Mass Spectrometry
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R.S. Karthic ◽  
R. Ragumadhavan ◽  
K.R. Aravind Britto ◽  
R. Vimala ◽  
M. Arivalagan

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kai P. Law ◽  
Wei He ◽  
Jianchang Tao ◽  
Chuanlun Zhang

Archaea are differentiated from the other two domains of life by their biomolecular characteristics. One such characteristic is the unique structure and composition of their lipids. Characterization of the whole set of lipids in a biological system (the lipidome) remains technologically challenging. This is because the lipidome is innately complex, and not all lipid species are extractable, separable, or ionizable by a single analytical method. Furthermore, lipids are structurally and chemically diverse. Many lipids are isobaric or isomeric and often indistinguishable by the measurement of mass or even their fragmentation spectra. Here we developed a novel analytical protocol based on liquid chromatography ion mobility mass spectrometry to enhance the coverage of the lipidome and characterize the conformations of archaeal lipids by their collision cross-sections (CCSs). The measurements of ion mobility revealed the gas-phase ion chemistry of representative archaeal lipids and provided further insights into their attributions to the adaptability of archaea to environmental stresses. A comprehensive characterization of the lipidome of mesophilic marine thaumarchaeon, Nitrosopumilus maritimus (strain SCM1) revealed potentially an unreported phosphate- and sulfate-containing lipid candidate by negative ionization analysis. It was the first time that experimentally derived CCS values of archaeal lipids were reported. Discrimination of crenarchaeol and its proposed stereoisomer was, however, not achieved with the resolving power of the SYNAPT G2 ion mobility system, and a high-resolution ion mobility system may be required for future work. Structural and spectral libraries of archaeal lipids were constructed in non-vendor-specific formats and are being made available to the community to promote research of Archaea by lipidomics.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0259383
Ekramy Halawa ◽  
Lamia Ryad ◽  
Nahla S. El-Shenawy ◽  
Rasha A. Al-Eisa ◽  
Heba N. Gad EL-Hak

Endocrine-disrupting compounds as pesticides affect the hormonal balance, and this can result in several diseases. Therefore, the analysis of representative hormones with acetamiprid (AC) and azoxystrobin (AZ) was a good strategy for the investigation of the endocrine-disrupting activity of pesticides. Hence, a sensitive and rapid analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The method was validated for the analysis of AC, AZ, estriol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone in the serum, testis, and liver of rats. The correlation between the residues of pesticides and the disturbance of the endocrine system was evaluated. The different mass parameters, mobile phase types, analytical columns, injection volumes, and extraction solvents were compared to get the lowest limit of detection of the studied compounds. The detection limits of AC, AZ, estriol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone were 0.05, 0.05, 1.0, 10, and 1.0 ng/ml, respectively. The method developed was applied to evaluate the changes in these hormones induced by the duration of exposure to AC and AZ in rat testis and serum. The hormones level in rat serum and testis had a significant decrease as they were oral gavage treated with different high concentrations of studied pesticides. Both pesticides were distributed in the body of rats by the multi-compartment model (liver, testis, and serum).

2021 ◽  
Roland Benoit ◽  
Nesrine Belhadj ◽  
Maxence Lailliau ◽  
Philippe Dagaut

Abstract. The oxidation of monoterpenes under atmospheric conditions has been the subject of numerous studies. They were motivated by the formation of oxidized organic molecules (OOM) which, due to their low vapor pressure, contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Among the different reaction mechanisms proposed for the formation of these oxidized chemical compounds, it appears that the autoxidation mechanism, involving successive events of H-migration and O2 addition, common to both low-temperature combustion and atmospheric conditions, is leading to the formation of highly oxidized molecules (HOM). In atmospheric chemistry, the importance of autoxidation compared to other oxidation pathways has been the topic of numerous studies. Conversely, in combustion, autoxidation under cool flame conditions is the main oxidation process commonly taken into account. An analysis of oxidation products detected in both conditions was performed, using the present combustion data and literature data from tropospheric oxidation studies, to investigate possible similarities in terms of observed chemical formulae of products. To carry out this study, we chose two terpenes, α-pinene and limonene (C10H16), among the most abundant biogenic components in the atmosphere, and considered in many previous studies. Also, these two isomers were selected for the diversity of their reaction sites (exo- and endo- carbon-carbon double bonds). We built an experimental database consisting of literature atmospheric oxidation data and presently obtained combustion data for the oxidation of the two selected terpenes. In order to probe the effects of the type of ionization used in mass spectrometry analyses on the detection of oxidation products, we used heated electrospray ionization (HESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), in positive and negative modes. The oxidation of limonene-oxygen-nitrogen and α-pinene-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures was performed using a jet-stirred reactor at elevated temperature (590 K), a residence time of 2 s, and atmospheric pressure. Samples of the reacting mixtures were collected in acetonitrile and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap Q-Exactive) after direct injection and soft ionization, i.e. (+/−) HESI and (+/−) APCI. This work shows a surprisingly similar set of chemical formulae of products, including oligomers, formed in cool flames and under simulated atmospheric conditions. Data analysis showed that a non-negligible subset of chemical formulae is common to all experiments independently of experimental parameters. Finally, this study indicates that more than 40 % of the detected chemical formulae in this full dataset can be ascribed to an autoxidation mechanism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (49) ◽  
pp. e2109633118
Berkley M. Ellis ◽  
Piyoosh K. Babele ◽  
Jody C. May ◽  
Carl H. Johnson ◽  
Brian F. Pfleger ◽  

Reading and writing DNA were once the rate-limiting step in synthetic biology workflows. This has been replaced by the search for the optimal target sequences to produce systems with desired properties. Directed evolution and screening mutant libraries are proven technologies for isolating strains with enhanced performance whenever specialized assays are available for rapidly detecting a phenotype of interest. Armed with technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, these experiments are capable of generating libraries of up to 1010 genetic variants. At a rate of 102 samples per day, standard analytical methods for assessing metabolic phenotypes represent a major bottleneck to modern synthetic biology workflows. To address this issue, we have developed a desorption electrospray ionization–imaging mass spectrometry screening assay that directly samples microorganisms. This technology increases the throughput of metabolic measurements by reducing sample preparation and analyzing organisms in a multiplexed fashion. To further accelerate synthetic biology workflows, we utilized untargeted acquisitions and unsupervised analytics to assess multiple targets for future engineering strategies within a single acquisition. We demonstrate the utility of the developed method using Escherichia coli strains engineered to overproduce free fatty acids. We determined discrete metabolic phenotypes associated with each strain, which include the primary fatty acid product, secondary products, and additional metabolites outside the engineered product pathway. Furthermore, we measured changes in amino acid levels and membrane lipid composition, which affect cell viability. In sum, we present an analytical method to accelerate synthetic biology workflows through rapid, untargeted, and multiplexed metabolomic analyses.

Yanjian Li ◽  
Hailong Li ◽  
Tianshu Sun ◽  
Chen Ding

Prevalence of fungal diseases has increased globally in recent years, which often associated with increased immunocompromised patients, aging populations, and the novel Coronavirus pandemic. Furthermore, due to the limitation of available antifungal agents mortality and morbidity rates of invasion fungal disease remain stubbornly high, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant fungi exacerbates the problem. Fungal pathogenicity and interactions between fungi and host have been the focus of many studies, as a result, lots of pathogenic mechanisms and fungal virulence factors have been identified. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a novel approach to better understand fungal pathogenicities and host–pathogen interactions at protein and protein posttranslational modification (PTM) levels. The approach has successfully elucidated interactions between pathogens and hosts by examining, for example, samples of fungal cells under different conditions, body fluids from infected patients, and exosomes. Many studies conclude that protein and PTM levels in both pathogens and hosts play important roles in progression of fungal diseases. This review summarizes mass spectrometry studies of protein and PTM levels from perspectives of both pathogens and hosts and provides an integrative conceptual outlook on fungal pathogenesis, antifungal agents development, and host–pathogen interactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zlata Vershinin ◽  
Marianna Zaretsky ◽  
Ziqiang Guan ◽  
Jerry Eichler

Whereas N-glycosylation is a seemingly universal process in Archaea, pathways of N-glycosylation have only been experimentally verified in a mere handful of species. Toward expanding the number of delineated archaeal N-glycosylation pathways, the involvement of the putative Halobacterium salinarum glycosyltransferases VNG1067G, VNG1066C, and VNG1062G in the assembly of an N-linked tetrasaccharide decorating glycoproteins in this species was addressed. Following deletion of each encoding gene, the impact on N-glycosylation of the S-layer glycoprotein and archaellins, major glycoproteins in this organism, was assessed by mass spectrometry. Likewise, the pool of dolichol phosphate, the lipid upon which this glycan is assembled, was also considered in each deletion strain. Finally, the impacts of such deletions were characterized in a series of biochemical, structural and physiological assays. The results revealed that VNG1067G, VNG1066C, and VNG1062G, renamed Agl25, Agl26, and Agl27 according to the nomenclature used for archaeal N-glycosylation pathway components, are responsible for adding the second, third and fourth sugars of the N-linked tetrasaccharide decorating Hbt. salinarum glycoproteins. Moreover, this study demonstrated how compromised N-glycosylation affects various facets of Hbt. salinarum cell behavior, including the transcription of archaellin-encoding genes.

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