Oral Health
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Rudwan Kazwini ◽  
Tarek Kasem ◽  
Noor Ewaz Ali Alhuda ◽  
Marwah Albarshah ◽  
Dania Subeh ◽  

Abstract Background War on Syria extended for a long time and resulted in significant impacts on various aspects, one of these aspects was displaced people crisis, and thus its impact on complete neglecting of oral health despite of its importance and impacts on the general health. This study aims to assess the oral health of the displaced Syria sample as a result of the war on Syria. Methods The sample included 118 patients of displaced families from different regions and cities to shelters in Damascus city, and the study included 118 control samples from the Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University. The non-profit initiative team included 20 dentists of all dental specialties. Oral health was assessed using DMFT index. Data were analyzed using SPSS V.22 in comparison with the gender of the patients, age groups, and socioeconomic status. Finally, the number of the treatment provided by the non-profit initiative was collected and presented in the study. Results No significant differences found in the DMFT index between children and adults (P = 0.750), DMFT value ranged between (0 and 11) with a mean value (2.4). The total DMFT value for adults was (2.77), while for children (2.12). Also, no statistical difference was found between males and females (P = 0.688). While the control group had an average DMFT value of (2.37), the difference between the displaced and control samples was not significant. Over 200 dental treatments were provided by the team. Conclusion This study concluded that the DMFT value is high among the displaced people as one of the consequences of the war on Syria, however, no significant difference was found when the results of the displaced sample was compared to a control sample.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 42-43
Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi ◽  
Shibani Grover ◽  
Shabina Sachdeva

The COVID-19 has impacted the health service delivery especially, the public health care system which is already overburdened. The dental health care carries the huge risk of infection due to the generation of the aerosols, through high-speed airotor. This has led to a big toll on the delivery of the dental services at global level. Even when the oral health care services are getting opened, there is still lot of dilemmas in the mind of oral health professionals in provision of the services. This crisis has given us a chance for addressing the issues of relevance affecting the oral health care services and failures of the health care system. It is time to rethink our priorities and strengthen the over-all integrity of the health care system. These calls for higher focus upon the oral care prevention strategies can be amalgamated as part of the public health care system along with strengthening of public health care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Krishna Subedi ◽  
Ashish Shrestha ◽  
Tarakant Bhagat ◽  
Dharanidhar Baral

Abstract Background School-aged adolescents are in particular need of preventive program to ensure positive long-term oral health and hygiene. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an oral health education (OHE) intervention on oral hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP), plaque control and gingival health among 12–15 years old school children in Dharan sub-metropolitan city, Nepal. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with parallel study groups, comprising 12–15-year-old school children, 120 in each group. OHE was given to the experimental group at baseline, third and sixth months and to the control group after completion of the study. Interview of the participants were done using a 23-item questionnaire for assessment of oral hygiene KAP. For each question, correct answer was scored as 1 and wrong answer was scored zero. An overall composite score was then created, by adding the individual scores. Oral examination was done using mouth mirror and WHO probe to record Turesky–Gilmore–Glickman modification of the Quigley-Hein plaque index, Gingival index and Dentition status and treatment needs. Analysis was done using chi-square test for categorical data and independent t test, Mann–Whitney U test, repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s test for quantitative data. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results There was 54.58% improvement in overall oral hygiene KAP in experimental group (P = 0.001) whereas no improvement was seen in control group at the end of the study. The mean plaque score was improved by 57.67% (P = 0.001) in experimental group in comparison to 4.56% in control group. Gingival index was improved by 49.90% (P = 0.001) in experimental group in comparison to 0.7% in control group. Caries experience was increased in both groups but no significant difference was seen. Conclusions The study concluded that oral health education was effective in improving oral hygiene KAP, plaque control and gingival health. Trial registration The trial was retrospectively registered with Clinical Trial Registry India (CTRI) with identifier no. CTRI/2018/05/013985, registered on 05/21/2018. (http://www.ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/pdf_generate.php?trialid=23651&EncHid=&modid=&compid=%27,%2723651det%27). Institutional Review Committee, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Dharan, Nepal provided the ethical approval (Ref. No.: 292/074/075-IRC).

Toxics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 263
Dominika Cichońska ◽  
Oliwia Król ◽  
Ewa M. Słomińska ◽  
Barbara Kochańska ◽  
Dariusz Świetlik ◽  

The balance between reactive oxygen species production and the activity of antioxidant systems present in saliva is an important element in maintaining oral environment homeostasis. E-cigarettes adversely affect the oral cavity and their cytotoxic effect is related to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of using electronic cigarettes on antioxidant capacity of saliva. The study involved 110 subjects (35 e-cigarettes users, 33 traditional cigarettes smokers and 42 non-smokers). Laboratory analysis involved quantitation of uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, TAOS (total antioxidant status) and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) in saliva. Lower values for TAOS and TEAC were observed among e-cigarettes users and traditional cigarettes smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Uric acid concentration tended to be higher among e-cigarettes users while no differences in hypoxanthine and xanthine saliva concentrations were observed. Electronic cigarettes usage affects antioxidant capacity of saliva to the same extent as traditional cigarettes, when comparing smokers to non-smokers. Further longitudinal studies on a larger study group are needed to assess the effect of changes in antioxidant status on oral health.

Gabriela Sumie Yaguinuma Gonçalves ◽  
Keith Murieli Ferreira de Magalhães ◽  
Eduardo Passos Rocha ◽  
Paulo Henrique dos Santos ◽  
Wirley Gonçalves Assunção

2021 ◽  
Juliane Winkelmann ◽  
Jesús Gómez Rossi ◽  
Falk Schwendicke ◽  
Antonia Dimova ◽  
Elka Atanasova ◽  

Abstract Background: Oral health has received increased attention over the past few years coupled with rising awareness on the impact of limited dental care coverage for oral health and general health and well-being. The purpose of the study was to compare the statutory coverage and access to dental care for adult services in 11 European countries using a vignette approach.Methods: We used three patient vignettes to highlight the differences of the dimensions of coverage and access to dental care (coverage, cost-sharing and accessibility). The three vignettes describe typical care pathways for patients with the most common oral health conditions (caries, periodontal disease, edentulism). The vignettes were completed by health services researchers knowledgeable on dental care, dentists, or teams consisting of a health systems expert working together with dental specialists.Results: Completed vignettes were received from 11 countries, including Bulgaria, Estonia, France, Germany, Republic of Ireland (Ireland), Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia and Sweden. While emergency dental care, tooth extraction and restorative care for acute pain due to carious lesions are covered in most responding countries, root canal treatment, periodontal care and prosthetic restoration often require cost-sharing or are entirely excluded from the benefit basket. Regular dental visits are also limited to one visit per year in many countries. Beyond financial barriers due to out-of-pocket payments, patients may experience very different kinds of physical barriers to access dental care. Major access barriers to public dental care represent the limited availability of contracted dentists especially in rural areas and the unequal distribution and lack of specialised dentists.Conclusions: According to the results, statutory coverage of dental care varies across European countries while access barriers are largely similar. Many dental services require substantial cost-sharing in most countries which in turn leads to high out-of-pocket spending. The individual socioeconomic status is thus a main determinant for access to dental care, but also other factors such as geography, age and comorbidities can inhibit access and affect outcomes. Moreover, coverage in most oral health systems is targeted at treatment and less at preventative oral health care.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3588
Jessica R. L. Lieffers ◽  
Amanda Gonçalves Troyack Vanzan ◽  
Janine Rover de Mello ◽  
Allison Cammer

Background: Oral health conditions, such as dental caries, pose a substantial burden worldwide. Although there are many risk factors for poor oral health, diet is often implicated as a cause of these issues. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify and map studies that have captured information on the “real-world” nutrition care practices of oral health professionals (OHPs) and dietitians to optimize oral health, and specifically the dentition and periodontium. Methods: A search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Embase. Articles that addressed the review objective and met the following criteria were included: English language, published since 2000, and study conducted in a high-income country. Results: Overall, 70 articles were included. Most articles reported on cross-sectional survey studies and provided self-reported data on OHP practices; few articles reported on dietitians. Most articles reported only general/unspecific information on assessment and intervention practices, such as dietary analysis, nutrition counselling, and diet advice, and lacked specific information about the care provided, such as the dietary assessment tools used, type of information provided, and time spent on these activities. Barriers to the provision of nutrition care by OHPs were common and included time and lack of remuneration. Few studies reported on collaboration between dietitians and OHPs. Conclusions: Several studies have captured self-reported information on nutrition care practices of OHPs related to oral health; however, there is limited information available on the details of the care provided. Few studies have examined the practices of dietitians.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Lesley Andrew ◽  
Ruth Wallace ◽  
Nicole Wickens ◽  
Jilen Patel

Abstract Background Early childhood caries disproportionately affects vulnerable groups and remains a leading cause of preventable hospital admissions for Western Australian children. The Western Australia State Oral Health Plan seeks to improve child oral health through universal and targeted health promotion initiatives with primary caregivers. These initiatives require evidence of primary caregiver oral health knowledge and behaviours and baseline data on early childhood caries. The objective of this systematic scoping review was to understand current oral health knowledge and practices of primary caregivers of children aged 0–4 years, identify influential socioecological determinants, and identify data on early childhood caries in the Western Australian context. Methods A systematic scoping review framework identified articles published between 2010 and 2021, using Scopus, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, selected article reference lists, and oral health websites. The lack of Western Australian specific literature prompted the inclusion of Australia-wide articles. Articles were screened via author consensus, with eight selected. Results Western Australia and nation-wide data on early childhood caries are limited and mostly dated. WA data from children aged 2–3 years, collected in 2006, suggests the prevalence is 2.9% in this state, with national data of children from 0 to 3 years, collected from 2006 and 2008, suggesting an early childhood caries prevalence of 3.4–8% of children aged 18 months, rising sharply by 36 months of age. Nationally, fewer than half the primary caregivers reported following evidence-based oral health recommendations for their young children. Perceptions of the role of dental services for young children tends to be focussed on treatment, rather than surveillance and prevention. Knowledge of dietary and oral hygiene practices is inconsistent and awareness of the Child Dental Benefit Schedule low. Young children’s oral health status is clearly associated with socioecological factors, including socioeconomic status. Conclusions Recent early childhood caries data and evidence of primary care-givers’ oral health knowledge and behaviours are unavailable in Western Australia, a similar situation exists nationwide. To realise the Western Australian and National Oral Health Plans, research is required to address this knowledge gap.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3584
Yne Algra ◽  
Elizabeth Haverkort ◽  
Wilhelmina Kok ◽  
Faridi van Etten-Jamaludin ◽  
Liedeke van Schoot ◽  

The aim of this systematic review was to examine the association between malnutrition and oral health in older people (≥ 60 years of age). A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed in four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, and Embase) for literature from January 2000 to May 2020. Both observational and intervention studies were screened for eligibility. Two reviewers independently screened the search results to identify potential eligible studies, and assessed the methodological quality of the full-text studies. A total of 3240 potential studies were identified. After judgement for relevance, 10 studies (cross-sectional (n = 9), prospective cohort (n = 1)) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies described malnourished participants as having fewer teeth, or functional (tooth) units (FTUs), compared to well-nourished participants. Four studies reported soft tissue problems in malnourished participants, including red tongue with blisters, and dry or cracked lips. Subjective oral health was the topic in six studies, with poorer oral health and negative self-perception of oral health in malnourished elderly participants. There are associations between (at risk of) malnutrition and oral health in older people, categorized in hard and soft tissue conditions of the mouth, and subjective oral health. Future research should be focused on longitudinal cohort studies with proper determination of malnutrition and oral health assessments, in order to evaluate the actual association between malnutrition and oral health in older people.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105566562110434
Bernardo Olsson ◽  
Isabela Polesi Bergamaschi ◽  
Erika Calvano Küchler ◽  
Aline Monise Sebastiani ◽  
Guilherme dos Santos Trento ◽  

Objective The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL), oral health-related QOL (OHRQOL), temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), and psychological factors in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and without CLP. Design Case–control. Setting Primary care, institutional practice. Patients One hundred thirty-six patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion with CLP (n = 68) and without CLP (n = 68). Main outcome measures QOL and OHRQOL were assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire, respectively. TMDs and psychological factors were assessed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Results No differences in QOL were found between the groups ( P >  0.05). Patients with CLP reported a better OHRQOL ( P = 0.025) in the physical pain, physical disability, and psychological disability domains ( P <  0.05). Patients with CLP presented with less myofascial pain (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.11-0.71] and other articular conditions (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.06-0.90]. More patients with CLP reported no chronic pain ( P = 0.012). The QOL of patients with CLP with no depression or with no nonspecific physical symptoms including pain (NSPSIP) was better than that of patients without CLP. The OHRQOL of patients with CLP without TMDs or no psychological factors was better than that of patients without CLP. Conclusions Patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion who require orthognathic surgery with CLP have better OHRQOL and present with fewer TMDs than those patients without CLP.

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