Environmental Risk
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2022 ◽  
Vol 295 ◽  
pp. 110862
María Cecilia Lutz ◽  
Adrián Colodner ◽  
Marisa Alumine Tudela ◽  
Marcelo Anibal Carmona ◽  
María Cristina Sosa


Despite abundant resources, the automotive industry is reported to adversely impact the environment owing to the use of heavy machinery, diverse and governmental management policies for car production per hour, remarkable employed labor force, production cycle timing, etc. For this purpose, many studies involving environmental risk management have been conducted. To this aim, the present study has been carried out in pre-paint part No. 2 of IKCO (preparation process). In this regard, using FUZZY FMEA and VIKOR methods, the identified risks were assessed and reformative measures and solutions were classified, respectively. A total of 15 individuals considered HSE experts of IKCO were selected as a statistical sample size according to the Morgan table. Consequently, the high level risks were identified and appropriate solutions were suggested to reduce the environmental effects, and according to achieved scores, “torch adjustments based on compliance report” with the objective of reducing air pollution was selected as the compromise solution. IKCO should consider torch adjustment based on compliance report actions as its first priority.

2022 ◽  
Tom Johnson ◽  
Defne Saatci ◽  
Lahiru Handunnetthi

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is mediated by genetic and environmental risk factors. Infection driven maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy is a key environmental risk factor. However, little is known about how MIA during pregnancy could contribute to adult-onset schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated if maternal immune activation induces changes in methylation of genes linked to schizophrenia. We found that differentially expressed genes in schizophrenia brain were significantly enriched among MIA induced differentially methylated genes in the foetal brain in a cell-type-specific manner. Upregulated genes in layer V pyramidal neurons were enriched among hypomethylated genes at gestational day 9 (fold change = 1.57 , FDR = 0.049) and gestational day 17 (fold change = 1.97 , FDR = 0.0006). We also found that downregulated genes in GABAergic Rosehip interneurons were enriched among hypermethylated genes at gestational day 17 (fold change = 1.62, FDR= 0.03). Collectively, our results highlight a connection between MIA driven methylation changes during gestation and schizophrenia gene expression signatures in the adult brain. These findings carry important implications for early preventative strategies in schizophrenia.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 382
Felix M. Onyije ◽  
Ann Olsson ◽  
Dan Baaken ◽  
Friederike Erdmann ◽  
Martin Stanulla ◽  

Leukemia is the most common type of cancer among children and adolescents worldwide. The aim of this umbrella review was (1) to provide a synthesis of the environmental risk factors for the onset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by exposure window, (2) evaluate their strength of evidence and magnitude of risk, and as an example (3) estimate the prevalence in the German population, which determines the relevance at the population level. Relevant systematic reviews and pooled analyses were identified and retrieved through PubMed, Web of Science databases and lists of references. Only two risk factors (low doses of ionizing radiation in early childhood and general pesticide exposure during maternal preconception/pregnancy) were convincingly associated with childhood ALL. Other risk factors including extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-MF), living in proximity to nuclear facilities, petroleum, benzene, solvent, and domestic paint exposure during early childhood, all showed some level of evidence of association. Maternal consumption of coffee (high consumption/>2 cups/day) and cola (high consumption) during pregnancy, paternal smoking during the pregnancy of the index child, maternal intake of fertility treatment, high birth weight (≥4000 g) and caesarean delivery were also found to have some level of evidence of association. Maternal folic acid and vitamins intake, breastfeeding (≥6 months) and day-care attendance, were inversely associated with childhood ALL with some evidence. The results of this umbrella review should be interpreted with caution; as the evidence stems almost exclusively from case-control studies, where selection and recall bias are potential concerns, and whether the empirically observed association reflect causal relationships remains an open question. Hence, improved exposure assessment methods including accurate and reliable measurement, probing questions and better interview techniques are required to establish causative risk factors of childhood leukemia, which is needed for the ultimate goal of primary prevention.

Global Jurist ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Jorge Freddy Milian Gómez ◽  
Yanelys Delgado Triana

Abstract The current research is about the sustainable management of environmental risks in agricultural production to ensure the right to food. In a globalized world, agricultural production is determined by external economic, environmental, social, legal, and political factors, as well as internal factors depending on each State’s conditions. Environmental risk factors, particularly, the growing climate change and its negative effects or the occurrence of a global pandemic, restrict agricultural industry development and create uncertainty in guaranteeing people’s right to food. Agricultural production is the first right to food material guarantee. Ensuring agricultural production is ensuring people’s right to food, their food security or at least the minimum necessary to avoid hunger. The aim is to systematize environmental risks sustainable management concepts and characteristics applied in agricultural production to guarantee the right to food. The environmental risk’s sustainable management entails an efficient use of financial and economic resources in agricultural production to prevent or reduce the environmental risk identified impact. The research establishes some general points of environmental risks sustainable management in agricultural production to guarantee the right to adequate food. The following research methods and techniques were selected: the theoretical-legal and document analysis.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 228
Ute Schoknecht ◽  
Olaf Tietje ◽  
Nicole Borho ◽  
Michael Burkhardt ◽  
Mirko Rohr ◽  

Buildings exposed to water can release undesirable substances which, once transported to environmental compartments, may cause unwanted effects. These exposure pathways need to be investigated and included in risk assessments to safeguard water quality and promote the sustainability of construction materials. The applied materials, exposure conditions, distribution routes and resilience of receiving compartments vary considerably. This demonstrates the need for a consistent concept that integrates knowledge of emission sources, leaching processes, transport pathways, and effects on targets. Such a consistent concept can serve as the basis for environmental risk assessment for several scenarios using experimentally determined emissions. Typically, a source–path–target concept integrates data from standardized leaching tests and models to describe leaching processes, the distribution of substances in the environment and the occurrence of substances at different points of compliance. This article presents an integrated concept for assessing the environmental impact of construction products on aquatic systems and unravels currently existing gaps and necessary actions. This manuscript outlines a source–path–target concept applicable to a large variety of construction products. It is intended to highlight key elements of a holistic evaluation concept that could assist authorities in developing procedures for environmental risk assessments and mitigation measures and identifying knowledge gaps.

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