Recently Published Documents
Evidence for increased thermogenesis in female C57BL/6J mice housed aboard the international space station
AbstractSixteen-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were sacrificed aboard the International Space Station after 37 days of flight (RR-1 mission) and frozen carcasses returned to Earth. RNA was isolated from interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) and gonadal white adipose tissue (WAT). Spaceflight resulted in differential expression of genes in BAT consistent with increased non-shivering thermogenesis and differential expression of genes in WAT consistent with increased glucose uptake and metabolism, adipogenesis, and β-oxidation.
Missing Nurse Bees—Early Transcriptomic Switch From Nurse Bee to Forager Induced by Sublethal Imidacloprid
The environmental residue/sublethal doses of neonicotinoid insecticides are believed to generate a negative impact on pollinators, including honey bees. Here we report our recent investigation on how imidacloprid, one of the major neonicotinoids, affects worker bees by profiling the transcriptomes of various ages of bees exposed to different doses of imidacloprid during the larval stage. The results show that imidacloprid treatments during the larval stage severely altered the gene expression profiles and may induce precocious foraging. Differential expression of foraging regulators was found in 14-day-old treated adults. A high transcriptome similarity between larvae-treated 14-day-old adults and 20-day-old controls was also observed, and the similarity was positively correlated with the dose of imidacloprid. One parts per billion (ppb) of imidacloprid was sufficient to generate a long-term impact on the bee’s gene expression as severe as with 50 ppb imidacloprid. The disappearance of nurse bees may be driven not only by the hive member constitution but also by the neonicotinoid-induced precocious foraging behavior.
Abstract Purpose To study the causes of gender differences in infection rate and mortality of COVID-19.Methods According to the confirmed results so far, it was found that the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, NRP1 and FURIN genes were related to SARS-COV-2 virus infected cells; CD4, CD8 and NLRP3 genes were related to human immunological response; NSP1 gene was related to immunosuppression; IL6 (IL-6), IFNG (IFN-γ) and TNF (TNF-α) genes were related to the occurrence of cytokine storm. The differential expression of these genes between male and female were analyzed in normal and tumor patients, and further analyzed in different locations of normal and tumor tissues to find out risk factors affecting the infection rate and mortality. Results In our study, we identified that in the lung tissue, the expression level of ACE2, TMPRSS2, NRP1 and FURIN genes in male patients were higher than those in female patients. In all normal tissues of patients: NRP1, FURIN and NSP1 genes were significantly higher expressed in female. In all tumor tissues of patients: ACE2, FURIN and IL-6 genes were significantly higher expressed in male, while TMPRSS2, CD4, CD8, NLRP3, NSP1 and TNF genes were significantly higher expressed in female.Conclusions The significant differential expression of SARS-COV-2 receptor related genes and immune response related genes between male and female patients may be the reason for the difference in COVID-19 infection rate and mortality. The expression of COVID-19-related genes in normal and tumor patients were also significantly different, so clinical treatment should be treated differently.
Differential expression of glycosyltransferases identified through comprehensive pan-cancer analysis
Despite accumulating evidence supporting a role for glycosylation in cancer progression and prognosis, the complexity of the human glycome and glycoproteome poses many challenges to understanding glycosylation-related events in cancer. In this study, a multifaceted genomics approach was applied to analyze the impact of differential expression of glycosyltransferases (GTs) in 16 cancers. An enzyme list was compiled and curated from numerous resources to create a consensus set of GTs. Resulting enzymes were analyzed for differential expression in cancer, and findings were integrated with experimental evidence from other analyses, including: similarity of healthy expression patterns across orthologous genes, miRNA expression, automatically-mined literature, curation of known cancer biomarkers, N-glycosylation impact, and survival analysis. The resulting list of GTs comprises 222 human enzymes based on annotations from five databases, 84 of which were differentially expressed in more than five cancers, and 14 of which were observed with the same direction of expression change across all implicated cancers. 25 high-value GT candidates were identified by cross-referencing multimodal analysis results, including PYGM, FUT6 and additional fucosyltransferases, several UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and others, and are suggested for prioritization in future cancer biomarker studies. Relevant findings are available through OncoMX at https://data.oncomx.org, and the overarching pipeline can be used as a framework for similarly analysis across diverse evidence types in cancer. This work is expected to improve the understanding of glycosylation in cancer by transparently defining the space of glycosyltransferase enzymes and harmonizing variable experimental data to enable improved generation of data-driven cancer biomarker hypotheses.
Transcriptomic coordination at hepatic steatosis indicates robust immune cell engagement prior to inflammation
Abstract Background Deregulation in lipid metabolism leads to the onset of hepatic steatosis while at subsequent stages of disease development, the induction of inflammation, marks the transition of steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. While differential gene expression unveils individual genes that are deregulated at different stages of disease development, how the whole transcriptome is deregulated in steatosis remains unclear. Methods Using outbred deer mice fed with high fat as a model, we assessed the correlation of each transcript with every other transcript in the transcriptome. The onset of steatosis in the liver was also evaluated histologically. Results Our results indicate that transcriptional reprogramming directing immune cell engagement proceeds robustly, even in the absence of histologically detectable steatosis, following administration of high fat diet. In the liver transcriptomes of animals with steatosis, a preference for the engagement of regulators of T cell activation and myeloid leukocyte differentiation was also recorded as opposed to the steatosis-free livers at which non-specific lymphocytic activation was seen. As compared to controls, in the animals with steatosis, transcriptome was subjected to more widespread reorganization while in the animals without steatosis, reorganization was less extensive. Comparison of the steatosis and non-steatosis livers showed high retention of coordination suggesting that diet supersedes pathology in shaping the transcriptome’s profile. Conclusions This highly versatile strategy suggests that the molecular changes inducing inflammation proceed robustly even before any evidence of steatohepatitis is recorded, either histologically or by differential expression analysis.
AbstractLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key regulatory roles in breast cancer. However, population-level differential expression analysis methods disregard the heterogeneous expression of lncRNAs in individual patients. Therefore, we individualized lncRNA expression profiles for breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) using the method of LncRNA Individualization (LncRIndiv). After evaluating the robustness of LncRIndiv, we constructed an individualized differentially expressed lncRNA (IDElncRNA) profile for BRCA and investigated the subtype-specific IDElncRNAs. The breast cancer subtype-specific IDElncRNA showed frequent co-occurrence with alterations of protein-coding genes, including mutations, copy number variation and differential methylation. We performed hierarchical clustering to subdivide TNBC and revealed mesenchymal subtype and immune subtype for TNBC. The TNBC immune subtype showed a better prognosis than the TNBC mesenchymal subtype. LncRNA PTOV1-AS1 was the top differentially expressed lncRNA in the mesenchymal subtype. And biological experiments validated that the upregulation of PTOV1-AS1 could downregulate TJP1 (ZO-1) and E-Cadherin, and upregulate Vimentin, which suggests PTOV1-AS1 may promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and lead to migration and invasion of TNBC cells. The mesenchymal subtype showed a higher fraction of M2 macrophages, whereas the immune subtype was more associated with CD4 + T cells. The immune subtype is characterized by genomic instability and upregulation of immune checkpoint genes, thereby suggesting a potential response to immunosuppressive drugs. Last, drug response analysis revealed lncRNA ENSG00000230082 (PRRT3-AS1) is a potential resistance biomarker for paclitaxel in BRCA treatment. Our analysis highlights that IDElncRNAs can characterize inter-tumor heterogeneity in BRCA and the new TNBC subtypes indicate novel insights into TNBC immunotherapy.
Transcriptomic responses to drought stress among natural populations provide insights into local adaptation of weeping forsythia
Abstract Background Understanding the genetic mechanisms of local adaptation is an important emerging topic in molecular ecology and evolutionary biology. Results Here, we identify the physiological changes and differential expression of genes among different weeping forsythia populations under drought stress in common garden experiments. Physiological results showed that HBWZ might have higher drought tolerance among four populations. RNA-seq results showed that significant differential expression in the genes responding to the synthesis of flavonoids, aromatic substances, aromatic amino acids, oxidation–reduction process, and transmembrane transport occured among four populations. By further reanalysis of results of previous studies, sequence differentiation was found in the genes related to the synthesis of aromatic substances among different weeping forsythia populations. Conclusions Overall, our study supports the hypothesis that the dual differentiation in gene efficiency and expression increases among populations in response to heterogeneous environments and is an important evolutionary process of local adaptation. Here, we proposed a new working model of local adaptation of weeping forsythia populations under different intensities of drought stress, which provides new insights for understanding the genetic mechanisms of local adaptation for non-model species.
Identifying prognostic lncRNAs based on a ceRNA regulatory network in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma
Abstract Purpose Growing evidence demonstrates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in tumor occurrence. The lncRNAs’ functions and clinical significance in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remain unclear. The study aims to reveal the lncRNA-associated ceRNA regulatory network of LSCC and clarify its clinical relevance. Methods Here, we obtained LSCC transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and identified the differential expression profile of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs by the EdgeR R package. The function enrichment analysis of mRNAs was performed using clusterProfiler R package and GSEA3.0. Then, we constructed a ceRNA network and prognosis model based on lncRNAs through bioinformatic methods. Moreover, we explored the functions of prognosis-related lncRNA in LSCC by CCK-8 and transwell assay. Results 1961 lncRNAs, 69 miRNAs, and 2224 mRNAs were identified as differentially expressed genes in LSCC tissues. According to the transcriptome differential expression profile, a ceRNA network containing 61 lncRNAs, 21 miRNAs, and 77 mRNAs was established. Then, four lncRNAs (AC011933.2, FAM30A, LINC02086, LINC02575) were identified from the ceRNA network to build a prognosis model for LSCC patients. And we found that LINC02086 and LINC02575 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of LSCC cells while AC011933.2 and FAM30A inhibited these biological functions in vitro. Furthermore, we validated that LINc02086/miR-770-5p/SLC26A2 axis promoted migration in LSCC. Conclusion Four lncRNAs of the ceRNA network were abnormally expressed and related to patient prognosis in LSCC. They played a significant role in the progress of LSCC via affecting the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells.
The Serpin Superfamily and Their Role in the Regulation and Dysfunction of Serine Protease Activity in COPD and Other Chronic Lung Diseases
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating heterogeneous disease characterised by unregulated proteolytic destruction of lung tissue mediated via a protease-antiprotease imbalance. In COPD, the relationship between the neutrophil serine protease, neutrophil elastase, and its endogenous inhibitor, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the best characterised. AAT belongs to a superfamily of serine protease inhibitors known as serpins. Advances in screening technologies have, however, resulted in many members of the serpin superfamily being identified as having differential expression across a multitude of chronic lung diseases compared to healthy individuals. Serpins exhibit a unique suicide-substrate mechanism of inhibition during which they undergo a dramatic conformational change to a more stable form. A limitation is that this also renders them susceptible to disease-causing mutations. Identification of the extent of their physiological/pathological role in the airways would allow further expansion of knowledge regarding the complexity of protease regulation in the lung and may provide wider opportunity for their use as therapeutics to aid the management of COPD and other chronic airways diseases.
Cigarette Smoking-Associated Isoform Switching and 3-prime UTR Lengthening Via Alternative Polyadenylation
Cigarette smoking accounts for approximately one in five deaths in the United States. Previous genomic studies have primarily focused on gene level differential expression to identify related molecular signatures and pathways, but the genome-wide effects of smoking on alternative isoform regulation and posttranscriptional modulation have not yet been described. We conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in whole-blood samples of 454 current and 767 former smokers in COPDGene Study. We assessed the association of current smoking with differential expression of genes and isoforms and differential usage of isoforms and exons. At 10% FDR, we detected 3,167 differentially expressed genes, 2,014 differentially expressed isoforms, 945 differentially used isoforms and 160 differentially used exons. Genes containing differentially used isoforms were enriched in biological pathways involving GTPase activity and innate immunity. The majority of these genes were not differentially expressed, thus not identifiable from conventional differential gene expression analysis. Isoform switch analysis revealed for the first time widespread 3-prime UTR lengthening associated with cigarette smoking, where current smokers were found to have higher expression and usage of isoforms with markedly longer 3-prime UTRs. The lengthening of 3-prime UTRs appears to be mediated through alternative usage of distal polyadenylation sites, and these extended 3-prime UTR regions are significantly enriched with functional sequence elements including adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich elements, microRNA and RNA-protein binding sites. Expression quantitative trait locus analyses on differentially used 3-prime UTRs identified 79 known GWAS variants associated with multiple smoking-related human diseases and traits. Smoking elicits widespread transcriptional and posttranscriptional alterations with disease implications. It induces alternative polyadenylation (APA) events resulting in a switch towards the usage of isoforms with strikingly longer 3-prime UTRs in genes related to multiple biological pathways including GTPase activity and innate immunity. The extended 3-prime UTR regions are enriched with functional sequence elements facilitating post-transcriptional regulation of protein expression and mRNA stability. These findings warrant further studies on APA events as potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for smoking-related diseases.