Neuropsychopharmacology
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Published By Springer Nature

1740-634x, 0893-133x
Updated Sunday, 28 November 2021

Author(s):  
Shogo Sato ◽  
Blynn Bunney ◽  
Lucia Mendoza-Viveros ◽  
William Bunney ◽  
Emiliana Borrelli ◽  
...  
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Author(s):  
Reesha R. Patel ◽  
Florence P. Varodayan ◽  
Melissa A. Herman ◽  
Vanessa Jimenez ◽  
Rebecca Agnore ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Sabra S. Inslicht ◽  
Andrea N. Niles ◽  
Thomas J. Metzler ◽  
Sa’ar L. Lipshitz ◽  
Christian Otte ◽  
...  

AbstractFear extinction underlies prolonged exposure, one of the most well-studied treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There has been increased interest in exploring pharmacological agents to enhance fear extinction learning in humans and their potential as adjuncts to PE. The objective of such adjuncts is to augment the clinical impact of PE on the durability and magnitude of symptom reduction. In this study, we examined whether hydrocortisone (HC), a corticosteroid, and D-Cycloserine (DCS), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor partial agonist, enhance fear extinction learning and consolidation in individuals with PTSD. In a double-blind placebo-controlled 3-group experimental design, 90 individuals with full or subsyndromal PTSD underwent fear conditioning with stimuli that were paired (CS+) or unpaired (CS−) with shock. Extinction learning occurred 72 h later and extinction retention was tested one week after extinction. HC 25 mg, DCS 50 mg or placebo was administered one hour prior to extinction learning. During extinction learning, the DCS and HC groups showed a reduced differential CS+/CS− skin conductance response (SCR) compared to placebo (b = −0.19, CI = −0.01 to −37, p = 0.042 and b = −0.25, CI = −08 to −0.43, p = 0.005, respectively). A nonsignificant trend for a lower differential CS+/CS− SCR in the DCS group, compared to placebo, (b = −0.25, CI = 0.04 to −0.55, p = 0.089) was observed at retention testing, one week later. A single dose of HC and DCS facilitated fear extinction learning in participants with PTSD symptoms. While clinical implications have yet to be determined, our findings suggest that glucocorticoids and NMDA agonists hold promise for facilitating extinction learning in PTSD.


Author(s):  
Lea Zillich ◽  
Josef Frank ◽  
Fabian Streit ◽  
Marion M. Friske ◽  
Jerome C. Foo ◽  
...  

AbstractAlcohol use disorder (AUD) is closely linked to the brain regions forming the neurocircuitry of addiction. Postmortem human brain tissue enables the direct study of the molecular pathomechanisms of AUD. This study aims to identify these mechanisms by examining differential DNA-methylation between cases with severe AUD (n = 53) and controls (n = 58) using a brain-region-specific approach, in which sample sizes ranged between 46 and 94. Samples of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), Brodmann Area 9 (BA9), caudate nucleus (CN), ventral striatum (VS), and putamen (PUT) were investigated. DNA-methylation levels were determined using the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC Beadchip. Epigenome-wide association analyses were carried out to identify differentially methylated CpG-sites and regions between cases and controls in each brain region. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), gene-set, and GWAS-enrichment analyses were performed. Two differentially methylated CpG-sites were associated with AUD in the CN, and 18 in VS (q < 0.05). No epigenome-wide significant CpG-sites were found in BA9, ACC, or PUT. Differentially methylated regions associated with AUD case-/control status (q < 0.05) were found in the CN (n = 6), VS (n = 18), and ACC (n = 1). In the VS, the WGCNA-module showing the strongest association with AUD was enriched for immune-related pathways. This study is the first to analyze methylation differences between AUD cases and controls in multiple brain regions and consists of the largest sample to date. Several novel CpG-sites and regions implicated in AUD were identified, providing a first basis to explore epigenetic correlates of AUD.


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