Incidence Risk
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yin-Hong Geng ◽  
Zhe Zhang ◽  
Jun-Jun Zhang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
Zui-Shuang Guo ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective. To construct a novel nomogram model that predicts the risk of hyperuricemia incidence in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) . Methods. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of 1184 IgAN patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University Hospital were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to screen out hyperuricemia risk factors. The risk factors were used to establish a predictive nomogram model. The performance of the nomogram model was evaluated using an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration plots, and a decision curve analysis. Results. Independent predictors for hyperuricemia incidence risk included sex, hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 24-hour urinaryprotein (24h TP), Gross and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T). The nomogram model exhibited moderate prediction ability with an AUC of 0.834 ((95% CI 0.804–0.864)). The AUC from validation reached 0.787 (95% CI 0.736-0.839). The decision curve analysis displayed that the hyperuricemia risk nomogram was clinically applicable.Conclusion. Our novel and simple nomogram containing 8 factors may be useful in predicting hyperuricemia incidence risk in IgAN.


Author(s):  
Tine Glavind Bülow Pedersen ◽  
Nicklas Vinter ◽  
Morten Schmidt ◽  
Lars Frost ◽  
Pia Cordsen ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Avinash K. Sunny ◽  
Prajwal Paudel ◽  
Jagannath Tiwari ◽  
Bishow Bandhu Bagale ◽  
Antti Kukka ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Perinatal events which result in compromised oxygen delivery to the fetus can lead to Birth Asphyxia (BA). While the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of BA have been characterized, less is known in low resource settings. Aim To determine the incidence of Birth Asphyxia (BA) in Nepal and to evaluate associated risk factors and outcomes of this condition. Methods A nested observational study was conducted in 12 hospitals of Nepal for a period of 14 months. Babies diagnosed as BA at ≥37 weeks of gestation were identified and demographics were reviewed. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The incidence of BA in this study was 6 per 1000 term livebirths and was higher among women 35 years and above. Predictors for BA were instrumented vaginal delivery (aOR:4.4, 95% CI, 3.1–6.1), fetal distress in labour (aOR:1.9, 95% CI, 1.0–3.6), malposition (aOR:1.8, 95% CI, 1.0–3.0), birth weight less than 2500 g (aOR:2.0, 95% CI, 1.3–2.9), gestational age ≥ 42 weeks (aOR:2.0, 95% CI, 1.3–3.3) and male gender (aOR:1.6, 95% CI, 1.2–2.0). The risk of pre-discharge mortality was 43 times higher in babies with BA (aOR:42.6, 95% CI, 32.2–56.3). Conclusion The incidence of Birth asphyxia in Nepal higher than in more resourced setting. A range of obstetric and neonatal risk factors are associated with BA with an associated high risk of pre-discharge mortality. Interventions to improve management and decrease rates of BA could have marked impact on outcomes in low resource settings.


Heart ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-319752
Author(s):  
Jwan A Naser ◽  
Sorin Pislaru ◽  
Marius N Stan ◽  
Grace Lin

ObjectiveGraves’ disease (GD) can both aggravate pre-existing cardiac disease and cause de novo heart failure (HF), but large-scale studies are lacking. We aimed to investigate the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of incident GD-related HF.MethodsPatients with GD (2009–2019) were retrospectively included. HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) was defined by left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and Framingham criteria, while HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) was defined according to the HFA-PEFF criteria. HF due to ischaemia, valve disorder or other structural heart disease was excluded. Proportional hazards regression was used to analyse risk factors and outcomes.ResultsOf 1371 patients with GD, HF occurred in 74 (5.4%) patients (31 (2.3%) HFrEF; 43 (3.1%) HFpEF). In HFrEF, atrial fibrillation (AF) (HR 10.5 (3.0–37.3), p<0.001) and thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) level (HR 1.05 (1.01–1.09) per unit, p=0.007) were independent risk factors. In HFpEF, the independent risk factors were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 7.2 (3.5–14.6), p<0.001), older age (HR 1.5 (1.2–2.0) per 10 years, p=0.001), overt hyperthyroidism (HR 6.4 (1.5–27.1), p=0.01), higher body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.07 (1.03–1.10) per unit, p=0.001) and hypertension (HR 3.1 (1.3–7.2), p=0.008). The risk of cardiovascular hospitalisations was higher in both HFrEF (HR 10.3 (5.5–19.4), p<0.001) and HFpEF (HR 6.7 (3.7–12.2), p<0.001). However, only HFrEF was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 5.17 (1.3–19.9), p=0.02) and ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (HR 64.3 (15.9–259.7), p<0.001).ConclusionDe novo HF occurs in 5.4% of patients with GD and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular hospitalisations and mortality. Risk factors include AF, higher TRAb, higher BMI and overt hyperthyroidism.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Maryam Kohsari ◽  
Mehdi Moradinazar ◽  
Zohreh Rahimi ◽  
Farid Najafi ◽  
Yahya Pasdar ◽  
...  

Objective. The relationship between RBC indices and metabolic diseases remains unclear. The association between anemia and obesity is also controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between RBC indices and metabolic diseases caused by obesity and evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on RBC indices on the Ravansar cohort data. Method. For the purpose of this study, 9826 participants aged 35–65 years (5158 females and 4668 males) were recruited in the analyses. A quadratic prediction fit plot investigated the association between RBC indices with BMI and lipid profile. The odds ratio of obesity-related diseases in each quartile category of RBC indices and anemia was estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results. Subjects in the fourth quartiles of RBC count, hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin (HGB), and red cell distribution width (RDW) had a higher risk for obesity-related diseases compared to the first quartiles. However, individuals with the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in fourth quartiles had lower ORs of obesity-related diseases. While BMI reduced the effect of RBC count, HCT, HGB, and RDW on the incidence risk of obesity-related disease, it increased the impact of MCV, MCH, and MCHC. There was a negative association between BMI and RBC indices except for RDW. The BMI effect on RBC indices was different in normal and obese individuals. BMI in mild anemia lowered the risk of metabolic diseases, but it increased the risk of metabolic diseases for moderate anemia. Conclusion. A higher risk of obesity-related diseases was observed in the fourth quartiles of RBC count, HCT, HGB, and RDW compared to the first quartiles. However, the incidence risk was lower for MCV, MCH, and MCHC. BMI plays an anemia-type dependent role in the relationship. Consideration should be given to the type of anemia in the relationship between BMI and anemia.


Stroke ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hilmi Alnsasra ◽  
Rabea Asleh ◽  
Neeraj Kumar ◽  
Camden Lopez ◽  
Takumi Toya ◽  
...  

Background and Purpose: Less is known about the risk factors and outcomes associated with stroke in the current era of increasing heart transplantation (HT) being performed in older patients. The impact of immunosuppression on risk of stroke has not yet been previously studied. We aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of stroke after HT. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes and associated outcomes in all consecutive HT recipients transplanted between 1994 and 2016 at a single institution. Results: Of 529 patients who underwent HT, 57 (10.7%) developed stroke, 8.1% had an ischemic events and (2.6%) had a hemorrhagic stroke. Age at HT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.33; P =0.03) and diabetes (HR, 2.60; P =0.02) were associated with increased risk of ischemic events. Patients with stroke (any type) were more likely to have worse kidney function (HR, 1.81; P =0.02) whereas patients with ischemic events were more likely to undergo combined organ transplantation (HR, 2.01; P =0.05). Cytomegalovirus infection was found to be associated with increased risk of any stroke (HR, 2.09; P =0.02).Conversion from calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimus-based immunosuppression was not found to be associated with a significant change in stroke risk (HR, 1.39; P =0. 45) compared with calcineurin inhibitor maintenance therapy. Stroke of any type and ischemic events were independently associated with increased risk of death (HR, 1.90; P =0.001 and HR, 2.14; P <0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Stroke after HT is associated with increased mortality. Older age at HT, diabetes, renal dysfunction, and CMV infection were associated with greater risk of stroke.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (9) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gilberto Solano-Suárez ◽  
Luciano S Caixeta ◽  
Alexander Masic ◽  
Diego Manríquez ◽  
Luciana Hatamoto-Zervoudakis ◽  
...  

Abstract The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis &lt;28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease &lt;28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


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