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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 369
Na Yang ◽  
Tao Yu ◽  
Huijun Le ◽  
Libo Liu ◽  
Yang-Yi Sun ◽  

This study aims to investigate the features of the ionospheric mid-latitude trough over North America by using the MIT total electron content data obtained during three geomagnetic storms that occurred in August 2018, September 2017, and March 2015. The mid-latitude trough position sharply moves equatorward from the quiet-time subauroral latitude to mid-latitude with the decrease in SYM-H during geomagnetic storms. We find that the ionospheric behavior of TEC around the mid-latitude trough position displays three kinds of ionospheric storm effect: negative ionospheric storm effect, unchanged ionospheric behavior, and positive ionospheric storm effect. These ionospheric storm effects around the mid-latitude trough position are not always produced by the mid-latitude trough. The ionospheric storm effects produced by the mid-latitude trough are limited in the narrow mid-latitude trough regions, and are transmitted to other regions with the movement of the mid-latitude trough.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ajeet K. Maurya ◽  
Navin Parihar ◽  
Adarsh Dube ◽  
Rajesh Singh ◽  
Sushil Kumar ◽  

AbstractWe report rare simultaneous observations of columniform sprites and associated gravity waves (GWs) using the Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) camera and All-sky imager at Prayagraj (25.5° N, 81.9° E, geomag. lat. ~ 16.5° N), India. On 30 May 2014, a Mesoscale Convective System generated a group of sprites over the north horizon that reached the upper mesosphere. Just before this event, GWs (period ~ 14 min) were seen in OH broadband airglow (emission peak ~ 87 km) imaging that propagated in the direction of the sprite occurrence and dissipated in the background atmosphere thereby generating turbulence. About 9–14 min after the sprite event, another set of GWs (period ~ 11 min) was observed in OH imaging that arrived from the direction of the TLEs. At this site, we also record Very Low Frequency navigational transmitter signal JJI (22.2 kHz) from Japan. The amplitude of the JJI signal showed the presence of GWs with ~ 12.2 min periodicities and ~ 18 min period. The GWs of similar features were observed in the ionospheric Total Electron Content variations recorded at a nearby GPS site. The results presented here are important to understand the physical coupling of the troposphere with the lower and upper ionosphere through GWs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 188
Saul A. Sanchez ◽  
Esfhan A. Kherani ◽  
Elvira Astafyeva ◽  
Eurico R. de Paula

Earthquakes are known to generate disturbances in the ionosphere. Such disturbances, referred to as co-seismic ionospheric disturbances, or ionoquakes, were previously reported for large earthquakes with magnitudes Mw≥ 6.6. This paper reports ionoquakes associated with the Ridgecrest earthquakes of magnitude (Mw=6.4), that occurred on 4 July 2019 in California, USA. The ionoquakes manifested in total electron content (TEC) in the form of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) within 1 h from the mainshock onset. These seismic-origin TIDs have unique wave characteristics that distinguish them from TIDs of non-seismic origin arising from a moderate geomagnetic activity on the same day. Moreover, in the space-time domain of the detection of seismic-origin TIDs, TIDs are absent on the day before and day after the earthquake day. Their spectral characteristics relate them to the Earth’s normal modes and atmospheric resonance modes. We found the ground velocity associated with the mainshock, rather than the ground displacement, satisfies the threshold criteria for detectable ionoquakes in TEC measurements. Numerical simulation suggested that the coupled seismo–atmosphere–ionosphere (SAI) dynamics energized by the atmospheric waves are responsible for the generation of ionoquakes. This study’s findings demonstrate the potential of using TEC measurement to detect the ionospheric counterparts of moderate earthquakes.

2021 ◽  
Kosuke Heki ◽  
Tatsuya Fujimoto

Abstract Continuous Plinian eruptions of volcanoes often excite atmospheric resonant oscillations with several distinct periods of a few minutes. We detected such harmonic oscillations excited by the 2021 August eruption of the Fukutoku-Okanoba volcano, a submarine volcano in the Izu-Bonin arc, in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observed from global navigation satellite system (GNSS) stations deployed on three nearby islands, Chichijima, Hahajima, and Iwojima. Continuous records with the geostationary satellite of Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) presented four frequency peaks of such atmospheric modes. The harmonic TEC oscillations, started at ~5:16 UT, exhibited an unprecedented large amplitude but decayed in a few hours.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Maria Mehmood ◽  
Sajid Saleem ◽  
Renato Filjar

The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash crisis in 2010 temporarily suspended European air traffic operations, as the 39-day eruption caused widely dispersed ashes to enter the lower atmosphere. In this paper, we assessed the effects of this event on the ionosphere layer and, consequently, on GPS positioning. We collected and analysed the data from four IGS stations, nearest to the volcano, for the month of April 2010. We recorded Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) time series, analysed their dynamics, and compared them with the GPS positioning errors of a commercial-grade, un-aided, single-frequency GPS receiver (simulating the response of a mass-market GPS receiver). The geomagnetic indices during the time period show little geomagnetic disturbance, especially during the volcanic event. Our results show an enhancement in ionosphere error by up to 15% during the volcanic ash event and an enhanced variance in GPS position components errors. This study reveals the potential impact of the charged volcanic ash on single-frequency, unaided GPS positioning accuracy in the Adriatic Sea region and establishes a foundation for studying similar events in future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Xin Wan ◽  
Jiahao Zhong ◽  
Chao Xiong ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
Yiwen Liu ◽  

The global total electron content (TEC) map in 2013, retrieved from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Service (IGS), and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2016) model are used to monitor the diurnal evolution of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The statistics are conducted during geomagnetic quiet periods in the Peruvian and Indian sectors, where the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) data and reliable TEC are available. The EEJ is used as a proxy to determine whether the EIA structure is fully developed. Most of the previous studies focused on the period in which the EIA is well developed, while the period before EIA emergence is usually neglected. To characterize dynamics accounting for the full development of EIA, we defined and statistically analyzed the onset, first emergence, and the peaks of the northern crest and southern crest based on the proposed crest-to-trough difference (CTD) profiles. These time points extracted from IGS TEC show typical annual cycles in the Indian sector which can be summarized as winter hemispheric priority, i.e., the development of EIA in the winter hemisphere is ahead of that in the summer hemisphere. However, these same time points show abnormal semiannual cycles in the Peruvian sector, that is, EIA develops earlier during two equinoxes/solstices in the northern/southern hemisphere. We suggest that the onset of EIA is a consequence of the equilibrium between sunlight ionization and ambipolar diffusion. However, the latter term is not considered in modeling the topside ionosphere in IRI-2016, which results in a poor capacity in IRI to describe the diurnal evolution of EIA. Meridional neutral wind’s modulation on the ambipolar diffusion can explain the annual cycle observed in the Indian sector, while the semiannual variation seen in the Peruvian sector might be due to additional competing effects induced by the F region height changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Aleksandra Nina

Many analyses of the perturbed ionospheric D-region and its influence on the propagation of ground-based and satellite signals are based on data obtained in ionospheric remote sensing by very low/low frequency (VLF/LF) signals. One of the most significant causes of errors in these analyses is the lack of data related to the analysed area and time period preceding the considered perturbation. In this paper, we examine the influence of the estimation of the quiet ionosphere parameters on the determination of the electron density (Ne) and total electron content in the D-region (TECD) during the influence of a solar X-ray flare. We present a new procedure in which parameters describing the quiet ionosphere are calculated based on observations of the analysed area by a VLF/LF signal at the observed time. The developed procedure is an upgrade of the quiet ionospheric D-region (QIonDR) model that allows for a more precise analysis of the D-region intensively perturbed by a solar X-ray flare. The presented procedure is applied to data obtained in ionospheric remote sensing by the DHO signal emitted in Germany and received in Serbia during 30 solar X-ray flares. We give analytical expressions for the dependencies of the analysed parameters on the X-ray flux maximum at the times of the X-ray flux maximum and the most intense D-region perturbation. The results show that the obtained Ne and TECD are larger than in the cases when the usual constant values of the quiet ionosphere parameters are used.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 20
Yanfeng Dong ◽  
Chengfa Gao ◽  
Fengyang Long ◽  
Yuxiang Yan

Many studies have reported that there is a coupling mechanism between ionosphere and earthquake (EQ). Ionospheric anomalies in the form of abnormal increases and decreases of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) are even regarded as precursors to EQs. In this paper, TEC anomalies associated with three major EQs were investigated by Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) and GPS-TEC, including Kumamoto-shi, Japan—EQ occurred on 15 April 2016 with Mw = 7.0; Jinghe, China—EQ occurred on 8 August 2017 with Mw = 6.3; and Lagunas, Peru—EQ occurred on 26 May 2019 with Mw = 8.0. It was found that the negative ionospheric anomalies linger above or near the epicenter for 4–10 h on the day of the EQ. For each EQ, the 10-min sampling interval of TEC was extracted from three permanent GPS stations around the epicenter within 10 days before and after the EQ. Variations of TEC manifest that the negative ionospheric anomalies first appear 10 days before the EQ. From 5 days before to 2 days after the main shock, the negative ionospheric anomalies were more prominent than the other days, with the amplitude of negative ionospheric anomaly reaching −3 TECu and the relative ionospheric anomaly exceeding 20%. In case of Kumamoto-shi EQ, the solar-geomagnetic conditions were not quiet (Dst < −30 nT, Kp > 4, and F10.7 > 100 SFU) on the suspected EQ days. We discussed the differences between ionospheric anomalies caused by active solar-geomagnetic conditions and EQ. Combining the analysis results of Jinghe EQ and Lagunas EQ, under quiet solar-geomagnetic conditions (Dst > −30 nT, Kp < 4, and F10.7 < 100 SFU), it can be found that TEC responds to various solar-geomagnetic conditions and EQ differently. The negative ionospheric anomalies could be considered as significant signals of upcoming EQs. These anomalies under different solar-geomagnetic conditions may be effective to link the lithosphere and ionosphere in severe seismic zones to detect EQ precursors before future EQs.

Dominic Chukwuebuka Obiegbuna ◽  
Francisca Nneka Okeke ◽  
Kingsley Chukwudi Okpala ◽  
Orji Prince Orji ◽  
Gregory Ibeabuchi Egba ◽  

We have studied and compared the effects of full and partial halo geomagnetic storms on the high latitude ionosphere. The study used the total electron content (TEC) data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS) to examine the level of response of high latitude ionosphere around Ny Alesund, Norway to full and partial halo geomagnetic storms of June 23rd 2015 and January 1st 2016 respectively. This study was carried out using a dual frequency ground based GNSS observations at high latitude (NYAL: 78.56oN, 11.52oE) ionospheric station in Norway. The vertical TEC (VTEC) was extracted from Receiver Independent Exchange (RINEX) formatted GPS-TEC data using the GOPI Software developed by Seemala Gopi. The GOPI software is a GNSS-TEC analysis program which uses ephemeris data and differential code biases (DCBs) in estimating slant TEC (STEC) prior to its conversion to VTEC. From the results, the responses of the high latitude before the storm days were more positive than on the storm days. Also the overall response of the high latitude to the full halo geomagnetic storm was more positive with more impact than that of the partial halo geomagnetic storm.

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