Cyclin Dependent Kinase
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xiaopeng Cai ◽  
Jingwen Deng ◽  
Jiaming zhou ◽  
Huiqiang Cai ◽  
Zhi Chen

Abstract Objectives Cyclin-dependent kinase 19 (CDK19) is a component of the mediator coactivator complex, which is required for transcriptional activation. In this study, we utilized public databases and wet-bench hepatic cell line experiments to elucidate the potential roles of CDK19 in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Materials and methods We studied the relationships between CDK19 expression and several clinical features related to HCC via the Oncomine and UALCAN databases. The prognostic value of CDK19 was tested using the Kaplan–Meier Plotter database. We presented the mutations of CDK19 and addressed the relation of CDK19 expression with immune cell infiltration by means of the cBioPortal, Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) databases. Hub genes were obtained and further analyzed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database. To test the in silico findings, we knocked down CDK19 with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology in two hepatic cell lines and conducted several functional characterization experiments. Results Marked CDK19 upregulation was found in HCC tissues versus normal liver tissues, and CDK19 mRNA expression had high diagnostic value in HCC patients. Subgroup analysis showed that CDK19 overexpression was associated with sex, tumor stage and TP53 mutation status. The prognostic value of CDK19 upregulation for overall survival (OS) was significant in patients with stage 2–3, stage 3–4, and grade 2 disease. One percent of the patients had CDK19 mutations, but no relationship between CDK19 mutation and prognosis was observed. CDK19 was positively correlated with the abundances of CD4 + T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. We identified 10 genes correlated with CDK19, 8 of which presented excellent prognostic value in HCC. These hub genes were directly involved in cell division and regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) and pathway predictions indicated that CDK19 is highly likely to be involved in several cellular functions, such as proliferation, migration, and invasion. These functions were strongly interfered from two independent hepatic cell lines after CDK19 knockdown. Conclusions CDK19 could be a prognostic marker in HCC, and its therapeutic potential in HCC needs further study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Nabil Rabhi ◽  
Kathleen Desevin ◽  
Briana Noel Cortez ◽  
Ryan Hekman ◽  
Jean Z. Lin ◽  

AbstractMost strategies to treat obesity-related disorders have involved prevention of diet-induced weight gain in lean mice. Treatment of obese individuals will require therapies that reverse the detrimental effects of excess body weight. Cyclin-dependent kinases have been shown to contribute to obesity and its adverse complications. Here, we show that roscovitine; a an orally available cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; given to male mice during the last six weeks of a 19-week high fat diet, reduced weight gain and prevented accompanying insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, visceral adipose tissue (eWAT) inflammation/fibrosis as well as restored insulin secretion and enhanced whole body energy expenditure. Proteomics and phosphoproteomics analysis of eWAT demonstrated that roscovitine suppressed expression of peptides and phosphopeptides linked to inflammation and extracellular matrix proteins. It also identified 17 putative protein kinases perturbed by roscovitine, including CMGC kinases, AGC kinases and CAMK kinases. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that lipid metabolism, TCA cycle, fatty acid beta oxidation and creatine biosynthesis are enriched following roscovitine treatment. For brown adipose tissue (BAT), analysis of upstream kinases controlling the phosphoproteome revealed two major kinase groups, AGC and CMGC kinases. Among the top enriched pathways were insulin signaling, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, thyroid hormone signaling, thermogenesis and cAMP-PKG signaling. We conclude that roscovitine is effective at preventing prolonged diet-induced metabolic disruption and restoring mitochondrial activity in BAT and eWAT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Yuan-Kun Tu ◽  
Yu-Huan Hsueh ◽  
Hsien-Chang Huang

Background: Extracellular vesicle (EV)-based therapy has been identified as a leading alternative approach in several disease models. EV derived from the olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) has been documented for its strong neuro-regenerative capacity. However, no information on its cargo that may contribute to its therapeutic effect has been available. Objective: To report the first miRNA profile of human OEC (hOEC) -EV, and investigate the neuroprotective effects. Methods: hOEC-EV was isolated and sequenced. We established in vitro experiments to assess the therapeutic potential of hOEC-EVs with respect to insulted neural progenitor cells (NPCs), and the angiogenesis effect. Secondary post-injury insults were imitated using t-BHP-mediated oxidative stress. Results: We noted a strong abundance of hOEC-EV-miRNAs, including hsa-miR148a-3p, has-miR151a-3p and several members of let-7 family. The common targets of 15 miRNAs among the top 20 miRNAs were thrombospondin 1 and cyclin dependent kinase 6. We demonstrated that hOEC-EVs promote normal NPC proliferation and differentiation to neuron-like morphologies with prolonged axons. hOEC-EVs protect cells from t-BHP mediated apoptosis. We also found that the migration rate of either NPCs or endothelial cells significantly improved with hOEC-EVs. Furthermore, in vitro tube formation assays indicated that angiogenesis, an important process for tissue repair, was significantly enhanced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to hOEC-EVs. Conclusion: Our results revealed that hOEC-EVs exert neuroprotective effects by protecting cells from apoptosis and promoting in vitro biological processes that are important to neural tissue repair, including neural cell proliferation, axonal growth, and cell migration, in addition to enhancing angiogenesis.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2635
Longtai You ◽  
Hulinyue Peng ◽  
Jing Liu ◽  
Mengru Cai ◽  
Huimin Wu ◽  

Oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) has been identified as one of the major regulatory factors in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Catalpol is an iridoid glucoside compound that has been found to possess potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of catalpol on RPE cells under oxidative stress and to elucidate the potential molecular mechanism involved. We found that catalpol significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity, G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in RPE cells. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) stimulated by oxidative stress and the corresponding reductions in antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were largely reversed by catalpol pretreatment. Moreover, catalpol pretreatment markedly activated the expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NADPH dehydrogenase (NQO1). It also increased the expression levels of cyclin E Bcl-2, cyclin A, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and decreased the expression levels of Bax, Fas, cleaved PARP, p-p53, and p21 cleaved caspase-3, 8, and 9. The oxidative stress-induced formation of the Keap1/Nrf2 complex in the cytoplasm was significantly blocked by catalpol pretreatment. These results indicate that catalpol protected RPE cells from oxidative stress through a mechanism involving the activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathways and the inactivation of oxidative stress-mediated pathways of apoptosis.

2021 ◽  
Laramie D. Lemon ◽  
Sneha Kanna ◽  
Kim Wai Mo ◽  
Miranda Adams ◽  
Haley Choi ◽  

Somatic missense mutations in histone genes turn these essential proteins into oncohistones, which can drive oncogenesis. Understanding how missense mutations alter histone function is challenging in mammals as the changes occur in a single histone gene. For example, described oncohistone mutations predominantly occur in the histone H3.3 gene, despite the human genome encoding 15 H3 genes. To understand how oncogenic histone missense mutations alter histone function, we leverage the budding yeast model, which encodes only two H3 genes, to explore the functional consequences of oncohistones H3K36M, H3G34W, H3G34L, H3G34R, and H3G34V. An analysis of cells that express each of these variants as the sole copy of H3 reveals that H3K36-mutants show different drug sensitivities compared to H3G34 mutants. This finding suggests that changes to proximal amino acids in the H3 N-terminal tail alter distinct biological pathways. We exploited the caffeine sensitive growth of H3K36 mutant cells to perform a high copy suppressor screen. This screen identified genes linked to histone function and transcriptional regulation, the histone H4/H2A acetyltransferase, Esa1, a forkhead-associated domain-containing gene expression regulator, Tos4, an m6A RNA binding protein, Pho92, and a cyclin-dependent kinase, Sgv1/Bur1. We show that the Esa1 lysine acetyltransferase activity is critical for suppression of the caffeine sensitive growth of H3K36R mutant cells while neither of the characterized binding interactions of Tos4 nor Pho92 are required for suppression. Finally, Sgv1/Bur1-mediated suppression may occur through a dominant negative mechanism. This screen identifies pathways that could be altered by oncohistone mutations and highlights the value of yeast genetics to identify pathways altered by such mutations.

2021 ◽  
Jürgen Ripperger ◽  
Urs Albrecht ◽  
Andrea Brenna

AbstractCircadian rhythms are self-sustained physiological changes that drive rhythmicity within the 24-hours cycles. Posttranslational modifications (PMTs), such as protein phosphorylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, are biochemical processes that modify protein structure and functions, ensuring circadian rhythm precision. For example, phosphorylation is considered the most important hallmark of rhythmicity from cyanobacteria to mammals. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) has been shown to regulate the mammalian SCN’s circadian clock via phosphorylation of PER2. Here, we show that CDK5 influences the clock machinery assembling, using immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast as an in vitro model for studying the peripheral clock. In fact, the circadian period at the cellular level is lengthened. Furthermore, the clock-controlled gene’s expression amplitude is dampened in Cdk5 ko cell lines, while the phase is delayed about 4 hours.Taken together, we show in vitro that CDK5 is critically involved in regulating the peripheral clocks, influencing their temporal and spatial dynamics.

Vittorio Fusco ◽  
Manuela Alessio ◽  
Pamela Francesca Guglielmini ◽  
Maura Vincenti ◽  
Antonella Fasciolo ◽  

Marcianò et al. launched an alert in this journal about a possible association between medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors in breast cancer patients [...]

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12231
Sergey Matveevsky ◽  
Tatiana Grishaeva

The evolution of proteins can be accompanied by changes not only to their amino acid sequences, but also their structural and spatial molecular organization. Comparison of the protein conservation within different taxonomic groups (multifunctional, or highly specific) allows to clarify their specificity and the direction of evolution. Two multifunctional enzymes, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase, that are partners in some mitotic and meiotic processes were investigated in the present work. Two research methods, bioinformatics and immunocytochemical, were combined to examine the conservation levels of the two enzymes. It has been established that CDK2 is a highly conserved protein in different taxonomic lineages of the eukaryotic tree. Immunocytochemically, a conserved CDK2 pattern was revealed in the meiotic autosomes of five rodent species and partially in domestic turkey and clawed frog. Nevertheless, variable CDK2 distribution was detected at the unsynapsed segments of the rodent X chromosomes. BRCA1 was shown to be highly conserved only within certain mammalian taxa. It was also noted that in those rodent nuclei, where BRCA1 specifically binds to antigens, asynaptic regions of sex chromosomes were positive. BRCA1 staining was not always accompanied by specific binding, and a high nonspecificity in the nucleoplasm was observed. Thus, the studies revealed different conservation of the two enzymes at the level of protein structure as well as at the level of chromosome behavior. This suggests variable rates of evolution due to both size and configuration of the protein molecules and their multifunctionality.

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