chemical components
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2022 ◽  
Vol 423 ◽  
pp. 127243
Author(s):  
Ta-Chih Hsiao ◽  
Po-Ching Cheng ◽  
Kai Hsien Chi ◽  
Hung-Yang Wang ◽  
Shih-Yu Pan ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Juliana Pelissari Marchi ◽  
◽  
Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis Livero ◽  
Andreia Assuncao Soare ◽  
Glacy Jaqueline da Silva ◽  
...  

Epidemiological evidence indicates that plant antioxidants activity can treat or help to prevent the development of various diseases. One species with great potential as an antioxidant is Curcuma longa. However, different extraction techniques can influence isolated chemical compounds. This study investigated chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two rhizome extracts of C. longa: hydroethanolic, obtained by exhaustion (HECLex); and dried by a spray dryer (HECLsd). The phytochemical composition was evaluated by GC/MS. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolic compounds and soil analyses were performed. The main components of HECLex were ar-turmerone, γ-curcumene, α-turmerone, and β-sesquiphellandrene. The main components of HECLsd were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis([trimethylsilyl]oxy)propyl ester, verrucarol, and 1-monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. HECLsd had significantly higher levels of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant capacity compared with HECLex. In conclusion, processes of the preparation of C. longa rhizomes alter the chemical components and consequently their biological activity.


Author(s):  
Mohammad Eini ◽  
Mohammad Shoae ◽  
Ebrahim Miri-moghaddam

Beta-thalassemia (β-thal) is a congenital hemoglobinopathy explained by a decreased level (β+) or absence (βο) of β-globin gene expression. Microcytic hypochromic anemia and various clinical symptoms comprising severe anemia to clinically nonsymptomatic features. Treatment with an ordered blood transfusion and iron chelator agents can decrease transfusion iron overload that causes normal maturation. These patients also are at high risk for secondary iron overload because of erythropheron (GF15–TWSG1) release from erythroblasts resulting in erythroid hyperplasia. Based on the previous studies, chemicals such as hydroxyurea and 5-azacytidine are useful in treating β-hemoglobinopathy, including β-thal and sickle cell disease (SCD). Regarding both side effects and lifelong treatment of these chemical components, researchers have recently regarded gene-based treatments. These techniques, such as micro RNA gene silencing, viral-mediated gene editing, and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CAS9 systems, are the most commonly used gene therapy methods. Nowadays, ɣ-globin (fetal globin) gene reactivation is one of the most popular treatments for β-thal. Researches showed that these gene modification methods for γ-globin gene reactivation are also useful in increasing hemoglobin F (HbF) and helping patients with β-thal. In this review study, new therapeutic approaches to manage this disorder are regarded.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xin Feng ◽  
Yuelin Bi ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  
Tianyi Li ◽  
Gengyuan Yu ◽  
...  

Background: Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction (ZZHPD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is clinically used to treat insomnia and depression. The analysis strategy based on the concept of co-decoction of TCM is helpful to analyse the effective substances of TCM formula in depth.Aim of the study: This manuscript intends to take ZZHPD as a model sample to explore the phenomenon of co-decoction of complex formula in the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology, data analysis, and molecular docking.Materials and methods: In the current research, an innovative LC-MS method has been established to study the active ingredients in ZZHPD, and to identify the ingredients absorbed into the blood and brain tissues of mice. And molecular docking was used to study the binding pattern and affinities of known compounds of the brain tissue toward insomnia related proteins.Results: Based on new processing methods and analysis strategies, 106 chemical components were identified in ZZHPD, including 28 blood components and 18 brain components. Then, by comparing the different compounds in the co-decoction and single decoction, it was surprisingly found that 125 new ingredients were produced during the co-decoction, 2 of which were absorbed into the blood and 1 of which was absorbed into brain tissue. Ultimately, molecular docking studies showed that 18 brain components of ZZHPD had favourable binding conformation and affinity with GABA, serotonin and melatonin receptors. The docking results of GABRA1 with naringenin and hesperidin, HCRTR1 with naringenin-7-O-glucoside, poncirenin and genipin 1-gentiobioside, and luteolin with SLC6A4, GLO1, MAOB and MTNR1A may clarify the mechanism of action of ZZHPD in treating insomnia and depression.Conclusion: Our study may provide new ideas for further exploring the effective substances in ZZHPD.


2022 ◽  
pp. 096703352110618
Author(s):  
Orlando CH Tavares ◽  
Tiago R Tavares ◽  
Carlos R Pinheiro Junior ◽  
Luciélio M da Silva ◽  
Paulo GS Wadt ◽  
...  

The southwestern region of the Amazon has great environmental variability, presents a great complexity of pedoenvironments due to its rich variability of geological and geomorphological environments, as well as for being a transition region with other two Brazilian biomes. In this study, the use of pedometric tools (the Algorithms for Quantitative Pedology (AQP) R package and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) was evaluated for the characterization of 15 soil profiles in southwestern Amazon. The AQP statistical package—which evaluates the soil in-depth based on slicing functions—indicated a wide range of variation in soil attributes, especially in the superficial horizons. In addition, the results obtained in the similarity analysis corroborated with the description of physical, chemical components and oxide contents in-depth, aiding the classification of soil profiles. The in-depth characterization of visible-near infrared spectra allowed inference of the pedogenetic processes of some profiles, setting precedents for future work aiming to establish analytical strategies for soil classification in southwestern Amazon based on spectral data.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guangrong Yang ◽  
Dapeng Zhou ◽  
Renyuan Wan ◽  
Conglian Wang ◽  
Jin Xie ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundAncient tea plantations with an age over 100 years still reserved at Mengku Town in Lincang Region of Yunan Province, China. However, the characteristic of soil chemicophysical properties and microbial ecosystem in the ancient tea plantations and their impact on tea-leaves chemical components remained unclear. Tea-leaves chemical components including amino acids, phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, and soil chemicophysical properties including pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (SOC), total total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (AN), available phosphorous (AP) and available potassium (AK), and microbial community structure of modern and ancient tea plantations in five geographic sites (i.e. Bingdao, Baqishan, Banuo, Dongguo and Jiulong) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-throughput sequencing, respectively. ResultsTea-leaves chemical components, soil chemicophysical properties and microbial community structures including bacterial and fungal community abundance and diversity evaluated by Chao 1 and Shannon varied with geographic location and tea plantation type. The ancient tea plantations possessed significantly (P<0.05) higher free amino acids, gallic acid, caffeine and EGC in tea-leaves, as well as soil fertility. The bacterial community structure kept stable, while fungal community abundance and diversity significantly (P<0.05) increased in ancient tea plantation because of higher soil fertility and lower pH. The long-term plantation in natural cultivation way significantly (P<0.05) improved the abundances of Nitrospirota, Methylomirabilota, Ascomycota and Mortierellomycota phyla. ConclusionsDue to the natural cultivation way, the ancient tea plantations still maintained relatively higher soil fertility and complete soil microbial ecosystem, which contributed to the sustainable development with higher quality in tea-leaves.


Author(s):  
Nikolay L Kazanskiy ◽  
Muhammad A Butt ◽  
Svetlana N Khonina

Currently, old-style personal medicare techniques rely mostly on traditional methods, such as cumbersome tools and complicated processes, which can be time-consuming and inconvenient in some circumstances. Furthermore, such old methods need the use of heavy equipment, blood draws, and traditional bench-top testing procedures. Invasive ways of acquiring test samples can potentially cause patients discomfort and anguish. Wearable sensors, on the other hand, may be attached to numerous body areas to capture diverse biochemical and physiological characteristics as a developing analytical tool. Physical, chemical, and biological data transferred via the skin is used to monitor health in various circumstances. Wearable sensors can assess the aberrant conditions of the physical or chemical components of the human body in real-time, exposing the body state in time, thanks to unintrusive sampling and high accuracy. Most commercially available wearable gadgets are mechanically hard components attached to bands and worn on the wrist, with form factors ultimately constrained by the size and weight of the batteries required for the power supply. Wearable gadgets with &ldquo;skin-like&rdquo; qualities are a new type of automation that is only starting to make its way out of research labs and into pre-commercial prototypes. In this paper, we studied the recent advancement in battery-powered wearable sensors established on optical phenomena and skin-like battery-free sensors which brings a breakthrough in wearable sensing automation.


Author(s):  
Jun Wu ◽  
Feihong Liu ◽  
Zejin Wang ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Xiaoli Zhao ◽  
...  

Bone grafts are commonly used for the treatment of critical sized bone defects. Since the supply of autologous bone is insufficient, allogeneic bone grafts have been used most of the time. However, the poor osteogenic property of allogeneic bone grafts after pretreatment results in delayed union, non-union, or even occasional deformity. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is one of the most promising bone filling materials due to its good biocompatibility and similar chemical components as natural bone. However, clinical applications of CPC were hampered by limited osteogenic effects, undesired immune response which results in resorption, and poor mechanical stability in vivo. Magnesium (Mg) has been proven to trigger bone regeneration through modulating cell behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages significantly. Unfortunately, the degradation raters of pure Mg and Mg oxide are extremely fast, resulting in early collapse of Mg contained CPC. In this study, we developed a novel magnesium contained calcium phosphate bone cement (Mg-CPC), possessing long-term mechanical stability and osteogenic effects through sustained release of Mg. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that Mg-CPC had no cytotoxic effects on hBMMSCs and macrophage RAW 264.7, and could enhance the osteogenic differentiation as determined by alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and calcium nodule staining, as well as suppress the inflammatory as determined by expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1RA. We also found that Mg-CPC promoted new bone formation and bone maturation in vivo. These results suggest that Mg-CPC should be a good substitute material for bone grafts in clinical use.


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