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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 895-900
Author(s):  
Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira ◽  
◽  
Marcella Katheryne Marques Berna ◽  
Antônio Messias Costa ◽  
Aline Amaral Imbeloni ◽  
...  

Information on neoplasms in animals has increased over time, and these studies have helped in the management of reptiles that present tumors. There are similar incidences of neoplasms between homeothermic and ectothermic animals. Furthermore, there are usually more than one type of tumor present. The treatment of wild animals afflicted with cancer usually happens late, contributing to their low life expectancy. Thus, the present work aimed to describe an infrequent case of oral tumor in Boa constrictor. The tumor was observed in an adult female animal, raised in an exhibition area of the Zoo and Botanical Park of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, located in Belém, State of Pará, Brazil. Macroscopically, the mass presented morphologically with an irregular, multilobulated surface, color that varied from white to grey, hemorrhagic areas and its extension was 3.9 x 2.3 cm. The neoplasm was surgically removed, and the histopathological evaluation revealed an adenocarcinoma, with a papillary-like development pattern and a moderate degree of differentiation. The animal died three months after diagnosis due to starvation. The necropsy showed that there was tumor recrudescence and no metastases. Given the impossibility of surgical removal with a greater margin of safety, and adjuvant therapies, this condition favoured the resurgence of the neoplasm. This compromised the animal’s ability to feed and consequently lead to death. Malignant neoplasms in reptiles may have an unfavourable clinical evolution for the maintenance of life, requiring specific therapeutic care such as chemotherapy. Scientific contributions on tumors in these animals are essential for the medical treatment of wild animals, and the conservation of wild species.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Franco Picciotto ◽  
Adriana Lesca ◽  
Luca Mastorino ◽  
Elena Califaretti ◽  
Luca Conti ◽  
...  

Primary umbilical melanoma is rare tumor, representing about 5% of all umbilical malignancies.The lymphatic drainage from the tumor is challenging and can be to inguinal, axillary and retroperitoneal nodes. Dynamic and static lymphoscintigraphy with single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a widely validated technique in patients with clinically localized melanoma to search for and quantify nodal spread of cutaneous melanoma. Moreover, it offers the surgeon the preoperative information about the number and location of the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), which makes SLNB easier and quicker. This is the first report of an ulcerated thick melanoma of the umbilicus metastasizing only to an external iliac lymph-node without involvement of superficial inguinal SLNs. The preoperative high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) examination of the regional lymph node field had been normal. This case-report shows how addition of SPECT/CT to planar imaging in a patient with clinically localized umbilical melanoma can help avoid incomplete SLNB when a deep SLN is not removed. A literature review of umbilical melanoma is also provided.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 216
Author(s):  
Carmen Sorina Martin ◽  
Ovidiu Dumitru Parfeni ◽  
Liliana Gabriela Popa ◽  
Mara Madalina Mihai ◽  
Dana Terzea ◽  
...  

Glucagonomas are neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that arise from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. They are typically slow-growing tumors associated with abnormal glucagon secretion, resulting in one or more non-specific clinical features, such as necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), diabetes, diarrhea, deep vein thrombosis, weight loss, and depression. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, presenting with a pruritic and painful disseminated cutaneous eruption of erythematous plaques, with scales and peripheral pustules, misdiagnosed as disseminated pustular psoriasis and treated for 2 years with oral retinoid and glucocorticoids. During this period, the patient complained of weight loss of 32 kg and diarrhea and developed deep vein thrombosis. These symptoms, together with an inadequate response to therapy of the skin lesions, led to the reassessment of the initial diagnosis. Laboratory tests confirmed elevated plasma glucagon levels (>1000 pg/mL) and computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a 35/44 mm tumor in the pancreatic tail. Due to considerable disease complications and the COVID-19 pandemic, the surgical removal of the tumor was delayed for nearly 2 years. During this time, somatostatin analogue therapy efficiently controlled the glucagonoma syndrome and likely prevented tumor progression. As in other functional pancreatic NETs, the early clinical recognition of hormonal hypersecretion syndrome and the multidisciplinary approach are the keys for best patient management.


Author(s):  
Benjamin Schmeusser ◽  
Joseph Wiedemer ◽  
Dana Obery ◽  
Kaila Buckley ◽  
Michael Yu

AbstractNeoplasms of the urachus are exceedingly rare, representing 0.17% of all bladder cancers. The mucinous cystic tumor of low malignant potential (MCTLMP) subtype is particularly rare with just 25 previous cases reported in the literature. Although rare, MCTLMPs are important to identify due to potential devastating complications and good cure rates with surgical removal. We present a 43 year old female with a nuanced constellation of comorbidities and confirmed MCTLMP following a workup for abdominal pain and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms. Notably, this tumor did not change in size over a 3-year course of serial imaging prior to surgical excision. This urachal MCTLMP represents roughly the 26th and one of the smallest of its subtype reported in the literature. This case illustrates the diagnosis and management of this rare urachal MCTLMP. Individual patient medical history, clinical considerations, and neoplasm characteristics are examined. Although rare, the potential for increased malignancy and potential complications necessitates surgical management and further investigation by the academic community.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Limei Peng ◽  
Quan Zhou ◽  
Yu Wu ◽  
Xiaoli Cao ◽  
Zili Lv ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a rare central nervous system infection caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris or Acanthamoeba species. Diagnosis is challenging because of the non-specific clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and radiological features. There is no effective treatment for GAE to date. Case presentation A 54-year-old male was admitted to hospital after experiencing acute onset of numbness and weakness on his left limb. Due to the initial consideration of intracranial tumor, surgical removal of the right parietal lesion was performed. However, the patient had a headache accompanied by diplopia, difficulty walking and a new lesion was found in the left occipital-parietal lobe two weeks after the first operation. High-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) detected the presence of high copy reads of the B. mandrillaris genome sequence in the patient’s blood, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue. Pathological investigation of the brain tissue showed granulomatous changes and amoebic trophozoite scattered around blood vessels under high magnification. The patient was re-operated due to developing progressive confusion caused by subfalcine herniation of the left cerebral hemisphere. The lesions of the right parietal lobe were obviously decreasing in size after the first surgery, and the lesions of the left occipital lobe and the sunfalcine herniation didn’t ameliorate two months after the second surgery. The patient was transferred to local hospital for continuous treatment with sulfamethoxazole and azithromycin. After five months of the second surgery, the patient showed good recovery with mild headache. Conclusions This is the first report of a patient with B. mandrillaris encephalitis initially confirmed by NGS and have experienced two excisions, responding favorably to the combination of surgeries and medications. Early surgical resection of intracranial lesions combined with drug treatment may offer the chance of a cure.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qianwen Huang ◽  
Wenshen Xu

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a common type of malignant neoplasm in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Most cases of simple cSCC are considered curable by surgical removal of the lesion. However, clinical treatments for cSCC with medium- or large-sized lesions are difficult. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of the treatments is not guaranteed, especially for elderly patients, because of an intolerance to surgical resection or other adjuvant modalities. In such cases, safe and effective treatments with excellent aesthetic outcomes are urgently needed. In this study, we reported 6 elderly cSCC patients with medium- or large-sized lesions treated with argon–helium cryoablation. The average age of all 6 patients was 78 years (range 72–85 years). They were all diagnosed with cSCC with a median tumor size of 5.8 cm (range 2.5–15.5 cm) and dermal invasion. Complete ablation was achieved in all cases after a single ablation session (2 freeze–thaw cycles). Patients experienced mild pain and hemorrhage after ablation, but the symptoms were manageable. One patient developed infection and fever because of extensive necrosis of the tumor, which was eventually cured after treatment. All patients obtained good cosmetic outcomes, and their quality of life improved significantly. In the 5-year follow-up study, 4 patients were alive while 2 patients died of unrelated diseases 3 years after cryotherapy. None of the 6 patients had a recurrence. These results suggested the feasibility of argon–helium cryoablation as a novel therapeutic strategy for elderly cSCC with medium- or large-sized lesions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Author(s):  
Anja Barac Nekic ◽  
Nikola Knezevic ◽  
Karin Zibar Tomsic ◽  
Ivana Kraljevic ◽  
Annemarie Balasko ◽  
...  

Complete surgical removal of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) represents the only chance of long-term cure. In this study, we compared the long-term outcomes of ACC patients depending on whether they had adrenal surgery performed in a high-volume (HVC) or in a low-volume (LVC) center. This retrospective study included 49 patients from the Croatian ACC Registry with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stage I–III ACC, of which 35 underwent surgery in a HVC whereas 14 of them were operated in one of the LVCs. Patients operated in the LVCs had a significantly higher rate of ACC recurrence (57.1% vs. 22.9%; p = 0.02). Accordingly, RFS was significantly longer in patients operated on in HVC (p = 0.04). The difference in RFS remained significant after controlling for age, gender, tumor size, Ki-67 index, Weiss score, and type of surgery (HR 4.55; 95% CI 1.16–17.88; p = 0.03). In addition, there is a tendency towards longer DSS in patients in the HVC group compared to those in the LVC group (p = 0.05). These results point to the centralization of adrenal surgery as a key prerequisite for improving the outcomes of ACC patients.


Author(s):  
Marta Mazur ◽  
Artnora Ndokaj ◽  
Beatrice Marasca ◽  
Gian Luca Sfasciotti ◽  
Roberto Marasca ◽  
...  

Germectomy is a procedure often required in patients at developmental age. It is defined as the surgical removal of the third molar at a very specific stage of development. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature in terms of clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Scopus from 1952 to 30 June 2021. The study protocol was registered after the screening stage (PROSPERO CRD42021262949). The search strategy identified 3829 articles: 167 from PubMed, 2860 from Google Scholar, 799 from Cochrane Library and 3 from Scopus. Finally, eight full-text papers were included into the qualitative analysis. Based on the included studies, clinical indications for germectomy were mainly related to orthodontic causes, infectious and cariogenic causes and prophylaxis. Based on these results, it is not possible to present evidence-based clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Clinical trials on this subject focused specifically on patients at developmental age are awaited.


2022 ◽  
pp. 109352662110732
Author(s):  
Mark Quiring ◽  
Stacey Berry ◽  
John Uffman ◽  
Kirk Pinto ◽  
Jonathan Kaye

Giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma (GMC) is an extremely rare, benign tumor seen in both adult and pediatric males. The neoplasm originates from prostatic tissue and is typically found within the rectovesical pouch, varying in both size and morphology. Microscopically, GMC contains both glandular and cystic prostatic tissue lined by cuboidal and columnar epithelium. Symptoms often arise once the pelvic mass begins to obstruct the surrounding structures and organs, although invasion into surrounding tissue is unlikely. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, urinary retention, and dysuria. The standard treatment for GMC is surgical removal of the mass with good outcomes and only 1 known case of recurrence. Here we present the case of a 14-year-old male with GMC—the youngest patient reported to date—who presented with abdominal pain, difficulty voiding, and hydroureteronephrosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhiqiang Zhang ◽  
Yunlin Ye ◽  
Jiajie Yu ◽  
Shufen Liao ◽  
Weibin Pan ◽  
...  

PurposeSurgical removal of pheochromocytoma (PCC), including open, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted adrenalectomy, is the cornerstone of therapy, which is associated with high risk of intraoperative and postoperative life-threatening complications due to intraoperative hemodynamic instability (IHD). This study aims to develop and validate a nomogram based on clinical characteristics as well as computed tomography (CT) features for the prediction of IHD in pheochromocytoma surgery.MethodsThe data from 112 patients with pheochromocytoma were collected at a single center between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Clinical and radiological features were selected with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis to predict IHD then constitute a nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was assessed in terms of discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility.ResultsAge, tumor shape, Mayo Adhesive Probability score, laterality, necrosis, body mass index, and surgical technique were identified as risk predictors of the presence of IHD. The nomogram was then developed using these seven variables. The model showed good discrimination with a C-index of 0.773 (95% CI, 0.683–0.862) and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.739 (95% CI, 0.642–0.837). The calibration plot suggested good agreement between predicted and actual probabilities. Besides, calibration was tested with the Hosmer–Lemeshow test (P = 0.961). The decision curve showed the clinical effectiveness of the nomogram.ConclusionsOur nomogram based on clinical and CT parameters could facilitate the treatment strategy according to assessment of the risk of IHD in patients with pheochromocytoma.


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