differential expression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jiali Meng ◽  
Yuanchao Wei ◽  
Qing Deng ◽  
Ling Li ◽  
Xiaolong Li

Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer with a high mortality rate. However, the molecular mechanism of HCC formation remains to be explored and studied. Objective To investigate the expression of TOP2A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its prognosis. Methods The data set of hepatocellular carcinoma was downloaded from GEO database for differential gene analysis, and hub gene was identified by Cytoscape. GEPIA was used to verify the expression of HUB gene and evaluate its prognostic value. Then TOP2A was selected as the research object of this paper by combining literature and clinical sample results. Firstly, TIMER database was used to study TOP2A, and the differential expression of TOP2A gene between normal tissues and cancer tissues was analyzed, as well as the correlation between TOP2A gene expression and immune infiltration of HCC cells. Then, the expression of top2a-related antibodies was analyzed using the Human Protein Atlas database, and the differential expression of TOP2A was verified by immunohistochemistry. Then, SRTING database and Cytoscape were used to establish PPI network for TOP2A and protein–protein interaction analysis was performed. The Oncomine database and cBioPortal were used to express and identify TOP2A mutation-related analyses. The expression differences of TOP2A gene were identified by LinkedOmics, and the GO and KEGG pathways were analyzed in combination with related genes. Finally, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was performed to analyze the clinical and prognosis of HCC patients. Results TOP2A may be a new biomarker and therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Aedan G K Roberts ◽  
Daniel R Catchpoole ◽  
Paul J Kennedy

ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that changes in the variability or overall distribution of gene expression are important both in normal biology and in diseases, particularly cancer. Genes whose expression differs in variability or distribution without a difference in mean are ignored by traditional differential expression-based analyses. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model that provides tests for both differential variability and differential distribution for bulk RNA-seq data, we report here an investigation into differential variability and distribution in cancer. Analysis of eight paired tumour–normal datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirms that differential variability and distribution analyses are able to identify cancer-related genes. We further demonstrate that differential variability identifies cancer-related genes that are missed by differential expression analysis, and that differential expression and differential variability identify functionally distinct sets of potentially cancer-related genes. These results suggest that differential variability analysis may provide insights into genetic aspects of cancer that would not be revealed by differential expression, and that differential distribution analysis may allow for more comprehensive identification of cancer-related genes than analyses based on changes in mean or variability alone.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
J. S. Nantongo ◽  
B. M. Potts ◽  
T. Frickey ◽  
E. Telfer ◽  
H. Dungey ◽  

Abstract Background Plants are attacked by diverse insect and mammalian herbivores and respond with different physical and chemical defences. Transcriptional changes underlie these phenotypic changes. Simulated herbivory has been used to study the transcriptional and other early regulation events of these plant responses. In this study, constitutive and induced transcriptional responses to artificial bark stripping are compared in the needles and the bark of Pinus radiata to the responses from application of the plant stressor, methyl jasmonate. The time progression of the responses was assessed over a 4-week period. Results Of the 6312 unique transcripts studied, 86.6% were differentially expressed between the needles and the bark prior to treatment. The most abundant constitutive transcripts were related to defence and photosynthesis and their expression did not differ between the needles and the bark. While no differential expression of transcripts were detected in the needles following bark stripping, in the bark this treatment caused an up-regulation and down-regulation of genes associated with primary and secondary metabolism. Methyl jasmonate treatment caused differential expression of transcripts in both the bark and the needles, with individual genes related to primary metabolism more responsive than those associated with secondary metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to sugar break-down and the repression of genes related with photosynthesis, following both treatments was consistent with the strong down-regulation of sugars that has been observed in the same population. Relative to the control, the treatments caused a differential expression of genes involved in signalling, photosynthesis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as defence and water stress. However, non-overlapping transcripts were detected between the needles and the bark, between treatments and at different times of assessment. Methyl jasmonate induced more transcriptional responses in the bark than bark stripping, although the peak of expression following both treatments was detected 7 days post treatment application. The effects of bark stripping were localised, and no systemic changes were detected in the needles. Conclusion There are constitutive and induced differences in the needle and bark transcriptome of Pinus radiata. Some expression responses to bark stripping may differ from other biotic and abiotic stresses, which contributes to the understanding of plant molecular responses to diverse stresses. Whether the gene expression changes are heritable and how they differ between resistant and susceptible families identified in earlier studies needs further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Xinyue Zhang ◽  
Xiehui Chen ◽  
Shanshan Li ◽  
Ayodeji Bello ◽  
Jiawen Liu ◽  

Abstract Background β-Glucosidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of cellulose degradation. It has been stipulated and established that β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities differentially regulate the expression of glucose/non-glucose tolerant β-glucosidase genes. However, it is still unknown if this differential expression of functional microbial community happens accidentally or as a general regulatory mechanism, and of what biological significance it has. To investigate the composition and function of microbial communities and how they respond to different carbon metabolism pressures and the transcriptional regulation of functional genes, the different carbon metabolism pressure was constructed by setting up the static chamber during composting. Results The composition and function of functional microbial communities demonstrated different behaviors under the carbon metabolism pressure. Functional microbial community up-regulated glucose tolerant β-glucosidase genes expression to maintain the carbon metabolism rate by enhancing the transglycosylation activity of β-glucosidase to compensate for the decrease of hydrolysis activity under carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Micrococcales play a vital role in the resistance of functional microbial community under CCR. The transcription regulation of GH1 family β-glucosidase genes from Proteobacteria showed more obvious inhibition than other phyla under CCR. Conclusion Microbial functional communities differentially regulate the expression of glucose/non-glucose tolerant β-glucosidase genes under CCR, which is a general regulatory mechanism, not accidental. Furthermore, the differentially expressed β-glucosidase gene exhibited species characteristics at the phylogenetic level.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Serie ◽  
Amanda A Myers ◽  
Daniela A Haehn ◽  
Alexander Parker ◽  
Essa Bajalia ◽  

Introduction: Limited data exists on utilization of protein post-translational modifications as biomarkers for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We employed high-throughput glycoproteomics to evaluate differential expression of glycoprotein-isoforms as novel markers for ccRCC progression-free survival (PFS). Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from 77 patients treated surgically for ccRCC. Glycoproteomic analyses were carried out after liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Age-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate PFS. Optimized Harrells c-index was employed to dichotomize the collective for the construction of Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: The average length of follow-up was 3.4 (range: 0.04-9.83) years. Glycoproteomic analysis identified 39 glycopeptides and 14 non-glycosylated peptides that showed statistically significant (false discovery rate p ≤0.05) differential expression associated with PFS. Five of the glycosylated peptides conferred continuous hazard ratio of > 6 (range 6.3-11.6). These included prothrombin A2G2S glycan motif (HR=6.47, P=9.53E-05), immunoglobulin J chain FA2G2S2 motif (HR=10.69, P=0.001), clusterin A2G2 motif (HR=7.38, P=0.002), complement component C8A A2G2S2 motif (HR=11.59, P=0.002), and apolipoprotein M glycopeptide with non-fucosylated and non-sialylated hybrid-type glycan (HR=6.30, P=0.003). Kaplan-Meier curves based on dichotomous expression of these five glycopeptides resulted in hazard ratios of 3.9-10.7, all with p-value < 0.03. Kaplan-Meyer plot using the multivariable model comprising 3 of the markers yielded HR of 11.96 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Differential glyco-isoform abundance of plasma proteins may be a useful source of biomarkers for the clinical course and prognosis of ccRCC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Xiaoxiao Ge ◽  
Tao Sun ◽  
Yanmei Zhang ◽  
Yongqing Li ◽  
Peng Gao ◽  

Abstract Objective To investigate the differential expression profile of lncRNAs in the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model induced by oleic acid (OA) and to further explore the role of LINC01260 (ENST00000255183) in NAFLD, providing theoretical support for the clinical value of lncRNAs in NAFLD. Methods OA (50 μg/mL) was used to induce steatosis in normal human LO2 hepatocytes for 48 h and was verified by Oil red O staining. Differential expression profiles of lncRNAs were obtained by eukaryotic circular sequencing (RNA/lncRNA/circRNA-seq) techniques. A gain-of-function (GOF) strategy for LINC01260 was adopted, Oil red O staining and semiquantitative analysis were combined to explore whether the GOF of LINC01260 affects LO2 cell steatosis. CeRNA-based bioinformatics analysis of lncRNAs was performed, and the enriched mRNAs were further verified. RXRB siRNAs were applied and verify its role in LINC01260 regulated OA-induced hepatocytes steatosis. Results Lipid droplets of different sizes were observed in the cells of the OA group. Absorbance in the OA group was significantly increased after isopropanol decolorization (P < 0.05). Compared with those in the control group, there were 648 lncRNAs with differential expression greater than 1 time in the OA group, of which 351 were upregulated and 297 were downregulated. Fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that the expression of LINC01260 in the OA group was downregulated by 0.35 ± 0.07-fold (P < 0.05). The formation of lipid droplets in LO2 cells of the LINC01260 GOF group decreased significantly (P < 0.05). CeRNA analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of RXRB, RNPEPL1, CD82, MADD and KLC2 were changed to different degrees. Overexpression of LINC01260 significantly induced RXRB transcription (P < 0.05) and translation, and RXRB silence attenuated the lipids decrease induced by LINC01260 overexpression. Conclusion The OA-induced NAFLD cell model has a wide range of lncRNA differential expression profiles. LINC01260 participates in the regulation of the lipid droplet formation process of NAFLD, and its overexpression can significantly inhibit the steatosis process of LO2 cells. Mechanistically, LINC01260 may act as a ceRNA to regulate the expression of RXRB, thereby affecting the adipocytokine signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 758
Xiubing Gao ◽  
Xianfeng Hu ◽  
Feixu Mo ◽  
Yi Ding ◽  
Ming Li ◽  

Using of plant essential oil that coevolved as a defense mechanism against agriculture insects is an alternative means of controlling many insect pests. In order to repel brown planthoppers (BPHs), the most notorious rice insect pest, a new film based on guar gum incorporated with citral (GC film) was formulated, which was effective while being environmentally friendly. In this paper, the effect and mechanism of GC film repellency against BPHs were determined. Repellent activity test and olfactory reaction analysis showed that GC film had repellency effect against BPHs, with repellency of 60.00% and 73.93%, respectively. The result of olfactory reaction indicated that GC film repellency against BPHs relied on smell. EPG analysis showed the proportion and mean duration of np waveform were significantly higher than in CK and increased following the treatment concentration, which indicated that GC film affected the recognition of BPHs to rice. Further analysis by RNA sequencing analysis showed a total of 679 genes were significantly upregulated and 284 genes were significantly downregulated in the BPHs fed on the rice sprayed with GC film compared to control. Odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene 797 and gustatory receptor gene (GR)/odorant receptor (OR) gene 13110 showed a significant decrease in differential expression and significant increase in differential expression, respectively. There were 0.66 and 2.55 differential expression multiples between treated BPHs and control, respectively. According to the results described above, we reasoned that GC film repellency against BPHs due to smell, by release of citral, caused the recognition difficulties for BPHs to rice, and OBP gene 797 and GR/OR gene 13110 appeared to be the crucial candidate genes for GC film repellency against BPHs. The present study depicted a clear and consistent repellency effect for GC film against BPHs and preliminarily clarified the mechanism of GC film as a repellent against BPHs, which might offer an alternative approach for control of BPHs in the near future. Our results could also help in the development and improvement of GC films.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Zhixiong Chen ◽  
Xi Chu ◽  
Jinghong Xu

Abstract Background The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the pathogenesis of keloids is currently raising increasing attention. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) govern a variety of biological processes, such as EMT, and their dysregulation is involved in many diseases including keloid disease. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed EMT-related lncRNAs in keloid tissues versus normal tissues and to interpret their functions. Results Eleven lncRNAs and 16 mRNAs associated with EMT were identified to have differential expression between keloid and normal skin tissues (fold change > 1.5, P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that these differentially expressed mRNAs functioned in the extracellular matrix, protein binding, the positive regulation of cellular processes, the Set1C/COMPASS complex and histone acetyltransferase activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis demonstrated that these mRNAs are involved in pathways in cancer. The lncRNA, XLOC_000587 may promote cell proliferation and migration by enhancing the expression of ENAH, while AF268386 may facilitate the invasive growth of keloids by upregulating DDR2. Conclusions We characterized the differential expression profiles of EMT-related lncRNAs and mRNAs in keloids, which may contribute to preventing the occurrence and development of keloids by targeting the corresponding signaling pathways. These lncRNAs and mRNAs may provide biomarkers for keloid diagnosis and serve as potential targets for the treatment of this disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaodong Zhao ◽  
Zhibin Ji ◽  
Rong Xuan ◽  
Aili Wang ◽  
Qing Li ◽  

The liver is the largest digestive gland in goats with an important role in early metabolic function development. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are crucial for regulating the development and metabolism in the goat liver. In the study, we sequenced the miRNAs in the liver tissues of the goat kid to further research their regulation roles in early liver development. The liver tissues were procured at 5-time points from the Laiwu black goats of 1 day (D1), 2 weeks (W2), 4 weeks (W4), 8 weeks (W8), and 12 weeks (W12) after birth, respectively with five goats per time point, for a total of 25 goats. Our study identified 214 differential expression miRNAs, and the expression patterns of 15 randomly selected miRNAs were examined among all five age groups. The Gene ontology annotation results showed that differential expression miRNA (DE miRNA) target genes were significantly enriched in the fatty acid synthase activity, toxin metabolic process, cell surface, and antibiotic metabolic process. The KEGG analysis result was significantly enriched in steroid hormone synthesis and retinol metabolism pathways. Further miRNA-mRNA regulation network analysis reveals 9 differently expressed miRNA with important regulation roles. Overall, the DE miRNAs were mainly involved in liver development, lipid metabolism, toxin related metabolism-related biological process, and pathways. Our results provide new information about the molecular mechanisms and pathways in the goat kid liver development.

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