Early Recognition
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Author(s):  
Nasir A. Magboul ◽  
Deafullah Al-Amri

<p>A 27 years old male patient victim of road traffic accident presented to emergency department by ambulance team with ankle swelling and decrease range of motion, seen by orthopedic team and admitted as case of right ankle fracture for surgical intervention. Patient then referred to otolaryngology regarding on and off nasal bleeding and right nasal swelling arising from inner surface of right lower lateral cartilage of the nose 6 hour after the facial trauma, we present this case of hematoma of lower lateral cartilage which consider as one of the unique and rare condition following nasal and facial trauma. Early recognition of this condition is important, also differentiation between alar hematoma and septal cartilage hematoma is not easy for non-otolaryngology doctor, so increase awareness of this condition as one of possible sequel of fecal trauma and early referral to otolaryngology services is crucial. We present here a case of right sided alar cartilage hematoma, including the approach, management and follow up of the patient. We recommend early surgical drainage to optimize aesthetic out come after trauma.</p>


2021 ◽  
pp. 854-858
Author(s):  
Ebony Smith ◽  
Tuan Tran

A patient initially diagnosed as having central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) presented to a clinic with recurrence of pancreatic cancer manifesting as choroidal metastasis. He was initially diagnosed with CSC by a local ophthalmologist 8 weeks earlier and subsequently presented to our clinic for second opinion after further loss of vision. His medical history was significant for locally advanced pancreatic cancer that was resected by pancreaticoduodenectomy and was treated with adjuvant Folfirinox chemotherapy that was completed 12 months earlier. On examination, there was a large serous retinal detachment overlying a large pale ill-defined elevated choroidal lesion. A diagnosis of choroidal metastasis from recurrence of his pancreatic cancer was made. The diagnosis of choroidal metastasis of his pancreatic cancer represented recurrence of his pancreatic cancer that is associated with high mortality. Early recognition by clinical assessment may allow timely management with chemotherapy and radiation, and potentially prolong survival.


Author(s):  
Fang-Yu Hsu ◽  
Shih-Hsuan Mao ◽  
Andy Deng-Chi Chuang ◽  
Yon-Cheong Wong ◽  
Chih-Hao Chen

The objective of this retrospective study was to identify predictors of angiographic hemostasis among patients with life-threatening traumatic oronasal bleeding (ONB) and determine the threshold for timely referral or intervention. The diagnosis of traumatic, life-threatening ONB was made if the patient suffered from craniofacial trauma presenting at triage with unstable hemodynamics or required a definitive airway due to ONB, without other major bleeding identified. There were 4404 craniofacial trauma patients between January 2015 and December 2019, of which 72 (1.6%) fulfilled the diagnosis of traumatic life-threatening ONB. Of these patients, 39 (54.2%) received trans-arterial embolization (TAE), 11 (15.3%) were treated with other methods, and 22 (30.5%) were excluded. Motor vehicle accidents were the most common cause of life-threatening ONB (52%), and the internal maxillary artery was the most commonly identified hemorrhaging artery requiring embolization (84%). Shock index (SI) was significantly higher in the angiographic hemostasis group (p < 0.001). The AUC-ROC was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.88–1.00) for SI to predict angiographic hemostasis. Early recognition and timely intervention are crucial in post-traumatic, life-threatening ONB management. Patients initially presenting with SI > 0.95 were more likely to receive TAE, with the TAE group having statistically higher SI than the non-TAE group whilst receiving significantly more packed red blood cells. Hence, for patients presenting with life-threatening traumatic ONB and a SI > 0.95, TAE should be considered if preliminary attempts at hemostasis have failed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryuji Koizumi ◽  
Yoshiki Kusama ◽  
Yusuke Asai ◽  
Gu Yoshiaki ◽  
Yuichi Muraki ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Shortages of antimicrobials lead to treatment failures, increase medical costs, and accelerate the development of antimicrobial resistance. We evaluated the effects of the serious cefazolin shortage in 2019 in Japan on the sales, costs, and appropriate use of other antimicrobials. Methods We evaluated monthly defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) values of antimicrobial sales from January 2016 to December 2019 using wholesaler’s sales databases. Using 2016–2018 sales data, we generated a prediction model of DID in 2019 under the assumption that the cefazolin shortage did not occur. We then compared the predicted DID and actual DID. Cefazolin, government-recommended alternatives, and government-not-recommended broad-spectrum alternatives were assessed. Antimicrobial groups according to the AWaRe classification were also assessed to evaluate the effect on appropriate antimicrobial use. In addition, we evaluated changes in costs between 9 months before and after the cefazolin shortage. Results DID values of total antimicrobials increased sharply 1 month before the decrease in cefazolin. Actual DIDs were higher than predicted DIDs for ceftriaxone, flomoxef, clindamycin, cefotiam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and meropenem. Actual DID values were higher than the predicted DID values in the Watch group. The costs of antimicrobials between pre- and post- cefazolin shortage were unchanged. Conclusion The cefazolin shortage brought confusion to the antimicrobial market and led to a setback in the appropriate use of antimicrobials. Early recognition and structures for prompt reactions to antimicrobial shortages are needed. Moreover, development of a system to secure the supply of essential antimicrobials is required.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dong Ryeol Yoo ◽  
Chang Bin Im ◽  
Baek Gyu Jun ◽  
Hyun Il Seo ◽  
Jong Kyu Park ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ingested foreign objects frequently require emergency removal. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract and the risk factors for adverse events. Methods Adults (> 18 years) who underwent endoscopic management of ingested foreign bodies at two centers, one inland and one on the coast, between January 2008 and December 2017 were eligible. Clinical characteristics and procedure-related outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, based on whether the foreign bodies were sharp or blunt in shape. Results A total of 853 patients aged 19–96 years were analyzed. Ingestion of fish bones was more common in the coastal area, whereas ingestion of food boluses was more common in the inland area. The duration of impaction ranged from 1 h to over 1 month and was significantly longer in patients who ingested blunt than sharp foreign bodies (15 vs. 5 h, p < 0.001). Most (98.9%) foreign bodies were successfully removed. Adverse events occurred in 31.2 % of patients, including ulcers (4.0%) and perforations (3.3 %). Multivariate analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] 1.015, p = 0.012), sharp foreign bodies (OR 5.133, p < 0.001), location in the esophagus (OR 2.723, p = 0.018), and duration of impaction (OR 1.431, p < 0.001) were factors associated with adverse events. Conclusions Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal of ingested foreign bodies, particularly in elderly patients and those with sharp foreign bodies, may improve clinical outcomes.


BMC Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shanyan Hong ◽  
Yingxia Yang ◽  
Qianying Zhang ◽  
Shitu Zhuo ◽  
Lingxing Wang

Abstract Background Recurrent primary pyogenic ventriculitis has not been reported previously. We present a unique case of recurrent primary pyogenic ventriculitis in an adult. And we believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature. Case presentation An adult woman with uncontrolled diabetes experienced two episodes of pyogenic ventriculitis caused by Escherichia coli over 4 years. She had typical imaging features, and the source of infection was undetermined. After antibiotic treatment, she recovered fully. Conclusions Early recognition and therapy will improve patient prognosis.


Author(s):  
Konstantinos Kamposioras ◽  
Joe Geraghty ◽  
Jordan Appleyard ◽  
Mohammed Dawod ◽  
Konstantinos Papadimitriou ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Management of pancreaticobiliary (PB) malignancies remains a clinical challenge. In this review, we focus on the management of oncological emergencies in PB malignancies and the potential complication of associated therapeutic interventions. Methods Biobliographic review of current evidence on the management of oncological emergencies, their potential complications, as well as synthesis of recommendations was performed. The pathogenesis, frequency, related symptoms as well as appropriate investigations are presented. Results The oncologic emergencies in PB patients were summarised in six categories: (1) hematological (including febrile neutropaenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathies), (2) gastrointestinal (gastric outlet and biliary obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding), (3) thromboembolic events, (4) ascites, (5) metabolic disorders and (6) neurologic complications. The pathogenesis, frequency, related symptoms as well as appropriate investigations are also presented. Conclusion Patients with PB malignancies are at increased risk of a wide variation of medical emergencies. Clinical knowledge, early recognition and collaboration with the relevant specialties are critical to manage these complications effectively, tailoring overall management around the actual prognosis and individuals’ expectations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Federico Diomeda ◽  
Maria Santaniello ◽  
Giulia Bracciolini ◽  
Angelo Ravelli ◽  
Adele Civino

Abstract Background Intra-articular venous malformations (IAVM) are rare benign vascular anomalies that usually affect young patients and most common locate in the knee. The terminology of these lesions is still ill-defined, as they are often termed in the literature as synovial hemangiomas. Early diagnosis can be difficult, because they usually present with nonspecific clinical manifestations that are similar those of other rheumatic diseases, especially juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Case series We conducted a retrospective analysis of five pediatric patients admitted to our units for recurrent swelling of the knee, and compared their characteristics with those of literature reports. The average age at first symptom and time from onset to diagnosis was 3.9 years (range 18 months-7 years) and 3.5 years (range 1-7 years), respectively. In our patients, an initial misdiagnosis of JIA, bleeding disorder or traumatic arthropathy was made. On MRI imaging, the features of the lesion were similar in all patients, and were marked by isointense-to-hypointense signal in T1-weighted images, and hyperintense signal in T2-weighted images. When performed, arthrocentesis led to aspiration of bloody fluid. The diagnosis was confirmed with a biopsy and histopathologic assessment in all patients. Open surgery enabled complete excision of the mass and was followed by stable remission over time in all cases. Conclusions Our report highlights the challenges that may be posed by the detection of knee IAVM and the frequent long delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. The key elements for early recognition include careful assessment of patient history, demonstration of bloody fluid on arthrocentesis, and proper interpretation of MRI scanning.


Trauma ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 146040862110464
Author(s):  
John D Inouye ◽  
Ahmed R Mohsen ◽  
Benjamin A Hirsch ◽  
Swapna Chaudhuri

This report describes a 90-year-old man who sustained blunt chest trauma that progressed to circulatory failure from an enlarging anterior mediastinal hematoma. Emergent sternotomy was performed, revealing a hematoma primarily involving the thymus that was promptly evacuated. Extrapericardial cardiac tamponade is an uncommon event that occurs when fluid collects within the mediastinum but outside the pericardium. Hemodynamically significant hemorrhage of the thymus is rare because the gland begins to involute early in development. To our knowledge, cardiac tamponade secondary to traumatic hemorrhage of the thymus has not been previously described. Early recognition and hematoma evacuation can be lifesaving.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Karim Lakhal ◽  
Edith Bigot-Corbel ◽  
Emilie Sacchetto ◽  
Floris Chabrun ◽  
Thomas Senage ◽  
...  

Abstract Background For the detection of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI), the performance of urine tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (TIMP2 IGFBP7) has never been compared with that of very early changes in plasma creatinine (∆pCr). We hypothesized that, in the context of perioperative haemodilution, lack of postoperative decrease in pCr would be of honourable performance for the detection of CS-AKI. We therefore aimed at comparing these biomarkers and their kinetics (primary objective). As secondary objectives, we assessed plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL), cystatin C (pCysC) and urea (pUrea). We also determined the ability of these biomarkers to early discriminate persistent from transient CS-AKI. Methods Patients over 75 years-old undergoing aortic valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were included in this prospective observational study. Biomarkers were measured before/after CPB and at the sixth postoperative hour (H6). Results In 65 patients, CS-AKI occurred in 27 (42%). ∆pCr from post-CPB to H6 (∆pCrpostCPB-H6): outperformed TIMP2 IGFBP7 at H6 and its intra- or postoperative changes: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCROC) of 0.84 [95%CI:0.73–0.92] vs. ≤0.67 [95%CI:0.54–0.78], p ≤ 0.03. The AUCROC of pNGAL, pCysC and pUrea did not exceed 0.72 [95%CI:0.59–0.83]. Indexing biomarkers levels for blood or urine dilution did not improve their performance. Combining TIMP2 IGFBP7 and ∆pCrpostCPB-H6 was of no evident added value over considering ∆pCrpostCPB-H6 alone. For the early recognition of persistent CS-AKI, no biomarker outperformed ∆pCrpostCPB-H6 (AUCROC = 0.69 [95%CI:0.48–0.85]). Conclusions In this hypothesis-generating study mostly testing early detection of mild CS-AKI, there was no evident added value of the tested modern biomarkers over early minimal postoperative changes in pCr: despite the common perioperative hemodilution in the setting of cardiac surgery, if pCr failed to decline within the 6 h after CPB, the development of CS-AKI was likely. Confirmatory studies with more severe forms of CS-AKI are required.


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