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Published By Ovid Technologies Wolters Kluwer -American Heart Association

1524-4563, 0194-911x

Hypertension ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 79 (2) ◽  
pp. 349-351
John Mark Flack ◽  
Michael Gregory Buhnerkempe

Tatsufumi Oka ◽  
Yusuke Sakaguchi ◽  
Koki Hattori ◽  
Yuta Asahina ◽  
Sachio Kajimoto ◽  

Background: Real-world evidence about mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) use has been limited in chronic kidney disease, particularly regarding its association with hard renal outcomes. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, adult chronic kidney disease outpatients referred to the department of nephrology at an academic hospital between January 2005 and December 2018 were analyzed. The main inclusion criteria were estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥10 and <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 and follow-up ≥90 days. The exposure of interest was MRA use, defined as the administration of spironolactone, eplerenone, or potassium canrenoate. The primary outcome was renal replacement therapy initiation, defined as the initiation of chronic hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation. A marginal structural model using inverse probability of weighting was applied to account for potential time-varying confounders. Results: Among a total of 3195 patients, the median age and estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline were 66 years and 38.4 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 , respectively. During follow-up (median, 5.9 years), 770 patients received MRAs, 211 died, and 478 started renal replacement therapy. In an inverse probability of weighting-weighted pooled logistic regression model, MRA use was significantly associated with a 28%-lower rate of renal replacement therapy initiation (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.53–0.98]). The association between MRA use and renal replacement therapy initiation was dose-dependent ( P for trend <0.01) and consistent across patient subgroups. The incidence of hyperkalemia (>5.5 mEq/L) was somewhat higher in MRA users but not significant (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.88–1.48]). Conclusions: MRA users showed a better renal prognosis across various chronic kidney disease subgroups in a real-world chronic kidney disease population.

Ryan J. Pewowaruk ◽  
Claudia Korcarz ◽  
Yacob Tedla ◽  
Gregory Burke ◽  
Philip Greenland ◽  

Background: Elastic arteries stiffen via 2 main mechanisms: (1) load-dependent stiffening from higher blood pressure and (2) structural stiffening due to changes in the vessel wall. It is unknown how these different mechanisms contribute to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Methods: The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a longitudinal study of 6814 men and women without CVD at enrollment, from 6 communities in the United States. MESA participants with B-mode carotid ultrasound and brachial blood pressure at baseline Exam in (2000–2002) and CVD surveillance (mean follow-up 14.3 years through 2018) were included (n=5873). Peterson’s elastic modulus was calculated to represent total arterial stiffness. Structural stiffness was calculated by adjusting Peterson’s elastic modulus to a standard blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg with participant-specific models. Load-dependent stiffness was the difference between total and structural stiffness. Results: In Cox models adjusted for traditional risk factors, load-dependent stiffness was significantly associated with higher incidence of CVD events (hazard ratio/100 mm Hg, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.09–1.34] P <0.001) events while higher structural stiffness was not (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99–1.07] P =0.10). Analysis of participants who were normotensive (blood pressure <130/80, no antihypertensives) at baseline exam (n=2122) found higher load-dependent stiffness was also associated with significantly higher incidence of hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.35–1.75] P <0.001) while higher structural stiffness was not (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99–1.07] P =0.16). Conclusions: These results provide valuable new insights into mechanisms underlying the association between arterial stiffness and CVD. Load-dependent stiffness was significantly associated with CVD events but structural stiffness was not.

Qing Zhu ◽  
Mulalibieke Heizhati ◽  
Mengyue Lin ◽  
Menghui Wang ◽  
Xiaoguang Yao ◽  

Background: Animal models demonstrate circulating aldosterone leads to aortic dissection and aneurysm, whereas data from humans are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to examine the associations of plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC) with aortic dissection and aneurysm. Methods: We identified patients with aortic dissection and aneurysm with assessed PAC before disease onset from hospital-based electronic database and set as case group. Simultaneously, age and gender-matched cohort with PAC measurement whereas without aortic dissection and aneurysm were selected as control group using ratio of 1:4. Multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of PAC with aortic dissection and aneurysm. Results: Totally, 133 cases and 531 controls (all hypertensive) were enrolled between 2004 and 2021, with 77.9% men, mean age of 55.5 years and PAC of 13.9 ng/dL. Case group showed significantly higher PAC(14.51 versus 13.65 ng/dL, P =0.012) than did control group. In logistic regression analysis, higher PAC exhibited 1.68-fold higher odds (95% CI, 1.14–2.48, P =0.008) for presence of aortic dissection and aneurysm, significant in adjusted model (odds ratio, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.11–2.57], P =0.015). In stratified analysis, the association between the 2 was observed in women of all ages and in men with coronary artery disease. Sensitivity analysis by excluding those under interfering agents at PAC measurement and those with primary aldosteronism did not change the relationship of the 2. Conclusions: Higher PAC is associated with the increased odd for aortic dissection and aneurysm in patients with hypertension, even in the absence of primary aldosteronism, implying that PAC might be a target for prevention.

Scott Hoffmann ◽  
Linda Mullins ◽  
Sebastien Rider ◽  
Cara Brown ◽  
Charlotte B. Buckley ◽  

Background: The renin-angiotensin system is highly conserved across vertebrates, including zebrafish, which possess orthologous genes coding for renin-angiotensin system proteins, and specialized mural cells of the kidney arterioles, capable of synthesising and secreting renin. Methods: We generated zebrafish with CRISPR-Cas9-targeted knockout of renin ( ren −/− ) to investigate renin function in a low blood pressure environment. We used single-cell (10×) RNA sequencing analysis to compare the transcriptome profiles of renin lineage cells from mesonephric kidneys of ren −/− with ren +/+ zebrafish and with the metanephric kidneys of Ren1 c−/− and Ren1 c +/+ mice. Results: The ren −/− larvae exhibited delays in larval growth, glomerular fusion and appearance of a swim bladder, but were viable and withstood low salinity during early larval stages. Optogenetic ablation of renin-expressing cells, located at the anterior mesenteric artery of 3-day-old larvae, caused a loss of tone, due to diminished contractility. The ren −/− mesonephric kidney exhibited vacuolated cells in the proximal tubule, which were also observed in Ren1 c−/− mouse kidney. Fluorescent reporters for renin and smooth muscle actin ( tg(ren:LifeAct-RFP; acta2:EGFP )), revealed a dramatic recruitment of renin lineage cells along the renal vasculature of adult ren −/− fish, suggesting a continued requirement for renin, in the absence of detectable angiotensin metabolites, as seen in the Ren1 YFP Ren1 c−/− mouse. Both phenotypes were rescued by alleles lacking the potential for glycosylation at exon 2, suggesting that glycosylation is not essential for normal physiological function. Conclusions: Phenotypic similarities and transcriptional variations between mouse and zebrafish renin knockouts suggests evolution of renin cell function with terrestrial survival.

Michelle L. Roberts ◽  
Theodore A. Kotchen ◽  
Xiaoqing Pan ◽  
Yingchuan Li ◽  
Chun Yang ◽  

Background: Epigenetic marks (eg, DNA methylation) may capture the effect of gene-environment interactions. DNA methylation is involved in blood pressure (BP) regulation and hypertension development; however, no studies have evaluated its relationship with 24-hour BP phenotypes (daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour average BPs). Methods: We examined the association of whole blood DNA methylation with 24-hour BP phenotypes and clinic BPs in a discovery cohort of 281 Blacks using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We developed a deep and region-specific methylation sequencing method, Bisulfite ULtrapLEx Targeted Sequencing and utilized it to validate our findings in a separate validation cohort (n=117). Results: Analysis of 38 215 DNA methylation regions (MRs), derived from 1 549 368 CpG sites across the genome, identified up to 72 regions that were significantly associated with 24-hour BP phenotypes. No MR was significantly associated with clinic BP. Two to 3 MRs were significantly associated with various 24-hour BP phenotypes after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Together, these MRs explained up to 16.5% of the variance of 24-hour average BP, while age, sex, and BMI explained up to 11.0% of the variance. Analysis of one of the MRs in an independent cohort using Bisulfite ULtrapLEx Targeted Sequencing confirmed its association with 24-hour average BP phenotype. Conclusions: We identified several MRs that explain a substantial portion of variances in 24-hour BP phenotypes, which might be excellent markers of cumulative effect of factors influencing 24-hour BP levels. The Bisulfite ULtrapLEx Targeted Sequencing workflow has potential to be suitable for clinical testing and population screenings on a large scale.

Antonios A. Argyris ◽  
Dimitrios Mouziouras ◽  
Stamatia Samara ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Marios K. Georgakis ◽  

Background: Evidence suggests marginal superiority of static aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP) compared with brachial SBP regarding the association with organ damage and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. The noninvasive 24-hour aSBP assessment is feasible and associates better with presence of left ventricular hypertrophy compared with 24-hour brachial systolic blood pressure. We aimed at comparing the association of 24-hour aSBP and 24-hour brachial systolic blood pressure with indices of arterial damage and examining the role of 24-hour SBP amplification variability (within-subjects’ SD) in this association. Methods: Consecutive subjects referred for cardiovascular disease risk assessment underwent 24-hour aortic and brachial ambulatory BP monitoring using a validated oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph). Arterial damage was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness and detection of carotid and femoral atheromatosis (plaque presence). Results: Cross-sectionally 501 individuals (aged 54±13 years, 57% men, 80% hypertensives) were examined. Multivariable analysis revealed superiority of 24-hour aSBP regarding the association with intimal-medial thickness, carotid hypertrophy and carotid—but not femoral—atheromatosis. In receiver operator characteristics analysis, 24-hour aBP displayed a higher discriminatory ability—compared to 24-hour brachial systolic blood pressure—for the detection of both carotid hypertrophy (area under the curve, 0.662 versus 0.624, P <0.05) and carotid atheromatosis (area under the curve, 0.573 versus 0.547, P <0.05). This effect was more prominent in individuals with above-median 24-hour SD of SBP amplification. Conclusions: Our results suggest that 24-hour aSBP assessment may be of significant value in clinical practice to detect site-specific arterial damage on the basis of pressure amplification variability and should be prospectively examined in clinical trials.

Nasia Sheikh ◽  
Aaron A. Phillips ◽  
Shaun Ranada ◽  
Matthew Lloyd ◽  
Karolina Kogut ◽  

Background: Initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH) is defined by a large drop in blood pressure (BP) within 15 s of standing. IOH often presents during an active stand, but not with a passive tilt, suggesting that a muscle activation reflex involving lower body muscles plays an important role. To our knowledge, there is no literature exploring how sympathetic activation affects IOH. We hypothesized involuntary muscle contractions before standing would significantly reduce the drop in BP seen in IOH while increasing sympathetic activity would not. Methods: Study participants performed 4 sit-to-stand maneuvers including a mental stress test (serial 7 mental arithmetic stress test), cold pressor test, electrical stimulation, and no intervention. Continuous heart rate and beat-to-beat BP were measured. Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance were estimated from these waveforms. Data are presented as mean±SD. Results: A total of 23 female IOH participants (31±8 years) completed the study. The drops in systolic BP following the serial 7 mental arithmetic stress test (−26±12 mm Hg; P =0.004), cold pressor test (−20±15 mm Hg; P <0.001), and electrical stimulation (−28±12 mm Hg; P =0.01) were significantly reduced compared with no intervention (−34±11 mm Hg). The drops in systemic vascular resistance following the serial 7 mental arithmetic stress test (−391±206 dyne×s/cm 5 ; P =0.006) and cold pressor test (−386±179 dyne×s/cm 5 ; P =0.011) were significantly reduced compared with no intervention (−488±173 dyne×s/cm 5 ). Cardiac output was significantly increased upon standing (7±2 L/min) compared with during the sit (6±1 L/min; P <0.001) for electrical stimulation. Conclusion: Sympathetic activation mitigates the BP response in IOH, while involuntary muscle contraction mitigates the BP response and reduces symptoms. Active muscle contractions may induce both of these mechanisms of action in their pretreatment of IOH. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique identifier: NCT03970551.

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