Kinase Inhibitor
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (41) ◽  
pp. 54-57
Dhara Dave ◽  
John Kimbugwe ◽  
Randa Hazam ◽  
Saria Tasnim ◽  
Manish Patel

The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib is a potent treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, it is associated with pulmonary toxicities. Commonly reported dasatinib related pulmonary toxicities include pleural effusion, lung parenchymal abnormalities, and pulmonary hypertension. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) during treatment with dasatinib is very rare. To the best of our knowledge there are only two cases reported. Here we report a 57-year-old Caucasian woman who developed acute hypoxic respiratory failure while on dasatinib for treatment of CML. She was diagnosed with DAH suspected to be secondary to dasatinib, after other common etiologies were ruled out. There was full recovery after stopping dasatinib and treatment with corticosteroids. Keywords: Dasatinib, pulmonary toxicity, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, chronic myeloid leukemia

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Guozhe Zhang ◽  
Linxia Xiao ◽  
Liang Qi

Meridianin C (MC), as a marine alkaloid, is a potent protein kinase inhibitor which exhibits good anticancer activity. However, the in vivo metabolism of MC has not been described to date. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) method is employed to investigate the in vivo metabolites of MC in rats. Plasma, bile, urine, and feces are collected after a single oral dose of MC. Protein precipitation, solid phase extraction (SPE), and ultrasonic extraction methods are used to prepare samples. Based on the mass spectral fragmentation patterns, elution order, and retrieving literatures, a total of 13 metabolites of MC were detected and tentatively identified, utilizing MetaboLynx software. The metabolic pathways of MC in rats include N- or O-glucuronidation, O-sulfation, N-hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, and trihydroxylation. The relative content of the metabolites in each kinds of biological samples is also evaluated. This study will help to understand the in vivo properties of MC for the future usage.

2021 ◽  
Renan Ferreira ◽  
Ling Fu ◽  
Jing Yang ◽  
Kate Carroll

Abstract Measuring reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species in cells is established technology, but turn-on fluorescence tools for detecting the products of their reaction with protein cysteines remain essentially unknown. Toward this goal, here we describe fluorogenic probes for sulfenic acid, a redox modification of protein cysteines inextricably linked to signaling and oxidative stress. The probes, called CysOx1 and CysOx2, are reaction-based, exhibit excellent cell permeability, rapid reactivity, and high selectivity with minimal cytotoxicity. We applied CysOx2 in a cell-based 96-well plate assay to determine whether kinase inhibitors modulate protein S-sulfenylation as well as O-phosphorylation. Analysis of these data revealed an unexpected positive association of S-sulfenylation and inhibition of select kinases within the TK, AGC, and CMGC families including GSK3, a multitasking Ser/Thr kinase and emerging therapeutic target for neurodegenerative and mood disorders. Chemoproteomic mapping of sulfenic acid-modified cysteines in GSK3 inhibitor-treated cells shows that sites of S-oxidation localize to regulatory cysteines within key components of antioxidant defense systems. Our studies with CysOx probes offer up new insights into kinase-inhibitor dependent modulation of sulfenylome dynamics and should accelerate future efforts in the modern era of translational redox medicine.

Vanessa Wachholz ◽  
Al-Hassan M. Mustafa ◽  
Yanira Zeyn ◽  
Sven J. Henninger ◽  
Mandy Beyer ◽  

AbstractAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase (FLT3) is a clinically unresolved problem. AML cells frequently have a dysregulated expression and activity of epigenetic modulators of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family. Therefore, we tested whether a combined inhibition of mutant FLT3 and class I HDACs is effective against AML cells. Low nanomolar doses of the FLT3 inhibitor (FLT3i) AC220 and an inhibition of class I HDACs with nanomolar concentrations of FK228 or micromolar doses of the HDAC3 specific agent RGFP966 synergistically induce apoptosis of AML cells that carry hyperactive FLT3 with an internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD). This does not occur in leukemic cells with wild-type FLT3 and without FLT3, suggesting a preferential toxicity of this combination against cells with mutant FLT3. Moreover, nanomolar doses of the new FLT3i marbotinib combine favorably with FK228 against leukemic cells with FLT3-ITD. The combinatorial treatments potentiated their suppressive effects on the tyrosine phosphorylation and stability of FLT3-ITD and its downstream signaling to the kinases ERK1/ERK2 and the inducible transcription factor STAT5. The beneficial pro-apoptotic effects of FLT3i and HDACi against leukemic cells with mutant FLT3 are associated with dose- and drug-dependent alterations of cell cycle distribution and DNA damage. This is linked to a modulation of the tumor-suppressive transcription factor p53 and its target cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. While HDACi induce p21, AC220 suppresses the expression of p53 and p21. Furthermore, we show that both FLT3-ITD and class I HDAC activity promote the expression of the checkpoint kinases CHK1 and WEE1, thymidylate synthase, and the DNA repair protein RAD51 in leukemic cells. A genetic depletion of HDAC3 attenuates the expression of such proteins. Thus, class I HDACs and hyperactive FLT3 appear to be valid targets in AML cells with mutant FLT3.

BMC Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yongchang Zhang ◽  
Liang Zeng ◽  
Xiangyu Zhang ◽  
Yizhi Li ◽  
Lingli Liu ◽  

Abstract Background The combination of bevacizumab and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) could prolong progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with EGFR-mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study investigated the clinical and molecular factors that affect the efficacy of first-generation EGFR-TKI with or without bevacizumab and identify the subset of patients who can benefit from combination therapy. Methods Our study included 318 patients with EGFR-mutant locally advanced/advanced NSCLC treated with either first-generation EGFR-TKI combined with bevacizumab (A+T; n = 159) or EGFR-TKI monotherapy (T; n = 159). Two nomogram models to predict PFS and overall survival (OS), respectively, were constructed using two factors that impact EGFR-TKI efficacy: metastatic site and presence of concurrent mutations. The study cohort was stratified into 2 cohorts for training (n = 176) and validation (n = 142) of the nomogram model. Using the median score from the nomogram, the patients were stratified into two groups to analyze their survival outcome. Results The A+T group had significantly longer PFS (14.0 vs. 10.5 months; p < 0.001) and OS (37.0 vs. 26.0 months; p = 0.042) than the T group. Among the patients with concurrent mutations in tumor suppressor genes, those in the A+T group had significantly longer PFS and OS than the T group (PFS 14.5 vs. 8.0 months, p < 0.001; OS 39.0 vs. 20.0 months, p = 0.003). The higher scores from the nomograms were associated with the presence of brain/liver/pleural metastasis or concomitant gene mutations, which indicated a higher likelihood of shorter PFS and OS. The validation of the nomogram revealed that patients with lower scores had significantly longer PFS for the T group than those with higher scores (15.0 vs. 9.0 months, p = 0.002), but not for the A+T group (15.9 vs. 13.9 months, p = 0.256). Conclusions Using a nomogram, our study demonstrated that the addition of bevacizumab may enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of EGFR-TKI by overcoming the negative impact of certain clinical and molecular factors on the efficacy of EGFR-TKI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Maria C. Tanzer ◽  
Isabell Bludau ◽  
Che A. Stafford ◽  
Veit Hornung ◽  
Matthias Mann

AbstractTumor necrosis factor (TNF) is one of the few cytokines successfully targeted by therapies against inflammatory diseases. However, blocking this well studied and pleiotropic ligand can cause dramatic side-effects. Here, we reason that a systems-level proteomic analysis of TNF signaling could dissect its diverse functions and offer a base for developing more targeted therapies. Therefore, we combine phosphoproteomics time course experiments with subcellular localization and kinase inhibitor analysis to identify functional modules of protein phosphorylation. The majority of regulated phosphorylation events can be assigned to an upstream kinase by inhibiting master kinases. Spatial proteomics reveals phosphorylation-dependent translocations of hundreds of proteins upon TNF stimulation. Phosphoproteome analysis of TNF-induced apoptosis and necroptosis uncovers a key role for transcriptional cyclin-dependent kinase activity to promote cytokine production and prevent excessive cell death downstream of the TNF signaling receptor. This resource of TNF-induced pathways and sites can be explored at

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