning strategy that enables smooth passing was developed based on these characteristics. The usefulness of this method was evaluated. The avoidance time and the avoiding angular velocity at the start and end of the avoidance behavior were the parameters that contributed to smooth autonomous navigation. The results show that pedestrian tolerance improves and the avoidance width decreases depending on these parameters. Furthermore, smooth autonomous navigation can be achieved using the characteristics of pedestrians’ cognition against PMVs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 6568-6577
Author(s):  
Romes Bittencourt Nogueira de Sousa ◽  
Carlene Gomes Rodrigues ◽  
Natália Carvalho de Camargo ◽  
Laura Carvalho de Camargo ◽  
Luiz Henrique Alves Costa ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Introdução: A infraordem Platyrrhini é composta por espécies que apresentam estrutura social complexa, mas são escassas na literatura informações a cerca de sua interação com a morte, como já registrado para primatas do velho mundo. Trata-se este trabalho de um relato de comportamento de evitação de morte registrado em um grupo de Callithrix penicillata (E. Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates, Callitrichidae). Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo feito por meio de observação oportunística de uma interação entre uma mãe e seu filhote, acidentalmente ferido e em leito de morte. A descrição detalhada do fenômeno ocorreu via amostragem de todas as ocorrências, e contou com depoimento de moradores locais. Para melhor exposição dos dados, foi realizado a construção de um etograma, contendo todos os comportamentos observados, em sequência, desde o início ao final da amostragem. Resultados: Ao todo, 10 indivíduos participaram das observações, e 16 atos comportamentais foram observados ao longo de 6 dias de observação da interação mãe-filhote ferido-demais indivíduos. Os comportamentos indicaram alto grau de estresse por parte de todos os envolvidos, assim como tentativa da mãe de retirar seu filhote da área em que se encontrava.  A mãe também tentou recolocá-lo em suas costas. Houve ainda chamada de outros indivíduos do grupo, possivelmente para auxiliar nos cuidados ao filhote. Conclusão: Este trabalho é inédito para a espécie em questão e reafirma seu caráter social. As observações abrem espaços para novas investigações a cerca de comportamentos similares em primatas humanos e não humanos, assim como da relação filogenética entre eles.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Jason K. Longhurst ◽  
John V. Rider ◽  
Kameron Eckard ◽  
Ryan Hammar ◽  
Franjo. Vukojevic ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND: Fear of falling avoidance behavior (FFAB) is common in parkinsonisms and results in potentially mitigable downstream consequences. OBJECTIVE: Determine the characteristics of individuals with parkinsonisms most associated with FFAB. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted from medical records data of 142 patients with parkinsonisms. These data included: demographics (age, sex), disease severity (Movement Disorders Society –Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III (MDS-UPDRS III), years since diagnosis), fall history (number of fall injuries in previous year), and gait and balance function (five times sit to stand, MiniBESTest, Timed Up and Go (TUG), dual-task TUG, ten-meter walk test (10MWT), observed freezing of gait (FOG) (MDS-UPDRS III item 11)). RESULTS: 10MWT (p <  .001) and MDS-UPDRS III item 11 (p <  .014) were significantly associated with FFAB above and beyond disease severity, which also contributed significantly to the overall model (ps <  .046). Fall history was not associated with FFAB. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the largest portion of variability in FFAB is explained by gait velocity and FOG; however, disease severity also explains a significant portion of the variability of FFAB. Further investigation into factors predictive of FFAB and mitigation of downstream consequences, using more robust designs, is warranted.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Juliane Degner ◽  
Lea Steep ◽  
Susanne Schmidt ◽  
Frank Steinicke

The use of virtual reality (VR) promises enormous potential for studying human behavior. While approach and avoidance tendencies have been explored in various areas of basic and applied psychology, such as attitude and emotion research, basic learning psychology, and behavior therapy, they have rarely been studied in VR. One major focus of this research is to understand the psychological mechanisms underlying automatic behavioral tendencies towards and away from positively or negatively evaluated stimuli. We implemented a whole-body movement stimulus-response compatibility task to explore approach-avoidance behavior in an immersive virtual environment. We chose attitudinal stimuli—spiders and butterflies—on which people widely agree in their general evaluations (in that people evaluate spiders negatively and butterflies positively), while there is still substantial inter-individual variance (i. e., the intensity in which people dislike spiders or like butterflies). We implemented two parallel approach-avoidance tasks, one in VR, one desktop-based. Both tasks revealed the expected compatibility effects that were positively intercorrelated. Interestingly, however, the compatibility effect in the VR measure was unrelated to participants’ self-reported fear of spiders and stimulus evaluations. These results raise important implications about the usage of VR to study automatic behavioral tendencies.


Author(s):  
Carola Petersen ◽  
Barbara Pees ◽  
Christina Martínez Christophersen ◽  
Matthias Leippe

In comparison with the standard monoxenic maintenance in the laboratory, rearing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on its natural microbiota improves its fitness and immunity against pathogens. Although C. elegans is known to exhibit choice behavior and pathogen avoidance behavior, little is known about whether C. elegans actively chooses its (beneficial) microbiota and whether the microbiota influences worm behavior. We examined eleven natural C. elegans isolates in a multiple-choice experiment for their choice behavior toward four natural microbiota bacteria and found that microbiota choice varied among C. elegans isolates. The natural C. elegans isolate MY2079 changed its choice behavior toward microbiota isolate Ochrobactrum vermis MYb71 in both multiple-choice and binary-choice experiments, in particular on proliferating bacteria: O. vermis MYb71 was chosen less than other microbiota bacteria or OP50, but only after preconditioning with MYb71. Examining escape behavior and worm fitness on MYb71, we ruled out pathogenicity of MYb71 and consequently learned pathogen avoidance behavior as the main driver of the behavioral change toward MYb71. The change in behavior of C. elegans MY2079 toward microbiota bacterium MYb71 demonstrates how the microbiota influences the worm’s choice. These results might give a baseline for future research on host–microbiota interaction in the C. elegans model.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liat Korn ◽  
Miriam Billig ◽  
Gil Zukerman

Introduction: We examined how community type, residence attachment, and religiosity contribute to resilience to depressive symptoms, psychosomatic complaints, residential stress, and avoidance behavior among students exposed to terror.Methods: Undergraduate students from Ariel University (N = 1,413; 62.7% females; Mage = 26.5; SD = 6.03) completed a self-report questionnaire on socio-demographics, terror exposure, place attachment, and depressive/psychosomatic symptoms. Participants were divided into three residential groups: “Ariel,” “Small settlement communities in Judea and Samaria” or “Other places in Israel.”Results: Participants from small settlement communities in Judea and Samaria showed significantly fewer depressive symptoms and greater adjustment– less avoidance, psychosomatic symptoms, and residential stress– compared to those living in Ariel or other places in Israel, despite significantly higher exposure to terror.Conclusion: Greater religiosity and residence attachment may protect against depressive symptom development following terror exposure. Secular, temporary residents living in highly terror-exposed areas should be targeted for community strengthening interventions.


2021 ◽  
pp. 003022282110534
Author(s):  
Dilan Özyalçın Özcan ◽  
Banu Çevik

The study sample consists of participants as the patient, patient relatives, and nurse. In our study, a significant relationship was found between the ages of patients, and fear of death, avoidance of death, accepting approach, non-acceptance, and the DAP-R scale total score. A positive moderate correlation was found between the fear of death and death avoidance among my nurses who participated in the study. The nurse, the patient, and patient relatives had a good perception of death and had a higher attitude toward death. Additionally, that found to nurses’ fear of death and death avoidance behavior are higher than patients and their relatives.


Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1243
Author(s):  
Petr Kočárek ◽  
Rodzay Abdul Wahab

Based on behavioral observations, we report termitophily by the earwig Spirolabia kaja Kočárek, sp. nov. (Spongiphoridae: Labiinae). The new species was found in association with the wood-boring termite Schedorhinotermes sarawakensis (Holmgren, 1913) in a dipterocarp rain forest in Borneo; in addition to being observed in the galleries, termite–earwig interactions were subsequently documented in the laboratory. We found that earwigs and termites communicate by antennation, and we observed no form of targeted mutual or unilateral aggressive behavior. The earwigs responded to the proximity of an experimentally irritated termite soldier by conflict-avoidance behavior based on thanatosis, which seems to be a defensive reaction that may reduce the chance of being attacked by an irritated termite. Based on the analysis of gastrointestinal tract contents, we conclude that S. kaja sp. nov. is an omnivorous species that feeds mainly on plant tissues and fungi but occasionally on arthropod remains. The occurrence of S. kaja sp. nov. adults together with the nymphs (2nd to 4th instars) in the galleries of S. sarawakensis strongly suggests that the earwig can reproduce inside the termite colony. Spirolabia kaja Kočárek, sp. nov. is the first earwig species for which termitophily has been demonstrated.


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