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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 426
Giuliana Beneduce ◽  
Antonia De Matteo ◽  
Pio Stellato ◽  
Anna M. Testi ◽  
Nicoletta Bertorello ◽  

Five-year event-free survival in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) currently exceeds 80–85%. However, 15–20% of patients still experience a relapsed/refractory disease. From 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2020, thirty-nine patients, 0–21 years old with r/r BCP-ALL were treated with blinatumomab with the aim of inducing remission (n = 13) or reducing MRD levels (n = 26) in the frame of different multiagent chemotherapy schedules, in seven AIEOP centers. Patients were treated in compassionate and/or off-label settings and were not enrolled in any controlled clinical trials. Treatment was well tolerated; 22 (56.4%) patients reported adverse events (AE) on a total of 46 events registered, of which 27 (58.7%) were ≤2 grade according to CTCAE. Neurological AEs were 18 (39.1%); only two patients required transient blinatumomab discontinuation. Complete remission (CR) rate was 46% for the 13 patients treated with ≥5% blasts and 81% PCR/FC MRD negativity in the 26 patients with blasts < 5%. Median relapse-free survival was 33.4 months (95% CI; 7.5–59.3); median overall survival was not reached over a mean follow-up of 16 months. In our study, as in other real-life experiences, blinatumomab proved to be effective and well-tolerated, able to induce a high rate of CR and MRD negativity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Massimiliano Bonifacio ◽  
Cristina Papayannidis ◽  
Federico Lussana ◽  
Nicola Fracchiolla ◽  
Mario Annunziata ◽  

Blinatumomab is an immunotherapeutic agent with dual specificity for CD3 and CD19 that is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R B-ALL). A steroid based pre-treatment is recommended before administering blinatumomab to patients with a high tumor burden to minimize the risk of tumor lysis syndrome, but the optimal debulking regimen and whether it can improve responses remain unclear. The present study retrospectively evaluated real-world outcomes following tumor debulking and blinatumomab infusion in R/R B-ALL adult patients treated at 7 Italian centers. Data were collected from 34 patients. The choice of the cytoreductive therapy was made by the treating clinician on an individual patient basis; regimens included chemotherapy (n=23), steroids (n=7) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors alone or in combination (n=4). The rate of complete responses (CR) and complete minimal residual disease (MRD) responses in CR patients were 67.6% and 81% respectively, after 2 cycles of blinatumomab. Moreover, among patients with a high tumor burden 50% obtained a CR, with 89% of them also achieving a complete MRD response. Favorable responses were also obtained in patients over 50 years of age at treatment initiation. Overall, 7 of 23 patients in CR after blinatumomab underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The results of this retrospective study highlight the heterogeneity in the use of pre-blinatumomab tumor debulking in real-life clinical practice. Nonetheless, debulking pre-treatment enhanced responses to blinatumomab compared to historic studies, indicating that this strategy may help to improve outcomes for R/R B-ALL patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 101291
Ana Luiza Tardem Maciel ◽  
Thayana da Conceição Barbosa ◽  
Caroline Barbieri Blunck ◽  
Karolyne Wolch ◽  
Amanda de Albuquerque Lopes Machado ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Francesco Tarantini ◽  
Cosimo Cumbo ◽  
Luisa Anelli ◽  
Antonella Zagaria ◽  
Giorgina Specchia ◽  

AbstractEarly T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) is a rare, distinct subtype of T-ALL characterized by genomic instability, a dismal prognosis and refractoriness to standard chemotherapy. Since its first description in 2009, the expanding knowledge of its intricate biology has led to the definition of a stem cell leukemia with a combined lymphoid-myeloid potential: the perfect trick. Several studies in the last decade aimed to better characterize this new disease, but it was recognized as a distinct entity only in 2016. We review current insights into the biology of ETP-ALL and discuss the pathogenesis, genomic features and their impact on the clinical course in the precision medicine era today.

Pathology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Shreyashee Mallik ◽  
David Yeung ◽  
Jacqueline Rehn ◽  
Tracey Nguyen ◽  
Lindsay Dunlop ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Chun-fung Sin ◽  
Pui-hei Marcus Man

Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) is a distinct subtype of T lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) identified in 2009, due to its unique immunophenotypic and genomic profile. The outcome of patients was poor in earlier studies, and they were prone to have induction failure, with more frequent relapse/refractory disease. Recent advances had been made in discoveries of genetic aberrations and molecular pathogenesis of ETP-ALL. However, the diagnosis and management of ETP-ALL is still challenging. There are limited choices of novel therapies so far. In this review article, it highlighted the diagnostic issue of ETP-ALL, pitfall in diagnosis, and strategy of accurate diagnosis. The review also summarized current understanding of molecular mechanism of leukemogenesis. The emerging role of risk-adapted therapy and allogenic stem cell transplant in optimizing the outcome of patients with ETP-ALL was discussed. Finally, some potential novel therapies were proposed based on the current understanding of molecular pathogenesis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Anna Płotka ◽  
Krzysztof Lewandowski

<b><i>Background:</i></b> <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a newly recognized high-risk subtype of ALL, characterized by the presence of genetic alterations activating kinase and cytokine receptor signaling. This subtype is associated with inferior outcomes, compared to other B-cell precursor ALL. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> The recognition of <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL is challenging due to the complexity of underlying genetic alterations. Rearrangements of <i>CRLF2</i> are the most frequent alteration in <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL and can be identified by flow cytometry. The identification of <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL can be achieved with stepwise algorithms or broad-based testing. The main goal of the diagnostic analysis is to detect the underlying genetic alterations, which are critical for the diagnosis and targeted therapy. <b><i>Key Messages:</i></b> The aim of the manuscript is to review the available data on <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL characteristics, diagnostic algorithms, and novel, molecularly targeted therapeutic options.

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