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Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Elliot Ho ◽  
Ajay Wagh ◽  
Kyle Hogarth ◽  
Septimiu Murgu

Flexible bronchoscopy plays a critical role in both diagnostic and therapeutic management of a variety of pulmonary disorders in the bronchoscopy suite and the intensive care unit. In the set-ting of the ongoing viral pandemic, single-use flexible bronchoscopes (SUFB) have garnered attention as various professional pulmonary societies have released guidelines regarding uses for SUFB given the concern for risk of viral transmission when using reusable flexible bronchoscopes (RFB). In addition to offering sterility, SUFBs are portable, easily accessible, and may be more cost-effective than RFB when considering the potential costs of treating bronchoscopy-related infections. Furthermore, since SUFBs are one time use, they do not require reprocessing after use, and therefore may translate to reduced cleaning and storage costs. Despite these advantages, RFBs are still routinely used to perform advanced diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures given the need for optimal maneuverability, handling, angle of deflection, image quality, and larger channel size for passing of ancillary instruments. Here, we review the published evidence on the applications of single-use and reusable bronchoscopes in bronchoscopy suites and intensive care units. Specifically, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these devices as pertinent to fundamental, advanced, and therapeutic bronchoscopic interventions.

Lena Tschiderer ◽  
Lisa Seekircher ◽  
Setor K. Kunutsor ◽  
Sanne A. E. Peters ◽  
Linda M. O’Keeffe ◽  

Background Breastfeeding has been robustly linked to reduced maternal risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and type 2 diabetes. We herein systematically reviewed the published evidence on the association of breastfeeding with maternal risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. Methods and Results Our systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science of articles published up to April 16, 2021, identified 8 relevant prospective studies involving 1 192 700 parous women (weighted mean age: 51.3 years at study entry, 24.6 years at first birth; weighted mean number of births: 2.3). A total of 982 566 women (82%) reported having ever breastfed (weighted mean lifetime duration of breastfeeding: 15.6 months). During a weighted median follow‐up of 10.3 years, 54 226 CVD, 26 913 coronary heart disease, 30 843 stroke, and 10 766 fatal CVD events were recorded. In a random‐effects meta‐analysis, the pooled multivariable‐adjusted hazard ratios comparing parous women who ever breastfed to those who never breastfed were 0.89 for CVD (95% CI, 0.83–0.95; I 2 =79.4%), 0.86 for coronary heart disease (95% CI, 0.78–0.95; I 2 =79.7%), 0.88 for stroke (95% CI, 0.79–0.99; I 2 =79.6%), and 0.83 for fatal CVD (95% CI, 0.76–0.92; I 2 =47.7%). The quality of the evidence assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool ranged from very low to moderate, which was mainly driven by high between‐studies heterogeneity. Strengths of associations did not differ by mean age at study entry, median follow‐up duration, mean parity, level of adjustment, study quality, or geographical region. A progressive risk reduction of all CVD outcomes with lifetime durations of breastfeeding from 0 up to 12 months was found, with some uncertainty about shapes of associations for longer durations. Conclusions Breastfeeding was associated with reduced maternal risk of CVD outcomes.

2022 ◽  
pp. 105566562110707
Elina Kapoor ◽  
Esperanza Mantilla-Rivas ◽  
Md Sohel Rana ◽  
Marudeen Aivaz ◽  
Daniela Duarte-Bateman ◽  

Objective Robin Sequence (RS), characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction, is an increasingly recognized diagnosis. An effective surgical intervention is mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO). This study analyzes published evidence regarding facial nerve dysfunction (FND) associated with MDO. Design and Setting According to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was carried out with databases queried in June 2019 using MESH terms, or equivalent terms, as follows: “distraction osteogenesis” and “Robin Sequence”. A review of original Spanish and English articles, were included. Outcome measures included the prevalence of FND; the affected branches; the rate of permanent vs. transient FND; the use of an internal vs. external device; the daily distraction rate; and finally, the overall distraction length. Subsequently, a meta-analysis was conducted to collate results regarding the prevalence of FND and the factors associated with it. Results Of 239 unique studies identified, 19 studies with 729 patients met inclusion criteria; 52 patients developed FND after MDO. A random-effects meta-analysis yielded a pooled prevalence of FND of 6.40%, with moderately heterogeneous studies (I2 = 41%, τ2 = 0.006). Marginal mandibular nerve involvement was most commonly noted. Nine studies reported transient FND, six permanent, one both, and two unspecified. Internal distractors were used in 8 studies and external in 3 and both in 2. Distraction rate was 1.00 to 2.00 mm/day and total distraction length ranged from 13.00 to 22.3 mm. Sample size was the only parameter inversely associated with rate of FND (p = 0.04). Conclusion This analysis of FND associated with MDO for patients with RS demonstrates a lack of consistent documentation. MDO-associated FND does not appear to be uncommon, and permanent dysfunction can occur. This review underscores the importance of thorough documentation to elucidate the mechanism of FND.

Cao Huanhuan ◽  
Ming Li ◽  
Mingxu Wang ◽  
David Roder ◽  
Ian Olver

 In this paper, the evolution of the ethics committees for health research, their history, membership, and function in China and Australia is described. Investigators in each country compared the history and governance of their ethical systems based on the published evidence rather than personal opinions. Similarly, examples of challenges were selected from the literature. In both countries, the aim was to maximize the social benefits of research and minimize the risk imposed on the participants. Common challenges include maintaining independence, funding and delivering timely ethical reviews of the research projects. These challenges can be difficult where research ethics committees rely on voluntary contributions and lack a strong resource base. They must adapt to the increasingly rapid pace of research as well as the technological sophistication.  Population health research can challenge the conventional views of consent and privacy. The principles of the sound ethical review are common in both countries; governance arrangements and operational procedures, however, can differ, reflecting the cultural values and norms of their host countries and in respect of legal environments. By studying the evolution and function of ethics committees in the two countries, we established the differences in the governance and health systems, while similar ethical objectives helped sustain collaborative research.

Majid Alabdulla ◽  
Nimesh Samarasinghe ◽  
Iain Tulley ◽  
Shuja Reagu

AbstractThere is a marked paucity of published evidence on the extent and nature of substance use disorders in the State of Qatar. This is mirrored by a dearth of information on the policy for the treatment of substance use disorders in the public domain. Between 2007 and 2017, substance use disorders have risen from the third to leading cause of disability in Qatar. More recently, Qatar has shifted from applying a punitive only paradigm in managing substance use problems to recognizing the role of treatment and care for people with substance use disorders. Recently published official documents in Qatar define addiction as a disease and as a chronic condition where people with substance use disorders should be treated as patients who need care and assistance. This shifts the onus of providing, and developing services, for individuals with substance use disorders with healthcare providers rather than purely with the criminal justice system. Following cabinet approval, the recently established Permanent Committee for Addiction Treatment headed by the Minister of Public Health, signals the need to institutionalize systems and structures to upscale demand reduction programmes in the country. This article is a descriptive examination of the shifts in substance abuse treatment policy in Qatar, the major factors influencing this evolution, and will utilise some of the policy science theories to describe and analyse policy outcomes. The article will also frame the substance use problem in Qatar for the first time, based on documents published by various government organisations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 616
Md Afroz Ahmad ◽  
Ozaifa Kareem ◽  
Mohammad Khushtar ◽  
Md Akbar ◽  
Md Rafiul Haque ◽  

Dementia is a neurodegenerative condition that is considered a major factor contributing to cognitive decline that reduces independent function. Pathophysiological pathways are not well defined for neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia; however, published evidence has shown the role of numerous inflammatory processes in the brain contributing toward their pathology. Microglia of the central nervous system (CNS) are the principal components of the brain’s immune defence system and can detect harmful or external pathogens. When stimulated, the cells trigger neuroinflammatory responses by releasing proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and nitrogen species in order to preserve the cell’s microenvironment. These proinflammatory markers include cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα chemokines such as CCR3 and CCL2 and CCR5. Microglial cells may produce a prolonged inflammatory response that, in some circumstances, is indicated in the promotion of neurodegenerative diseases. The present review is focused on the involvement of microglial cell activation throughout neurodegenerative conditions and the link between neuroinflammatory processes and dementia.

2022 ◽  
Amanda Zheutlin ◽  
Miles Ott ◽  
Ran Sun ◽  
Natalia Zemlianskaia Zemlianskaia ◽  
Meagan Rubel ◽  

Abstract Objectives: Determine durability of protection by the three currently available COVID-19 vaccines in the United States (US) following primary vaccination against breakthrough infections, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Methods: Using claims and laboratory data covering 168 million lives, we conducted a matched case-control study with fully vaccinated individuals between January 1 and September 7, 2021. Odds ratios (OR) for developing outcomes in months two through six following full vaccination were estimated relative to the first month after full vaccination for each vaccine separately. Results: Evidence of waning protection against infections started in month 2 from vaccination for both BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI] in month 6+, 2.93 [2.72, 3.15]) and mRNA-1273 (OR [95% CI] in month 6+, 2.76 [2.51, 3.04]), and in month 4 for Ad26.COV2.S (OR [95% CI] in month 5+, 1.31 [1.18, 1.47]). Evidence of waning protection against hospitalization started in month 2 for BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI], 3.97 [3.26, 4.83] in month 6+) and in month 3 for mRNA-1273 (OR 95% CI, 1.66 [1.26, 2.19] in month 6+). There was no evidence of waning protection against hospitalization for Ad26.COV2.S (OR [95% CI], 1.25 [0.86, 1.80] in month 5+). No waning of protection was observed at any time for ICU admissions for all three vaccines. Conclusions: Following primary vaccination, all three vaccines showed strong and durable protection against ICU admissions. Ad26.COV2.S showed a more durable level of protection against breakthrough infections and hospitalizations in line with published evidence of its durable antibody and cellular immune response, although its Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) at baseline after a single-dose is lower than that for the two-dose mRNA vaccines. Additional studies are needed to understand durability following homologous or heterologous boosters.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Cathy Brennan ◽  
Sonia Saraiva ◽  
Elizabeth Mitchell ◽  
Richard Melia ◽  
Lydia Campbell ◽  

Purpose There are calls for greater regulation of online content related to self-harm and suicide, particularly that which is user-generated. However, the online space is a source of support and advice, including an important sharing of experiences. This study aims to explore what it is about such online content, and how people interact with it, that may confer harm or offer benefit. Design/methodology/approach The authors undertook a systematic review of the published evidence, using customised searches up to February 2021 in seven databases. The authors included empirical research on the internet or online use and self-harm or suicide content that had been indexed since 2015. The authors undertook a theoretically driven narrative synthesis. Findings From 4,493 unique records, 87 met our inclusion criteria. The literature is rapidly expanding and not all the evidence is high quality, with very few longitudinal or intervention studies so little evidence to understand possible causal links. Very little content online is classifiable as explicitly harmful or definitively helpful, with responses varying by the individual and immediate context. The authors present a framework that seeks to represent the interplay in online use between the person, the medium, the content and the outcome. Originality/value This review highlights that content should not be considered separately to the person accessing it, so online safety means thinking about all users. Blanket removal or unthinking regulation may be more harmful than helpful. A focus on safe browsing is important and tools that limit time and diversify content would support this.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262227
Paul Kairys ◽  
Thomas Frese ◽  
Paul Voigt ◽  
Johannes Horn ◽  
Matthias Girndt ◽  

Background Chronic kidney disease is often asymptomatic in its early stages but constitutes a severe burden for patients and causes major healthcare systems costs worldwide. While models for assessing the cost-effectiveness of screening were proposed in the past, they often presented only a limited view. This study aimed to develop a simulation-based German Albuminuria Screening Model (S-GASM) and present some initial applications. Methods The model consists of an individual-based simulation of disease progression, considering age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, and quality of life, furthermore, costs of testing, therapy, and renal replacement therapy with parameters based on published evidence. Selected screening scenarios were compared in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Results Compared to no testing, a simulation of 10 million individuals with a current age distribution of the adult German population and a follow-up until death or the age of 90 shows that a testing of all individuals with diabetes every two years leads to a reduction of the lifetime prevalence of renal replacement therapy from 2.5% to 2.3%. The undiscounted costs of this intervention would be 1164.10 € / QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Considering saved costs for renal replacement therapy, the overall undiscounted costs would be—12581.95 € / QALY. Testing all individuals with diabetes or hypertension and screening the general population reduced the lifetime prevalence even further (to 2.2% and 1.8%, respectively). Both scenarios were cost-saving (undiscounted, - 7127.10 €/QALY and—5439.23 €/QALY). Conclusions The S-GASM can be used for the comparison of various albuminuria testing strategies. The exemplary analysis demonstrates cost savings through albuminuria testing for individuals with diabetes, diabetes or hypertension, and for population-wide screening.

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