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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 599-608
Susilawati*, Nurfina ◽  
Nurfina Aznam ◽  
Paidi Paidi

<p style="text-align: justify;">It should be noted that learning outcomes are not students’ only achievement; attitude is also the main output in learning. This research explores students’ attitudes toward science learning based on gender and the grade level of schools in Aceh, Indonesia. The participants are 1,023 students from the sixth grade of primary schools and the eighth grade of secondary schools. The total sample includes 16 schools spread across the province. The data have been collected using TOSRA. By using the Likert scale, this questionnaire is useful for obtaining descriptions of the students’ attitudes and assigning scores for a certain group of participants. Based on gender, the results show females reflect more positive attitudes toward science than male students do. According to the grade level of the schools, the data reflect the equality of students’ attitudes toward science between primary and secondary schools. Nevertheless, when primary school students enter secondary school, the majority of students enjoy learning science less. This fact is meaningful feedback for science teachers. This result supports the scholars seeking ways to avoid the gender gap in learning activities. Pedagogical implications are also discussed.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
André Hajek ◽  
Hans-Helmut König

Abstract Background There is limited knowledge regarding the association between oral health-related quality of life and probable depression and anxiety. Our objective was to examine the association between oral health-related quality of life and probable depression and anxiety in the German population (stratified by sex). Methods In sum, n = 3,075 individuals took part in a nationally representative survey (August/September 2021). The well-established Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9; cut-off of 10) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7; cut-off of 10) were used to quantify probable depression and anxiety, respectively. Results The likelihood of probable depression was significantly associated with lower oral health-related quality of life in the total sample (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.18–1.25) and in both women and men. Additionally, the likelihood of probable anxiety was significantly associated with lower oral health-related quality of life in the total sample (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.14–1.21) and in both women and men. Conclusions Our study emphasized the association between lower oral health-related quality of life and probable depression as well as anxiety in the general adult population in Germany. Future longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Karsum Usman ◽  
Usman Moonti ◽  
Sri Endang Saleh

This study aims to determine the effect of price, land area and production costs on the income of rice farmers in North Toto Village, Tilongkabila District, Bone Bolango Regency. Data collection techniques used in this study were observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documentation. With a total sample of 44 farmers in North Toto Village. This research method uses a quantitative approach with multiple linear regression model analysis. The results showed that the price had a negative and insignificant effect on the income of rice farmers in North Toto Village. This means that every 1% increase in price can reduce income by 0.237. Land area has a positive and significant effect on the income of rice farmers in North Toto Village. This means that every 1% increase in land area can increase income by 0.682. Production costs have a negative and significant effect on the income of rice farmers in North Toto Village. This means that every 1% increase can reduce income by -0.254. The coefficient of determination (R Square) is 0.596, this shows that the percentage of rice farmers' income variation which is explained by the variation of the independent variables, namely price, land area and production costs is 59.6% for the remaining 40.4% influenced by other variables.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Denise Maria Conroy ◽  
Amy Errmann ◽  
Jenny Young ◽  
Ilaisaane M.E. Fifita

Purpose This research aims to gain insight into how consumers interact with a commercially available genetic nutrition programme, DNAfit, to explore health change via an intervention. Design/methodology/approach Focus groups were conducted between June and October 2019, pre-, during- and post-intervention, with a total sample of 14 younger (aged 25–44 years) and 14 mature (aged 45–65 years) cohorts from New Zealand. Qualitative thematic analysis was completed with the help of NVivo software. Findings Younger participants in this study engaged less overall with DNAfit, felt the service did not match their lifestyles and did not encourage their believability of genetic personalised nutrition (GPN). In contrast, mature participants had positive engagement with GPN, as their motivation to use the service fit with their motivation for longevity. Overall, social uptake in health changes based on GPN is likely to depend on life stage. Originality/value This paper adds to limited social marketing research, which seeks novel avenues to explore how consumers engage with GPN technologies to drive social change, assisting social marketers on how to more effectively deliver health programmes that allow consumer-driven interaction to build health capabilities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Hendri Hermawan Adinugraha

This research aims to analyze the impact of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Exchange Value, and Index ISR in Sharia Stock Return pass of Return on Asset (ROA) in a company administered in the Jakarta Islamic Index 2013-2017 period. This sample choosing with the purposive sampling method with the total sample as 29 from 30 companies. The data used in this study is the secondary data, and data analysis used is the multiple linear regression analysis and path analysis. The research result indicates that experiment T Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) and Index ISR are not influential in Stock Return. Exchange Value and Return on Asset (ROA) significance of Stock Return. Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) and Index ISR influence Return on Asset (ROA). At the same time, Exchange Value is not influential with Return on Asset. Experiment F refers that DER, Exchange Value, and Index ISR influence Return on Asset and Stock Return. However, ROA cannot mediate the relation between DER, Exchange Value, and Index ISR in Stock Return.

Abstract Background and aims Food addiction (FA) and substance use (SU) have frequently been reported in patients with eating disorders (EDs). Our study aimed to assess the prevalence rates of FA and/or lifetime problematic alcohol and illicit drug use among patients with specific ED, such as: bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorder (OSFED). We sought to identify clinical, psychopathological, and personality profiles involved in these addictive behavior-based phenotypes. Methods The total sample was 527 patients (176 BN, 115 BED, and 236 OSFED). FA was assessed through the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0. To determine lifetime SU, a semi-structured clinical interview was carried out. Results Patients with BN had the highest rates of FA both with and without SU. No gender differences were obtained for the prevalence of current FA and/or lifetime SU. Patients reporting at least one addictive-related behavior exhibited increased clinical severity compared to those who reported none. Increased impulsivity (such as high lack of premeditation, sensation seeking, and positive urgency) and low self-directedness were differentiating factors for presenting one or two addictive behaviors. Discussion and Conclusions Overall, patients presenting with at least one addictive-like behavior reported a poorer clinical status than those without. Also, patients with FA and SU exhibited a more dysfunctional profile characterized by high impulsivity and low self-directedness. These findings would support the need for targeted treatments to reduce impulsivity and increase self-directedness, especially in patients with any addictive-related behavior, as a step towards improving their treatment outcome.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 302
Antonela Matana ◽  
Ivana Franić ◽  
Endica Radić Hozo ◽  
Ante Burger ◽  
Petra Boljat

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to assess MD adherence in children and youth living in the Mediterranean region in Croatia and evaluate the differences in adherence to the MD among different educational stages. In total, 2722 individuals aged 2 to 24 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects were divided into different groups according to the Croatian educational system. Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) was used to assess adherence to the MD. In the total sample, the adherence to the MD was poor in 19.2%, average in 60.8%, and good in 20.1% of the study participants. The prevalence rate of poor adherence to the MD increased with higher educational stage, i.e., the highest prevalence rate of poor MD adherence was observed for college students (39.3%). Children having a higher number of snacks on days-off, those with lower physical activity, and not having breakfast together with a family are more likely to have poor MD adherence, while children having a higher number of snacks on working days are less likely to have a poor MD. The results of this study showed low adherence to the principles of the MD, confirming the need for improvement of adherence to the MD pattern in the studied population.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 285
Johanna H. Nel ◽  
Nelia P. Steyn ◽  
Marjanne Senekal

Nutrition intervention decisions should be evidence based. Single 24-h recalls are often used for measuring dietary intake in large dietary studies. However, this method does not consider the day-to-day variation in populations’ diets. We illustrate the importance of adjustment of single 24-h recall data to remove within-person variation using the National Cancer Institute method to calculate usual intake when estimating risk of deficiency/excess. We used an example data set comprising a single 24-h recall in a total sample of 1326 1–<10-year-old children, and two additional recalls in a sub-sample of 11%, for these purposes. Results show that risk of deficiency was materially overestimated by the single unadjusted 24-h recall for vitamins B12, A, D, C and E, while risk of excess was overestimated for vitamin A and zinc, when compared to risks derived from usual intake. Food sources rich in particular micronutrients seemed to result in overestimation of deficiency risk when intra-individual variance is not removed. Our example illustrates that the application of the NCI method in dietary surveys would contribute to the formulation of more appropriate conclusions on risk of deficiency/excess in populations to advise public health nutrition initiatives when compared to those derived from a single unadjusted 24-h recall.

Roman E. von Rezori ◽  
Friederike Buchallik ◽  
Petra Warschburger

Abstract Background Benefit finding, defined as perceiving positive life changes resulting from adversity and negative life stressors, gains growing attention in the context of chronic illness. The study aimed at examining the psychometric properties of the Benefit Finding Scale for Children (BFSC) in a sample of German youth facing chronic conditions. Methods A sample of adolescents with various chronic conditions (N = 304; 12 – 21years) completed the 10-item BFSC along with measures of intra- and interpersonal resources, coping strategies, and health-related quality of life (hrQoL). The total sample was randomly divided into two subsamples for conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA/CFA). Results EFA revealed that the BFSC scores had a one-dimensional factor structure. CFA verified the one-dimensional factor structure with an acceptable fit. The BFSC exhibited acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.87 – 0.88) and construct validity. In line with our hypotheses, benefit finding was positively correlated with optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and support seeking. There were no correlations with avoidance, wishful thinking, emotional reaction, and hrQoL. Sex differences in benefit finding were not consistent across subsamples. Benefit finding was also positively associated with age, disease severity, and social status. Conclusions The BFSC is a psychometrically sound instrument to assess benefit finding in adolescents with chronic illness and may facilitate further research on positive adaptation processes in adolescents, irrespective of their specific diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
pp. rapm-2021-102962
Constantin Robles ◽  
Nick Berardone ◽  
Steven Orebaugh

BackgroundThe interscalene brachial plexus block has been used effectively for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing shoulder surgery, but it is associated with high rates of diaphragmatic dysfunction. Performing the block more distally, at the level of the superior trunk, may reduce the incidence of phrenic nerve palsy. We hypothesized that superior trunk block would result in diaphragmatic paralysis rate of less than 20%.Methods30 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery received superior trunk block under ultrasound guidance. Measurements of diaphragm excursion were determined with ultrasound prior to the block, 15 min after the block, and postoperatively in phase II of postanesthesia care unit, in conjunction with clinical parameters of respiratory function.Results10 patients (33.3%, 95% CI 17.3% to 52.8%) developed complete hemidiaphragmatic paralysis at the postoperative assessment. An additional eight patients (26.7%) developed paresis without paralysis. Of the 18 patients with diaphragm effects, seven (38.9%) reported dyspnea. 83.3% of patients with abnormal diaphragm motion (56.7% of the total sample) had audibly reduced breath sounds on auscultation. Oxygen saturation measurements did not correlate with diaphragm effect and were not significantly reduced by the postoperative assessment.ConclusionAlthough injection of local anesthetic at the superior trunk level is associated with less diaphragmatic paralysis compared with traditional interscalene block, a significant portion of patients will continue to have ultrasonographic and clinical evidence of diaphragmatic weakness or paralysis.

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