Depression And Anxiety
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2021 ◽  
Vol 110 ◽  
pp. 106588
Author(s):  
Siri Jakobsson Støre ◽  
Maria Tillfors ◽  
Erik Wästlund ◽  
Charlotte Angelhoff ◽  
Gerhard Andersson ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mary S. Mittelman ◽  
Maureen K. O’Connor ◽  
Tiffany Donley ◽  
Cynthia Epstein-Smith ◽  
Andrew Nguyen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The longitudinal study, “Couples Lived Experiences,” focuses on whether and how relationship characteristics of older couples change with the cognitive decline of one member of the couple, and how these changes affect each individual’s emotional and physical health outcomes. Until now, most psychosocial research in dementia has focused either on the person with dementia (PWD) or the caregiver separately. The previous literature examining relationship characteristics and their role in outcomes for the caregiver and PWD is scant and suffers from methodological issues that limit the understanding of which relationship characteristics most influence outcomes for caregivers and care-receivers and what other factors may mitigate or exacerbate their effects. Methods We will enroll 300 dyads and collect information via online interviews of each member of the couple, every 6 months for 3 years. Relationship characteristics will be measured with a set of short, well-validated, and reliable self-report measures, plus the newly developed “Partnership Approach Questionnaire.” Outcomes include global quality of life, subjective physical health, mental health (depression and anxiety), and status change (transitions in levels of care; i.e., placement in a nursing home). Longitudinal data will be used to investigate how relationship characteristics are affected by cognitive, functional, and behavioral changes, and the impact of these changes on health outcomes. Qualitative data will also be collected to enrich the interpretation of results of quantitative analyses. Discussion Psychosocial interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in promoting the wellbeing of PWD and their caregivers. The knowledge gained from this study can lead to the development or enhancement of targeted interventions for older couples that consider the impact of cognitive and functional decline on the relationship between members of a couple and thereby improve their wellbeing. Trial registration This study has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is: NCT04863495.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0257983
Author(s):  
Siew Mooi Ching ◽  
Kar Yean Ng ◽  
Kai Wei Lee ◽  
Anne Yee ◽  
Poh Ying Lim ◽  
...  

Introduction COVID-19 pandemic is having a devastating effect on the mental health and wellbeing of healthcare providers (HCPs) globally. This review is aimed at determining the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, fear, burnout and resilience and its associated factors among HCPs in Asia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods We performed literature search using 4 databases from Medline, Cinahl, PubMed and Scopus from inception up to March 15, 2021 and selected relevant cross-sectional studies. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot. Random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence while risk factors were reported in odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. Results We included 148 studies with 159,194 HCPs and the pooled prevalence for depression was 37.5% (95%CI: 33.8–41.3), anxiety 39.7(95%CI: 34.3–45.1), stress 36.4% (95%CI: 23.2–49.7), fear 71.3% (95%CI: 54.6–88.0), burnout 68.3% (95%CI: 54.0–82.5), and low resilience was 16.1% (95%CI: 12.8–19.4), respectively. The heterogeneity was high (I2>99.4%). Meta-analysis reported that both females (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.30–1.68) and nurses (OR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.02–1.45) were at increased risk of having depression and anxiety [(Female: OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.49–1.85), (Nurse: OR = 1.36; 95%CI = 1.16–1.58)]. Females were at increased risk of getting stress (OR = 1.59; 95%CI = 1.28–1.97). Conclusion In conclusion, one third of HCPs suffered from depression, anxiety and stress and more than two third of HCPs suffered from fear and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic in Asia.


Author(s):  
Chanatip Tongyonk ◽  
Thitiporn Supasitthumrong ◽  
Chavit Tunvirachaisakul ◽  
Aurauma Chutinet ◽  
Michael Maes

Objectives To delineate the features of ischemic stroke patients and their caregivers that may predict distress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in the caregivers. Methods The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), Zarit Burden Interview (22 item-ZBI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to assess caregivers' burden, stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. We performed partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in order to delineate a multi-step mediation model.Results In this study, 97 stroke patients and their caregivers were included. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ZBI-personal strain and stroke of other determined etiology explained 15.0 percent of the variance in the HADS depression score (p=0.001). We discovered that the caregiver's underlying disease and the National Institute Stroke Score (NIHSS) of the patients explained 13.6 percent of the variance in the total ZBI score of the caregivers (p=0.001). The total ZBI score, the presence of lacunar circulation infarction in the patients, and the caregiver's underlying disease explained 40.9 percent of the variance in the total PSS score of the caregivers (p <0.001). Moreover, PLS analysis showed that the NIHSS and the caregiver's underlying disease had significant indirect effects on the HADS score which were mediated by the ZBI score. Conclusions A large part of the variance in stress and depressive scores in caregivers of ischemic stroke patients is determined by the patient's disability, dependency, cognition, and stroke phenotypes, as well as the caregiver's health status and burden. Screening for the aforementioned factors in ischemic stroke caregivers is critical.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Xian Fong ◽  
Kim Cornish ◽  
Hannah Kirk ◽  
Kartini Ilias ◽  
Mohd Farooq Shaikh ◽  
...  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns have adversely impacted children on the autism spectrum and their families, especially in Malaysia where this population is often marginalized. The current quantitative research aimed to investigate the impact of the Malaysian COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior and psychological distress of children formally diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) as well as the psychological distress and well-being of their parents, in comparison with a typically developing (TD) control group.Methods: The children's ages ranged between 5 and 17 years. The sample included 72 ASC parent-child dyads and 62 TD parent-child dyads. The primary caregiver completed an online survey including the following: demographic and diagnostic information; ASC symptoms; children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety; parents' perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and well-being based on their experience pre- and mid-lockdown (March 18th to June 9th 2020) in Malaysia.Results: Among the ASC group, no significant pre- and mid-lockdown change was found in ASC symptoms (p > 0.05). There were no significant gender differences (boys/girls) in all the child scales. The 2 [diagnosis (ASC, TD)] × 2 [lockdown (pre-lockdown, mid-lockdown)] mixed-model ANOVAs revealed main effects of lockdown on children's attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, anxiety, and parents' perceived stress, depression, and psychological well-being (p < 0.005). There was a main effect of diagnosis in all child and parent variables, except parents' perceived stress (p >0.005). However, there was no significant interaction effect between diagnosis and lockdown (p >0.005). All child behavior (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and child psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and perceived stress) were significantly correlated in both the ASC and TD groups (p < 0.005). On the other hand, only some of the parent variables were significantly correlated with child variables (p < 0.0045) in the ASC group while none of the parent variables were significantly correlated with the child variables (p > 0.005) in the TD group.Conclusion: The results provide preliminary evidence indicating negative effects of the Malaysian lockdown on both children on the autism spectrum and TD children, as well as their parents. These quantitative results will be triangulated with the qualitative interview data to provide a holistic understanding of the impact of the pandemic, informing translational policy and practice recommendations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanzhao Cheng ◽  
Lilian Thorpe ◽  
Rasel Kabir ◽  
Hyun Ja Lim

Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are common mental health conditions in the older adult population. Understanding the trajectories of these will help implement treatments and interventions. Aims This study aims to identify depression and anxiety trajectories in older adults, evaluate the interrelationship of these conditions, and recognize trajectory-predicting characteristics. Methods Group-based dual trajectory modeling (GBDTM) was applied to the data of 3983 individuals, aged 65 years or older who participated in the Korean Health Panel Study between 2008 and 2015. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between characteristics and trajectory groups. Results Four trajectory groups from GBDTM were identified within both depression and anxiety outcomes. Depression outcome fell into “low-flat (87.0%)”, “low-to-middle (8.8%)”, “low-to-high (1.3%)” and “high-stable (2.8%)” trajectory groups. Anxiety outcome fell into “low-flat (92.5%)”, “low-to-middle (4.7%)”, “high-to-low (2.2%)” and “high-curve (0.6%)” trajectory groups. Interrelationships between depression and anxiety were identified. Members of the high-stable depression group were more likely to have “high-to-low” or “high-curved” anxiety trajectories. Female sex, the presence of more than three chronic diseases, and being engaged in income-generating activity were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. Conclusions Dual trajectory analysis of depression and anxiety in older adults shows that when one condition is present, the probability of the other is increased. Sex, having more than three chronic diseases, and not being involved in income-generating activity might increase risks for both depression and anxiety. Health policy decision-makers may use our findings to develop strategies for preventing both depression and anxiety in older adults.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Author(s):  
Grace Miranda Hansen

Fibromyalgia (FM) patients usually are resistant to conventional single mode therapy. Therefore, the efficacy of combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments for the management of FM symptoms in a clinical population was assessed. Participants were injected with 4x5 mL 1% lidocaine HCl solution and given education materials and support on increasing their daily steps walked and to engage in mindfulness techniques to reduce their overall pain and accompanying symptoms of their condition. Participants self-reported pain intensity, unpleasantness, anxiety, fatigue, and depression three days prior to and after each injection. Overall ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness showed statistically significant reductions of 34.7 and 47.2 percent respectively with the combined use of treatments. Additionally, fatigue levels had a significant decrease but depression and anxiety ratings were not significantly modified by this treatment modality. Patients who had a greater adherence to their protocol had an improved pain relief when compared to others. These results suggest that the use of a combination treatment method for FM in a clinical setting and when used in combination is effective. This pilot study can be used as a model for future randomized controlled studies on comprehensive treatments for FM. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (5) ◽  
pp. 31-35
Author(s):  
T.A. Odintsova ◽  
O.O. Kopchak

Multiple sclerosis is an insidious disabling, both physically and mentally, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. People with multiple sclerosis, apart from the classic manifestations, can also experience depression and anxiety. The study was aimed to assess peculiarities of influence of socio-demographic, external factors, and characteristics of the disease on depression and anxiety among patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The following article highlights the main risk factors and their ways of influence on the aforementioned disorders, distinguished by the multifactorial analysis. Also, it estimates the frequency of different severity levels of either depression or anxiety depending on the pre-sence of each risk factor.


2021 ◽  
pp. 102-110
Author(s):  
Xiaolei Zheng ◽  
Yuji Guo ◽  
Wen Ma ◽  
Hui Yang ◽  
Liyan Luo ◽  
...  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> COVID-19, a continuously emerging human-to-human infectious disease, has exerted a significant impact on the mental health of college students. However, little is known regarding the variations in the mental health issues experienced by college students during the peak versus reopening stages of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> To assess these issues, an online longitudinal survey was conducted via a WeChat applet. Undergraduates (<i>n</i> = 300) were recruited from 26 universities throughout Jinan in February 2020 (T1 – the epidemic peak stage) and in January 2021 (T2 – the society reopening stage). Their mental status was determined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 item, and the Insomnia Severity Index. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Of the original 300 college students recruited for this survey, 294 responses at T1 and 285 at T2 were analyzed. Compared with responses obtained at T1, college students at T2 showed a greater prevalence of depression (65.3 vs. 51.0%; <i>p</i> = 0.001) and anxiety (47.7 vs. 38.1%, <i>p</i> = 0.019), and experienced more severe depression (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001) and anxiety (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Both males (<i>p</i> = 0.03) and females (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.01) showed higher levels of depression at T2 versus T1, while no differences were obtained with regard to anxiety and insomnia. At T1, Grade 4 students showed greater levels of depression (<i>p</i> = 0.005) and anxiety (<i>p</i> = 0.008) than that of Grade 1 students. While at T2, only greater levels of depression (<i>p</i> = 0.004) were present when compared with that of Grade 1 students. Additionally, Grade 4 college students demonstrated a greater prevalence of depression at T2 versus T1 (<i>p</i> = 0.03), but no statistically differences were present for anxiety and insomnia. No statistically significant differences were obtained among the 4 grades of college students for insomnia at either the T1 or T2. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> With progression of the COVID-19 epidemic, college students showed increasing levels of depression and anxiety, with Grade 4 college students being most seriously affected. It is imperative that intervention strategies be implemented to mitigate against these mental health issues resulting from the COVID-19 epidemic.


Author(s):  
Giuseppina Elena Cipriani ◽  
Massimo Bartoli ◽  
Martina Amanzio

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, characterized by home confinement and other restrictive measures to reduce the spread of the infection, led to significant changes in people's habits and lifestyle. One of the most common problems is the worsening of sleep quality or quantity, which could have negative effects on psychological wellbeing, particularly in older adults. The purposes of the present literature review considering healthy aging subjects are (a) to examine the existing research on sleep alterations during the current pandemic and (b) to highlight possible relationships between sleep problems and psychological distress. A systematic search strategy was implemented according to PRISMA guidelines in the international literature online databases, up to 1 July 2021. After identification and screening phases, 11 articles were included in this review. The studies found possible associations between sleep problems and mood changes—particularly in terms of depression and anxiety. In addition, altered sleep patterns seemed to be related to changes in individual aspects, lifestyle, and attitudes adopted by older adults during the COVID-19 lockdown. Thus, the pandemic could affect the sleep and psychological wellbeing of the older population, even in healthy aging.


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