inflammatory process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carolina Manosalva ◽  
John Quiroga ◽  
Alejandra I. Hidalgo ◽  
Pablo Alarcón ◽  
Nicolás Anseoleaga ◽  

During an inflammatory process, shift in the cellular metabolism associated with an increase in extracellular acidification are well-known features. This pH drop in the inflamed tissue is largely attributed to the presence of lactate by an increase in glycolysis. In recent years, evidence has accumulated describing the role of lactate in inflammatory processes; however, there are differences as to whether lactate can currently be considered a pro- or anti-inflammatory mediator. Herein, we review these recent advances on the pleiotropic effects of lactate on the inflammatory process. Taken together, the evidence suggests that lactate could exert differential effects depending on the metabolic status, cell type in which the effects of lactate are studied, and the pathological process analyzed. Additionally, various targets, including post-translational modifications, G-protein coupled receptor and transcription factor activation such as NF-κB and HIF-1, allow lactate to modulate signaling pathways that control the expression of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and several enzymes associated with immune response and metabolism. Altogether, this would explain its varied effects on inflammatory processes beyond its well-known role as a waste product of metabolism.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 34
Ricardo Aparecido Pereira ◽  
Albimara Hey ◽  
Alexandre Lustoza de Carli ◽  
Camila Garcia Salvador Sanches ◽  
Jardel Cristiano Bordion ◽  

Background: Oxidative stress and the mild inflammatory process present in diabetes play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease and its comorbidities. This understanding has opened new avenues and targets for developing improved treatments since the risk factors associated with diabetes may be reduced through non-pharmacological interventions. In this sense, plant extracts could be efficient in preventing or assisting these pathological conditions treatment. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 24 rats, which were allocated in 4 groups: Control (CT), Control+Baccharis (CT-B), Diabetes (DB), and Diabetes+Baccharis (DB-B). For 28 days, the animals of CT-B and DB-B groups were treated, via gavage, with B. dracunculifolia extract at 50 Results: The DB group presented higher values than the DB-B group on parameters such as creatinine (26.42%), urea (31.42%), and triglycerides (60.80%). Creatinine and triglycerides values of DB-B group (0.39±0.01 e 75.0±8.4, receptively) were equivalent to the values of CT group (0.32±0.01 e 71.7±5.4) and of CT-B group (0.39±0.01, and 58.8±4.5). The treatment with B. dracunculifolia improved the levels of fasting glucose and response of glucose tolerance (32%), insulin (52,17%) and lipid peroxidation (liver 33.33%, kidney 38.77%) when compared to the DB group. Conclusions: The phenolic compounds and the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of Baccharis dracunculifolia may be responsible for the hypoglycemic effect observed in the study.

I. I. Temirbulatov ◽  
A. V. Kryukov ◽  
D. A. Sychev

Presented a literature review on the possible influence of pharmacogenetic markers on the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 therapy. Clinical studies of remdesivir and favipiravir are reviewed. Potential pharmacogenetic markers are described based on the available data on the pharmacokinetics of the drugs. We separately described the effect of the infectious-inflammatory process on the expression of cytochrome family enzymes.

Ayesha Muzamil ◽  
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir ◽  
Shaukat Ali ◽  
Iram Liaqat ◽  
Aamir Ali ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-34
Gherardo Pagliazzi ◽  
Enrico De Pieri ◽  
Michèle Kläusler ◽  
Morgan Sangeux ◽  
Elke Viehweger

Overuse injuries imply the occurrence of a repetitive or an increased load on a specific anatomical segment which is unable to recover from this redundant microtrauma, thus leading to an inflammatory process of tendons, physis, bursa, or bone. Even if the aetiology is controversial, the most accepted is the traumatic one. Limb malalignment has been cited as one of the major risk factors implicated in the development of overuse injuries. Many authors investigated correlations between anatomical deviations and overuse injuries, but results appear mainly inconclusive. Establishing a causal relationship between mechanical stimuli and symptoms will remain a challenge, but 3D motion analysis, musculoskeletal, and finite element modelling may help in clarifying which are the major risk factors for overuse injuries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 01003
Anastasiya Sergeevna Metleva ◽  
Oksana Vladimirovna Smolovskaya ◽  
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Pleshkov ◽  
Alexandr Nikolaevich Mironov ◽  
Anastasia Leonidovna Evstratenko

Diagnosis of latent endometritis and predicting the effect of the inflammatory process on the course of pregnancy and its outcome is a necessary measure when conducting clinical examination of animals. Lack of diagnostic criteria, including microbiological one, cause difficulties for veterinarians in assessing latent endometritis. Often, animals suffering from latent inflammation of the reproductive tract are infertile and cannot be treated. And from cows with dysbiosis of the genital tract, sick young animals are born, lagging behind in growth and development. The aim of the work was to establish the relationship between the genital tract microbiome, the number and species composition of commensals and opportunistic microorganisms on the ability to carry pregnancy. Washes from the oral and nasal cavities were taken from the young born to study the microbiome: lactic acid microorganisms in combination with opportunistic pathogens. As a result of the research, it was found that animals with a low number of lactic acid microorganisms and an increased titer of opportunistic microorganisms were infertile, which led to their culling. In young animals, they are present in the respiratory tract in all samples, together with coccal microorganisms. The study of lactic acid microorganisms is advisable in the diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the reproductive tract and upper respiratory tract.

Morphologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 22-27
M.V. Aksamytieva ◽  
S.S. Popko ◽  
V.M. Evtushenko

Background. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of allergic diseases of the respiratory organs, especially in children. The predictor of the further development of bronchial asthma is sensitizing at an early age to the allergens of chicken egg. The use of new knowledge about the allergenic components of the chicken egg will predict the risks and clinical features of the disease. Despite the importance, the problem of morphogenesis of allergic inflammation of the wall of the trachea is not sufficiently studied, so far many issues are not found in morphology and require further research. Objective.The aim of the study is to establish morphological changes in the tracheal membranes in experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation of the airways of guinea pigs. Methods. The thickness of tracheal wall of 48 male guinea pigs was investigated by histological, morphometric, statistical methods on the twenty-third, thirty-sixth, thirty-sixth and forty-fourth days after the initiation of the experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation of the airways. Results. We have found, that maximum statistically significant thickening is shown in the late period of tracheal mucosa in 2 times on the 44th day of observation and tracheal submucosa in the 3rd experimental group on the 36th day of observation (increasing coefficient 2) compared to the control. However, the thinning of tracheal submucosa is observed in the early period of the inflammatory process on the 23rd and 30th day of observation. It has been proved, that the allergic inflammation of the tissues of the trachea caused by the sensitization and allergization of ovalbumin leads to the change in the thickness of layers of trachea in the chronobiological aspect. Conclusion. On the 23rd and 30th days of the experiment, thinning of tracheal mucosais observed due to damage of epithelial cells. Thickening of tracheal mucosa and submucosa was found in the third and fourth groups of observation (late period of allergic inflammation) compared with animals of the intact group and the control group due to an increase in the area of loose connective tissue, which is a consequence of the continuation of the allergic inflammatory process in the trachea after the end of the experiment.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Brandon Bautista-Becerril ◽  
Guillermo Pérez-Dimas ◽  
Paola C. Sommerhalder-Nava ◽  
Alejandro Hanono ◽  
Julio A. Martínez-Cisneros ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a public health issue around the world in the last few years. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment to fight the disease. Thus, it is essential to highlight possible prognostic predictors that could identify patients with a high risk of developing complications. Within this framework, miRNA biomolecules play a vital role in the genetic regulation of various genes, principally, those related to the pathophysiology of the disease. Here, we review the interaction of host and viral microRNAs with molecular and cellular elements that could potentiate the main pulmonary, cardiac, renal, circulatory, and neuronal complications in COVID-19 patients. miR-26a, miR-29b, miR-21, miR-372, and miR-2392, among others, have been associated with exacerbation of the inflammatory process, increasing the risk of a cytokine storm. In addition, increased expression of miR-15b, -199a, and -491 are related to the prognosis of the disease, and miR-192 and miR-323a were identified as clinical predictors of mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Finally, we address miR-29, miR-122, miR-155, and miR-200, among others, as possible therapeutic targets. However, more studies are required to confirm these findings.

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