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2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102056
Author(s):  
Jeerawan Klangjorhor ◽  
Donsuk Pongnikorn ◽  
Areerak Phanphaisarn ◽  
Parunya Chaiyawat ◽  
Pimpisa Teeyakasem ◽  
...  

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Author(s):  
Jonas Krämer ◽  
Tim Lüddecke ◽  
Michael Marner ◽  
Elena Maiworm ◽  
Johanna Eichberg ◽  
...  

Linear cationic venom peptides are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that exert their effects by damaging cell membranes. These peptides can be highly specific, and for some, a significant therapeutic value was proposed, in particular for treatment of bacterial infections. A prolific source of novel AMPs are arthropod venoms, especially those of hitherto neglected groups such as pseudoscorpions. In this study, we describe for the first time pharmacological effects of AMPs discovered in pseudoscorpion venom. We examined the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of full-length Checacin1, a major component of the Chelifer cancroides venom, and three truncated forms of this peptide. The antimicrobial tests revealed a potent inhibitory activity of Checacin1 against several bacteria and fungi, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and even Gram-negative pathogens. All peptides reduced survival rates of aphids, with Checacin1 and the C-terminally truncated Checacin11−21 exhibiting effects comparable to Spinosad, a commercially used pesticide. Cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells were observed mainly for the full-length Checacin1. All tested peptides might be potential candidates for developing lead structures for aphid pest treatment. However, as these peptides were not yet tested on other insects, aphid specificity has not been proven. The N- and C-terminal fragments of Checacin1 are less potent against aphids but exhibit no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells at the tested concentration of 100 µM.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wanyue Dan ◽  
Lihua Peng ◽  
Bin Yan ◽  
Zhengpeng Li ◽  
Fei Pan

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the main subtypes of esophageal cancer. The incidence rate of EAC increased progressively while the 5-year relative survival rates were poor in the past two decades. The mechanism of EAC has been studied extensively in relation to genetic factors, but less so with respect to human microbiota. Currently, researches about the relationship between EAC and the human microbiota is a newly emerging field of study. Herein, we present the current state of knowledge linking human microbiota to esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesion—gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. There are specific human bacterial alternations in the process of esophageal carcinogenesis. And bacterial dysbiosis plays an important role in the process of esophageal carcinogenesis via inflammation, microbial metabolism and genotoxicity. Based on the human microbiota alternation in the EAC cascade, it provides potential microbiome-based clinical application. This review is focused on novel targets in prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.


Author(s):  
Minghuan Mao ◽  
Liang Yang ◽  
Jingyao Hu ◽  
Bing Liu ◽  
Xiling Zhang ◽  
...  

AbstractThe neuronally expressed developmentally downregulated 4 (NEDD4) gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that targets the epithelial sodium channel for degradation and has been implicated in tumor growth in various cancers. Hence, in this study, we intended to characterize the functional relevance of the NEDD4-mediated Kruppel-like factor 8/microRNA-132/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (KLF8/miR-132/NRF2) axis in the development of bladder cancer. NEDD4 and KLF8 were overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues and were associated with poorer patient survival rates. In bladder cancer cells, NEDD4 intensified the stability and transcriptional activity of KLF8 through ubiquitination to augment cell viability and migratory ability. Our investigations revealed that NEDD4 promotes the binding of KLF8 to the miR-132 promoter region and inhibits the expression of miR-132. KLF8 inhibited the expression of miR-132 to augment the viability and migratory ability of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-132 downregulated the expression of NRF2 to restrict the viability and migratory ability of bladder cancer cells. In addition, in vivo findings verified that NEDD4 regulates the KLF8/miR-132/NRF2 axis by accelerating tumor growth and lung metastasis. In conclusion, this study highlights NEDD4 as a potential therapeutic target against tumor recurrence and metastasis in bladder cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Antonio Faiella ◽  
Ferdinando Riccardi ◽  
Giacomo Cartenì ◽  
Martina Chiurazzi ◽  
Livia Onofrio

Background. c-MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The binding of HGF to c-MET regulates several cellular functions: differentiation, proliferation, epithelial cell motility, angiogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, it is known to be involved in carcinogenesis. Comprehension of HGF-c-MET signaling pathway might have important clinical consequences allowing to predict prognosis, response to treatment, and survival rates based on its expression and dysregulation. Discussion. c-MET represents a useful molecular target for novel engineered drugs. Several clinical trials are underway for various solid tumors and the development of new specific monoclonal antibodies depends on the recent knowledge about the definite c-MET role in each different malignance. Recent clinical trials based on c-MET molecular targets result in good safety profile and represent a promising therapeutic strategy for solid cancers, in monotherapy or in combination with other target drugs. Conclusion. The list of cell surface receptors crosslinking with the c-MET signaling is constantly growing, highlighting the importance of this pathway for personalized target therapy. Research on the combination of c-MET inhibitors with other drugs will hopefully lead to discovery of new effective treatment options.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 852
Author(s):  
Aneta L. Zygulska ◽  
Piotr Pierzchalski

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Less than half of cases are diagnosed when the cancer is locally advanced. CRC is a heterogenous disease associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. Diagnostic markers are used for risk stratification and early detection, which might prolong overall survival. Nowadays, the widespread use of semi-invasive endoscopic methods and feacal blood tests characterised by suboptimal accuracy of diagnostic results has led to the detection of cases at later stages. New molecular noninvasive tests based on the detection of CRC alterations seem to be more sensitive and specific then the current methods. Therefore, research aiming at identifying molecular markers, such as DNA, RNA and proteins, would improve survival rates and contribute to the development of personalized medicine. The identification of “ideal” diagnostic biomarkers, having high sensitivity and specificity, being safe, cheap and easy to measure, remains a challenge. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances in novel diagnostic biomarkers for tumor tissue, blood and stool samples in CRC patients.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261729
Author(s):  
Prakriti Roy ◽  
Sophie E. van Peer ◽  
Martin M. de Witte ◽  
Godelieve A. M. Tytgat ◽  
Henrike E. Karim-Kos ◽  
...  

Around 6% of all childhood malignancies represent renal tumors, of which a majority includes Wilms tumor (WT). Although survival rates have improved over the last decades, specific patients are still at risk for adverse outcome. In the Netherlands, since 2015, pediatric oncology care for renal tumors has been centralized in the Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology. Here, we describe experiences of the first 5 years of centralized care and explore whether this influences the epidemiological landscape by comparing data with the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). We identified all patients <19 years with a renal mass diagnosed between 01-01-2015 and 31-12-2019 in the Princess Máxima Center. Epidemiology, characteristics and management were analyzed. We identified 164 patients (including 1 patient who refused consent for registration), in our center with a suspicion of a renal tumor. The remaining 163 cases included WT (n = 118)/cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma (n = 2)/nephrogenic rests only (n = 6) and non-WT (n = 37). In this period, the NCR included 138 children, 1 17-year-old patient was not referred to the Princess Máxima Center. Central radiology review (before starting treatment) was performed in 121/163 patients, and central pathology review in 148/152 patients that underwent surgery. Treatment stratification, according to SIOP/EpSSG protocols was pursued based on multidisciplinary consensus. Preoperative chemotherapy was administered in 133 patients, whereas 19 patients underwent upfront surgery. Surgery was performed in 152 patients, and from 133 biomaterial was stored. Centralization of care for children with renal tumors led to referral of all but 1 new renal tumor cases in the Netherlands, and leads to referral of very rare subtypes not registered in the NCR, that benefit from high quality diagnostics and multidisciplinary decision making. National centralization of care led to enhanced development of molecular diagnostics and other innovation-based treatments for the future.


2022 ◽  
pp. 152660282110687
Author(s):  
Hsien-Wei Tseng ◽  
Po-Ya Chang ◽  
Chin-Hao Chang ◽  
I-Hui Wu ◽  
Ron-Bin Hsu ◽  
...  

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the diameter of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sacs after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) in Taiwanese patients and to depict its association with clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who underwent EVAR for infrarenal AAA between January 2011 and December 2016. All preoperative and follow-up computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed. Postoperative CT angiography was arranged after 1 month and annually thereafter. The maximal diameter on the axial plane and the maximal diameter perpendicular to the centerline on the coronal and sagittal planes were measured. The study examined post-EVAR sac diameter change over time and compared the differences in adverse events (AEs) among groups. Results: The survey included a total of 191 patients with a median follow-up duration of 2.5 (interquartile range: 1.1–2.9) years. Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were 92%, 81%, and 76%, respectively. According to their last CT scans, the patients were categorized into 3 groups as follows: shrinkage, stationary, and enlargement, which comprised 58 (30.4%), 118 (61.8%), and 15 (7.9%) patients, respectively. Pre-EVAR characteristics and sac diameters were similar among the groups. Sac shrinkage was exclusively observed in the first 2 years, whereas sac enlargement developed at all follow-up periods. Patients with sac enlargement had higher incidence rates of endoleaks, complications, and reintervention than the other groups. Conclusion: Based on our observations, post-EVAR sac shrinkage only occurs in the first 2 years; however, post-EVAR sacs may enlarge at any point and even after 5 years. In our study, patients with sac enlargement had higher rates of adverse events and reintervention.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yasemin SAYGIDEGER ◽  
Alper AVCI ◽  
Emine BAGIR ◽  
Burcu SAYGIDEĞER DEMİR ◽  
Aycan SEZAN Ms ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: Lung cancer displays heterogeneity both in the tumor itself and in its metastatic regions. One interesting behavior of the tumor is known as Skip N2 metastasis, which N2 lymph nodes contain tumor cells while N1 are clean. In this study, mRNA levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) related genes in skip N2 and normal N2 involvements of non-small cell lung cancer tissues were investigated to evaluate the possible molecular background that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Skip N2 metastasis. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three surgically resected and paraffin embedded lymph node samples of lung cancer patients were analyzed in this study, which 40 of them were Skip N2. N2 tissues were sampled from 50% tumor containing areas and total RNA was extracted. mRNA levels for 18S, E-cadherin, Vimentin, ZEB1 and SLUG were analyzed via qPCR and E-cadherin and vimentin protein levels via immunohistochemistry (IHC). Bioinformatic analysis were adopted using online datasets to evaluate significantly co-expressed genes with SLUG in lung cancer tissue samples.Results: Skip-N2 patients who had adenocarcinoma subtype had better survival rates. Comparative analysis of PCR results indicated that Skip N2 tumor tissues had increased E-Cadherin/Vimentin ratio and ZEB1 mRNA expression, and significantly decreased levels of SLUG. E-cadherin IHC staining were higher in Skip N2 and Vimentin were in Non-Skip N2. TP63 had a strong correlation with SLUG expression in the bioinformatics analyses.Conclusion: The results indicate that, at molecular level, Skip N2 pathogenesis has different molecular background and regulation of SLUG expression may orchestrate the process.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Author(s):  
Nuria Vieco-Saiz ◽  
Yanath Belguesmia ◽  
Ruth Raspoet ◽  
Eric Auclair ◽  
Connor Padgett ◽  
...  

The present study aimed to show the benefits of novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from the caeca of healthy chickens. These novel strains, identified as Limosilactobacillus reuteri and Ligilactobacillus salivarius, displayed high levels of lactic acid production, capability of biofilm formation, high aggregation and adhesion scores, and significant survival rates under conditions mimicking the chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In addition, these novel Lactobacillaceae isolates were neither hemolytic nor cytotoxic. In vivo trials were able to establish their ability to reduce necrotic enteritis. Notably, a significant weight gain was registered, on day 10 of treatment, in the group of chickens fed with a mixture of L. reuteri ICVB416 and L. salivarius ICVB430 strains, as compared with the control group. This group has also shown a reduced number of lesions in the gut compared with other infected chicken groups. This study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting the benefits of these novel Lactobacillaceae isolates for their use in poultry livestock as protective cultures to control the bacterial necrotic enteritis (NE) Clostridium perfringens.


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