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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Leila Hashemi ◽  
Armin Mahmoodi ◽  
Milad Jasemi ◽  
Richard C. Millar ◽  
Jeremy Laliberté

PurposeIn the present research, location and routing problems, as well as the supply chain, which includes manufacturers, distributor candidate sites and retailers, are explored. The goal of addressing the issue is to reduce delivery times and system costs for retailers so that routing and distributor location may be determined.Design/methodology/approachBy adding certain unique criteria and limits, the issue becomes more realistic. Customers expect simultaneous deliveries and pickups, and retail service start times have soft and hard time windows. Transportation expenses, noncompliance with the soft time window, distributor construction, vehicle purchase or leasing, and manufacturing costs are all part of the system costs. The problem's conceptual model is developed and modeled first, and then General Algebraic Modeling System software (GAMS) and Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) algorithms are used to solve it in small dimensions.FindingsAccording to the mathematical model's solution, the average error of the two suggested methods, in contrast to the exact answer, is less than 0.7%. In addition, the performance of algorithms in terms of deviation from the GAMS exact solution is pretty satisfactory, with a divergence of 0.4% for the biggest problem (N = 100). As a result, NSGAII is shown to be superior to MOSPSO.Research limitations/implicationsSince this paper deals with two bi-objective models, the priorities of decision-makers in selecting the best solution were not taken into account, and each of the objective functions was given an equal weight based on the weighting procedures. The model has not been compared or studied in both robust and deterministic modes. This is because, with the exception of the variable that indicates traffic mode uncertainty, all variables are deterministic, and the uncertainty character of demand in each level of the supply chain is ignored.Practical implicationsThe suggested model's conclusions are useful for any group of decision-makers concerned with optimizing production patterns at any level. The employment of a diverse fleet of delivery vehicles, as well as the use of stochastic optimization techniques to define the time windows, demonstrates how successful distribution networks are in lowering operational costs.Originality/valueAccording to a multi-objective model in a three-echelon supply chain, this research fills in the gaps in the link between routing and location choices in a realistic manner, taking into account the actual restrictions of a distribution network. The model may reduce the uncertainty in vehicle performance while choosing a refueling strategy or dealing with diverse traffic scenarios, bringing it closer to certainty. In addition, two modified MOPSO and NSGA-II algorithms are presented for solving the model, with the results compared to the exact GAMS approach for medium- and small-sized problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 402
Xinchao Xu ◽  
Mingyue Liu ◽  
Song Peng ◽  
Youqing Ma ◽  
Hongxi Zhao ◽  

In order to complete the high-precision calibration of the planetary rover navigation camera using limited initial data in-orbit, we proposed a joint adjustment model with additional multiple constraints. Specifically, a base model was first established based on the bundle adjustment model, second-order radial and tangential distortion parameters. Then, combining the constraints of collinearity, coplanarity, known distance and relative pose invariance, a joint adjustment model was constructed to realize the in orbit self-calibration of the navigation camera. Given the problem of directionality in line extraction of the solar panel due to large differences in the gradient amplitude, an adaptive brightness-weighted line extraction method was proposed. Lastly, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for nonlinear least squares was used to obtain the optimal results. To verify the proposed method, field experiments and in-orbit experiments were carried out. The results suggested that the proposed method was more accurate than the self-calibration bundle adjustment method, CAHVOR method (a camera model used in machine vision for three-dimensional measurements), and vanishing points method. The average error for the flag of China and the optical solar reflector was only 1 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. In addition, the proposed method has been implemented in China’s deep space exploration missions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Pasquale Arpaia ◽  
Federica Crauso ◽  
Mirco Frosolone ◽  
Massimo Mariconda ◽  
Simone Minucci ◽  

AbstractA personalized model of the human knee for enhancing the inter-individual reproducibility of a measurement method for monitoring Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) after transdermal delivery is proposed. The model is based on the solution of Maxwell Equations in the electric-quasi-stationary limit via Finite Element Analysis. The dimensions of the custom geometry are estimated on the basis of knee circumference at the patella, body mass index, and sex of each individual. An optimization algorithm allows to find out the electrical parameters of each subject by experimental impedance spectroscopy data. Muscular tissues were characterized anisotropically, by extracting Cole–Cole equation parameters from experimental data acquired with twofold excitation, both transversal and parallel to tissue fibers. A sensitivity and optimization analysis aiming at reducing computational burden in model customization achieved a worst-case reconstruction error lower than 5%. The personalized knee model and the optimization algorithm were validated in vivo by an experimental campaign on thirty volunteers, 67% healthy and 33% affected by knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence grade ranging in [1,4]), with an average error of 3%.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261610
Dhananjay Deshmukh ◽  
M. Razu Ahmed ◽  
John Albino Dominic ◽  
Mohamed S. Zaghloul ◽  
Anil Gupta ◽  

Our objective was to quantify the similarity in the meteorological measurements of 17 stations under three weather networks in the Alberta oil sands region. The networks were for climate monitoring under the water quantity program (WQP) and air program, including Meteorological Towers (MT) and Edge Sites (ES). The meteorological parameters were air temperature (AT), relative humidity (RH), solar radiation (SR), barometric pressure (BP), precipitation (PR), and snow depth (SD). Among the various measures implemented for finding correlations in this study, we found that the use of Pearson’s coefficient (r) and absolute average error (AAE) would be sufficient. Also, we applied the percent similarity method upon considering at least 75% of the value in finding the similarity between station pairs. Our results showed that we could optimize the networks by selecting the least number of stations (for each network) to describe the measure-variability in meteorological parameters. We identified that five stations are sufficient for the measurement of AT, one for RH, five for SR, three for BP, seven for PR, and two for SD in the WQP network. For the MT network, six for AT, two for RH, six for SR, and four for PR, and the ES network requires six for AT, three for RH, six for SR, and two for BP. This study could potentially be critical to rationalize/optimize weather networks in the study area.

M. D. H. Nurhadi ◽  
A. Cahyono

Abstract. Population data, despite their significance, are often missing or difficult to access, especially in cities/regencies not belonging to the metropolitan areas or centers of various human activities. This hinders practices that are contingent on their availability. In this study, population estimation was carried out using nighttime light imagery generated by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument. The variable illuminated area was integrated with the population data using linear regression based on an allometric formula so as to produce a regression value, correlation coefficient (r), and coefficient of determination (r2). The average r2 between the illuminated area and the total population was 0.86, indicating a strong correlation between the two variables. Validation using samples of population estimates from three different years yielded an average error of 73% for each city and 7% for the entire study area. The estimation results for the number of residents per city/regency cannot be used as population data due to the high percent error, but for the population on a larger regional scale, in this case, the island of Java, they have a much smaller percent error and can be used as an initial picture of the total population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (3) ◽  
pp. 551-560

Crop growth simulation models, properly validated against experimental data have the potential for tactical and strategic decision making in agriculture. Such validated models can also take the information generated through site specific experiments and trials to other sites and years. For proper calibration and evaluation of crop simulation models, there is a need for collection of a comprehensive minimum set of data on soil, weather and crop management in all agronomic experiments. Keeping this in view, field experiments were conducted at Rajendranagar (17°19' N, 78°23' E; 542.3 m amsl) during 1994-97 for three popular varieties of rice viz. Sambamasuri, Rajavadlu and Tellahamsa under irrigated conditions and data collected. Genetic coefficients required for running the CERES-Rice v3.5 model were calculated and the performance of the model under the climate of the area was evaluated. The results of the study show that the model simulations of date of flowering for Sambamasuri, Rajavadlu and Tellahamsa were within an average error of 6.2, 5.7 and 6.7 days respectively. Similar errors in predictions of physiological maturity dates were 7.6, 6.7 and 7.2 days. The error in grain yield predictions by the model averaged at 7.9%, 8.3%, and 5.7% respectively for the three crop varieties. These results indicate that the CERES Rice v3.5 model is capable of prediction of grain yield and phenological development of the crop in the climatic conditions of Andhra Pradesh with reasonable accuracy and hence, the model have the potential for its use as a tool in making various strategic and tactical decisions related to agricultural planning in the state.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ryo Fujiwara ◽  
Hiroyuki Nashida ◽  
Midori Fukushima ◽  
Naoya Suzuki ◽  
Hiroko Sato ◽  

Evaluation of the legume proportion in grass-legume mixed swards is necessary for breeding and for cultivation research of forage. For objective and time-efficient estimation of legume proportion, convolutional neural network (CNN) models were trained by fine-tuning the GoogLeNet to estimate the coverage of timothy (TY), white clover (WC), and background (Bg) on the unmanned aerial vehicle-based images. The accuracies of the CNN models trained on different datasets were compared using the mean bias error and the mean average error. The models predicted the coverage with small errors when the plots in the training datasets were similar to the target plots in terms of coverage rate. The models that are trained on datasets of multiple plots had smaller errors than those trained on datasets of a single plot. The CNN models estimated the WC coverage more precisely than they did to the TY and the Bg coverages. The correlation coefficients (r) of the measured coverage for aerial images vs. estimated coverage were 0.92–0.96, whereas those of the scored coverage by a breeder vs. estimated coverage were 0.76–0.93. These results indicate that CNN models are helpful in effectively estimating the legume coverage.

2022 ◽  
Fei Li ◽  
Jingya Bai ◽  
Mengyun Zhang ◽  
Ruoyu Zhang

Abstract Background: Different from other parts of the world, China has its own cotton planting pattern. Cotton are densely planted in wide-narrow rows to increase yield in Xinjiang, China, causing the difficulty in the accurate evaluation of cotton yields using remote sensing in such field with branches occluded and overlapped. Results: In this study, low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging and deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) were used to estimate the yields of densely planted cotton. Images of cotton field were acquired by an UAV at the height of 5 m. Cotton bolls were manually harvested and weighted afterwards. Then, a modified DCNN model was developed by applying encoder-decoder recombination and dilated convolution for pixel-wise cotton boll segmentation termed CD-SegNet. Linear regression analysis was employed to build up the relationship between cotton boll pixels ratio and cotton yield. Yield estimations of four cotton fields were verified after machine harvest and weighting. The results showed that CD-SegNet outperformed the other tested models including SegNet, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF). The average error of the estimated yield of the cotton fields was 6.2%. Conclusions: Overall, the yield estimation of densely planted cotton based on lowaltitude UAV imaging is feasible. This study provides a methodological reference for cotton yield estimation in China.

2022 ◽  
Momoko Sagara ◽  
Lisako Nobuyama ◽  
Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract Tactile sensing has attracted significant attention as a tactile quantitative evaluation method because the tactile sensation is an important factor while evaluating consumer products. While the human tactile perception mechanism has nonlinearity, previous studies have often developed linear regression models. In contrast, this study proposes a nonlinear tactile estimation model that can estimate sensory evaluation scores from physical measurements. We extracted features from the vibration data obtained by a tactile sensor based on the perceptibility of mechanoreceptors. In parallel, a sensory evaluation test was conducted using 10 evaluation words. Then, the relationship between the extracted features and the tactile evaluation results was modeled using linear/nonlinear regressions. The best model was concluded by comparing the mean squared error between the model predictions and the actual values. The result implies that there are multiple evaluation words suitable for adopting nonlinear regression models, and the average error was 43.8% smaller than that of building only linear regression models.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Huixian Wang ◽  
Hongjiang Zheng

This paper proposes a deep mining method of high-dimensional abnormal data in Internet of things based on improved ant colony algorithm. Preprocess the high-dimensional abnormal data of the Internet of things and extract the data correlation feature quantity; The ant colony algorithm is improved by updating the pheromone and state transition probability; With the help of the improved ant colony algorithm, the feature response signal of high-dimensional abnormal data in Internet of things is extracted, the judgment threshold of high-dimensional abnormal data in Internet of things is determined, and the objective function is constructed to optimize the mining depth, so as to realize the deep data mining. The results show that the average error of the proposed method is only 0.48%.

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