In the last years, mutations in the exon 3 of CTNNB1 have emerged as a possible prognostic factor for recurrence in early stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, especially in cases with no specific molecular profile (NSMP).
To define the prognostic value of CTNNB1 mutations in early stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, through a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Electronic databases were searched from their inception to November 2020 for all studies assessing the prognostic value of CTNNB1 mutation in early stage (FIGO I–II) endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Odds ratio (OR) for tumor recurrence and hazard ratio (HR) for disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated with a significant p value < 0.05.
Seven studies with 1031 patients were included. Four studies were suitable for meta-analysis of OR and showed significant association between CTNNB1 mutation and the absolute number of recurrence (OR = 3.000; p = 0.019); the association became stronger after excluding patients with known molecular status other than NSMP (HR = 5.953; p = 0.012). Three studies were suitable for meta-analysis of HR and showed no significant association between CTNNB1 mutation and decreased DFS (HR = 1.847; p = 0.303); the association became significant after excluding patients with known molecular status other than NSMP (HR = 2.831; p = 0.026).
CTNNB1 mutation is significantly associated with recurrence in early stage endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, especially in the NSMP, appearing potentially useful in directing adjuvant treatment.
The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), an inflammatory parameter, has shown prognostic value in several malignancies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the impact of pretreatment PLR on the oncological outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A systematic literature search has been carried out in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for pertinent papers published between January 2000 and August 2021. Within a random-effects model, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to investigate the relationships among the PLR, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were also conducted to further evaluate the relationship. A total of 20 articles comprising 5429 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled outcomes revealed that a high PLR before treatment is associated with impaired OS (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.06–1.24; p < 0.01) and DFS (HR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.19–2.07; p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed that this association is not influenced by the treatment modality (surgical vs. non-surgical), PLR cut-off values, or sample size of the included studies. An elevated pretreatment PLR is prognostic for the OS and DFS of CCA patients. More high-quality studies are required to investigate the pathophysiological basis of the observation and the prognostic value of the PLR in clinical management as well as for patient selection.
Due to the lack of clinical trials on the efficacy of chemotherapy in older patients, an optimal treatment strategy has not been developed. We investigated whether adjuvant chemotherapy could improve the survival of older patients with breast cancer in Japan.
We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with breast cancer aged ≥ 70 years who underwent breast cancer surgery in eight hospitals between 2008 and 2013. Clinical treatment and follow-up data were obtained from the patients’ medical electric records.
A total of 1095 patients were enrolled, of which 905 were included in the initial non-matched analysis. The median age and follow-up period were 75 (range 70–93) and 6.3 years, respectively. Of these patients, 127 (14%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (Chemo group) while the remaining 778 (86%) did not (Control group). The Chemo group was younger (mean age in years 73 vs 76; P < 0.0001), had a larger pathological tumor size (mean mm 25.9 vs 19.9; P < 0.0001), and more metastatic axillary lymph nodes (mean numbers 2.7 vs 0.7; P < 0.0001) than the Control group. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.783 and P = 0.558). After matched analyses, DFS was found to be significantly prolonged with adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.037); however, OS difference in the matched cohort was not statistically significant (P = 0.333).
The results showed that adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence, but survival benefits were limited.
Modern oncology practice and new antitumor drugs prolonged disease-free intervals in patients with lung cancer. Patients with distant metastatic disease are treated only with palliative intent. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, in the 8th edition of the TNM classification, for the first time includes oligometastatic disease as a clinical state that describes the patients with distant metastasis, limited in number and organ sites, who may have more indolent biology. In this paper, we present a case of a 56-year-old man who was admitted to our clinic regarding a radiologically diagnosed splenic lesion of uncertain nature, and who underwent a left upper lobectomy for primary lung cancer 12 years before. After a detailed radiological diagnosis, it was concluded that it is highly suspected metastatic lesion of the spleen and the patient underwent a splenectomy. While no definitive protocols exist on the management of isolated splenic metastasis from lung cancer, splenectomy, in suitable patients, with reasonable survival expectations, improves patient disease-free survival and can prevent potentially life-threatening complications, such as splenic rupture. 18F-FDG PET has very high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating benign and malignant splenic lesions especially in patients who are in the follow up protocol due to primary malignancy.
In recent years, the Fibrinogen to pre-albumin ratio (FPR) has been reported in many studies to be significantly associated with the prognosis of various cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the prognostic value of FPR in malignant tumors of the digestive system based on available evidence.
The relevant articles published before July 1, 2021, were systematically retrieved from electronic databases to evaluate the effect of Fibrinogen to pre-albumin ratio (FPR) on the prognosis of patients with malignant digestive system tumors and calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).
Thirteen articles, all from China, including 15 cohort studies and a total of 5116 cases, were included in this study. A high FPR was associated with poor overall survival (HR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.53–2.32, P < 0.001), recurrence-free survival (HR = 2.29, 95%CI 1.91–2.76, P < 0.001), progression-free survival (HR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.33–2.90, P = 0.001), complications (HR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.06–3.00, P = 0.029), disease-free survival (HR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.08–1.97, P = 0.013) was significantly associated with cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.15–1.79, P = 0.001). Even though intergroup differences were present, FPR was strongly associated with overall and relapse-free survival, and sensitivity analysis suggested that our results were stable.
FPR can be used as a valuable indicator to predict the prognosis of patients with malignant digestive system tumors.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) with a disease-free survival at 3 years that does not exceed 30%. Biomarkers able to predict clinical outcomes are clearly needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a short-term culture of tumour fragments irradiated ex vivo could anticipate patient responses to chemo- and/or radiotherapies. Biopsies were collected prior to treatment from a cohort of 28 patients with non-operable tumours of the oral cavity or oropharynx, and then cultured ex vivo. Short-term biopsy slice culture is a robust method that keeps cells viable for 7 days. Different biomarkers involved in the stemness status (CD44) or the DNA damage response (pATM and γ-H2AX) were investigated for their potential to predict the treatment response. A higher expression of all these markers was predictive of a poor response to treatment. This allowed the stratification of responder or non-responder patients to treatment. Moreover, the ratio for the expression of the three markers 24 h after 4 Gy irradiation versus 0 Gy was higher in responder than in non-responder patients. Finally, combining these biomarkers greatly improved their predictive potential, especially when the γ-H2AX ratio was associated with the CD44 ratio or the pATM ratio. These results encourage further evaluation of these biomarkers in a larger cohort of patients.
Persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction/consolidation therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the leading cause of relapse. The GMALL 07/2003 study used MRD detection by RQ-PCR of clonal immune gene rearrangements with 1x10-4 as discriminating cut-off: levels ≥1x10-4 define molecular failure and MRD-negativity with an assay sensitivity of at least 1x10-4 defines complete molecular response. The clinical relevance of MRD results not fitting in these categories is unclear and termed "molecular not evaluable" (MolNE) towards MRD-based treatment decisions. Within the GMALL 07/03 study, 1019 consecutive bone marrow samples after first consolidation were evaluated for MRD. Patients with complete molecular response had significantly better outcome (five-year overall survival, 5y-OS=85±2%, n=603; five-year disease-free survival, 5y-DFS=73±2%, n=599) compared to patients with molecular failure 5y-OS=40±3%, n=238; 5y-DFS=29±3%, n=208), with MolNE patients in-between (5y-OS=66±4%, 5y-DFS=52±4%, n=178). Of MolNE samples re-analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS), patients with undetectable NGS-MRD (n=44; 5y-OS=88±5%, 5y-DFS=70±7%) had significantly better outcome than those with positive NGS-MRD (n=42; 5y-OS=37±8%, 5y-DFS=33±8%). MolNE MRD results are not just borderline values with questionable relevance, but form an intermediate risk group, assignment of which can be further improved by NGS.
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adding regional hyperthermia to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plus neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for high-risk localized prostate carcinoma. Methods: Data from 121 consecutive patients with high-risk prostate carcinoma who were treated with IMRT were retrospectively analyzed. The total planned dose of IMRT was 76 Gy in 38 fractions for all patients; hyperthermia was used in 70 of 121 patients. Intra-rectal temperatures at the prostate level were measured to evaluate thermal dose. Results: Median number of heating sessions was five and the median total thermal dose of CEM43T90 was 7.5 min. Median follow-up duration was 64 months. Addition of hyperthermia to IMRT predicted better clinical relapse-free survival. Higher thermal dose with CEM43T90 (>7 min) predicted improved biochemical disease-free survival. The occurrence of acute and delayed toxicity ≥Grade 2 was not significantly different between patients with or without hyperthermia. Conclusions: IMRT plus regional hyperthermia represents a promising approach with acceptable toxicity for high-risk localized prostate carcinoma. Further studies are needed to verify the efficacy of this combined treatment.
Differentiating aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from indolent lesions is challenging using conventional imaging. This work prospectively compared the metabolic imaging phenotype of renal tumors using carbon-13 MRI following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate (HP-13C-MRI) and validated these findings with histopathology. Nine patients with treatment-naïve renal tumors (6 ccRCCs, 1 liposarcoma, 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 oncocytoma) underwent pre-operative HP-13C-MRI and conventional proton (1H) MRI. Multi-regional tissue samples were collected using patient-specific 3D-printed tumor molds for spatial registration between imaging and molecular analysis. The apparent exchange rate constant (kPL) between 13C-pyruvate and 13C-lactate was calculated. Immunohistochemistry for the pyruvate transporter (MCT1) from 44 multi-regional samples, as well as associations between MCT1 expression and outcome in the TCGA-KIRC dataset, were investigated. Increasing kPL in ccRCC was correlated with increasing overall tumor grade (ρ = 0.92, p = 0.009) and MCT1 expression (r = 0.89, p = 0.016), with similar results acquired from the multi-regional analysis. Conventional 1H-MRI parameters did not discriminate tumor grades. The correlation between MCT1 and ccRCC grade was confirmed within a TCGA dataset (p < 0.001), where MCT1 expression was a predictor of overall and disease-free survival. In conclusion, metabolic imaging using HP-13C-MRI differentiates tumor aggressiveness in ccRCC and correlates with the expression of MCT1, a predictor of survival. HP-13C-MRI may non-invasively characterize metabolic phenotypes within renal cancer.