scholarly journals Osteoarthritis Linked to Diabetes Characterized Sharp decreasing in Ser /Proline /PLCγ2 with Increasing PLCγ1, Where Inhibiting S6K/BTK / PLCγ2 Affect TXA2 Synthesis Cause C-lymphocytic Leukemia

Ashraf Marzouk El Tantawi ◽  

proper S6K /BTK and PLCγ2 are main regulations for thromboxane-A synthesis, and necessary for B-cell maturations and T-cells modulations and functions. The main factors that cause the Osteoarthritis “OA” and diabetes and linked between them are the deficiency of Ser amino acids and decreasing or down regulations of Ser phosphorylation signalling pathway which necessary for proper S6K productions, where normally the Ser phosphorylation signalling pathway is the basis of Ser /Thr phosphorylation signalling which normally necessary for proper Akt, S6K1 synthesis and necessary for RORs and IFNs synthesis and also necessary for running proper BTK and proper PLCγ2 productions , where S6K is main regulator for ATPase and for proper PLCγ1 and for PLCγ2 synthesis which necessary for bone growth and for increasing and modulating immune efficiency

Blood ◽  
1988 ◽  
Vol 71 (4) ◽  
pp. 1012-1020 ◽  
JS Moore ◽  
MB Prystowsky ◽  
RG Hoover ◽  
EC Besa ◽  
PC Nowell

The consistent occurrence of T cell abnormalities in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) suggest that the non- neoplastic host T cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of this B cell neoplasm. Because potential defects of immunoglobulin regulation are evident in B-CLL patients, we investigated one aspect of this by studying the T cell-mediated immunoglobulin isotype-specific immunoregulatory circuit in B-CLL. The existence of class-specific immunoglobulin regulatory mechanisms mediated by Fc receptor-bearing T cells (FcR + T) through soluble immunoglobulin binding factors (IgBFs) has been well established in many experimental systems. IgBFs can both suppress and enhance B cell activity in an isotype-specific manner. We investigated the apparently abnormal IgA regulation in a B-CLL patient (CLL249) whose B cells secrete primarily IgA in vitro. Enumeration of FcR + T cells showed a disproportionate increase in IgA FcR + T cells in the peripheral blood of this patient. Our studies showed that the neoplastic B cells were not intrinsically unresponsive to the suppressing component of IgABF produced from normal T cells, but rather the IgABF produced by the CLL249 host T cells was defective. CLL249 IgABF was unable to suppress IgA secretion by host or normal B cells and enhanced the in vitro proliferation of the host B cells. Size fractionation of both normal and CLL249 IgABF by gel-filtration high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated differences in the ultraviolet-absorbing components of IgABF obtained from normal T cells v that from our patient with defective IgA regulation. Such T cell dysfunction may not be restricted to IgA regulation, since we have found similar expansion of isotype-specific FcR + T cells associated with expansion of the corresponding B cell clone in other patients with B-CLL. These data suggest that this T cell-mediated regulatory circuit could be significantly involved in the pathogenesis of B-CLL.

Blood ◽  
1988 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 102-108 ◽  
M Yasukawa ◽  
T Shiroguchi ◽  
A Inatsuki ◽  
Y Kobayashi

The ability of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells to present antigen to antigen-specific T cells was investigated. B-CLL cells present herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen and purified protein derivative (PPD) to HSV- and PPD-specific, interleukin-2-dependent T- cell lines in an antigen-specific manner. Treatment of B-CLL cells with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced markedly increased levels of HLA-DR expression. TPA-treated B-CLL cells showed substantially more effective presentation, especially at low antigen concentrations, than did untreated B-CLL cells. By coculturing different allogeneic combinations of B-CLL cells and T cells and by adding anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody to cultures, it was found that antigen presentation by B-CLL cells was restricted by HLA-DR in the same way as for macrophages. We concluded from these experiments that B- CLL cells have a capacity to serve as antigen-presenting cells in an HLA class II-restricted fashion and that increasing the amount of HLA class II antigen and activation of B-CLL cells resulted in effective antigen presentation.

2012 ◽  
Vol 53 (9) ◽  
pp. 1785-1794 ◽  
Sanne H. Tonino ◽  
Pablo J. van de Berg ◽  
Si La Yong ◽  
Ineke J. Ten Berge ◽  
Marie José Kersten ◽  

Blood ◽  
1995 ◽  
Vol 86 (3) ◽  
pp. 1115-1123 ◽  
T Decker ◽  
T Flohr ◽  
P Trautmann ◽  
MJ Aman ◽  
W Holter ◽  

Abstract We investigated the production of cytokines by highly purified T helper cells from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients stimulated by different activation pathways, and we studied the influence of various accessory cell populations on the pattern of the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, interferon- gamma (IFN-gamma), and IL-10. Neither a qualitative nor a quantitative difference in cytokine production and proliferative capacity was observed in CLL-derived purified T cells compared with normal individuals, when T cells were stimulated by different pathways, including CD3, CD2, and costimulation with CD28. Addition of autologous accessory cells (aAC), however, dramatically influenced the cytokine pattern of normal versus B-CLL-derived T cells. CLL cells as aAC caused a marked increase of IL-2, whereas IFN-gamma was only slightly induced and IL-4 was not influenced. In contrast, in normal individuals addition of aAC, which predominantly consisted of monocytes, resulted in a significant increase of IFN-gamma and a reduction of IL-4 secretion. IL-2 production was inhibited by higher concentrations of aAC. The increased stimulation of IL-2 production by CLL cells was not specific to the leukemic cell population, as purified B cells from normal individuals had the same effect. On the other hand, purified monocytes from CLL patients and controls both induced IFN-gamma production and inhibited IL-4 secretion. After antigen-specific stimulation with tetanus toxoid, cytokine secretion was influenced by the type of aAC in a similar pattern. We conclude that T helper cells derived from patients with B-CLL are intrinsically normal and that the predominance of B cells as accessory cells in CLL significantly alters the immune function of T helper cells in vitro.

Blood ◽  
1990 ◽  
Vol 76 (1) ◽  
pp. 142-149 ◽  
R Dadmarz ◽  
SN Rabinowe ◽  
SA Cannistra ◽  
JW Andersen ◽  
AS Freedman ◽  

Abstract Chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B-cell origin (B-CLL) is a disease with a variable clinical course, despite the fact that the neoplastic cells in this disorder are homogeneous with respect to morphology, immunophenotype, and cell cycle stage. To further investigate the heterogeneity observed in the clinical behavior of B-CLL, we determined the phenotype and growth requirements of clonogenic cells from 28 patients with B-CLL from low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups as defined by the Rai staging system. Using methyl-cellulose as a semi- solid media with feeder cells and/or growth factors, colonies were observed with one or more of the culture conditions tested in 25 of 28 CLLs. Phenotypic analysis of colonies demonstrated that the clonogenic cells uniformly expressed la, CD19, CD20, CD5, and the identical light chain as the original CLL cell cultured. However, heterogeneity was observed in clonogenic B-CLL cell growth among the three different CLL risk groups. Clonogenic cells from patients with low-risk CLL required either irradiated unstimulated T cells, with or without conditioned media (CM) or irradiated activated T cells alone for colony formation. Both the number of colonies (227 +/- 15) as well as the number of cells per colony (220 +/- 82) were large, with a mean cloning efficiency of 0.39%. In contrast, clonogenic cells from patients with intermediate- and high-risk CLL required the combination of both irradiated activated T cells and CM. As compared with the low-risk CLLs, both the number and size of the colonies formed by the intermediate- (74 +/- 17, 70 +/- 39) and high- (83 +/- 28, 40 +/- 14) risk groups were significantly lower (P less than .0001). Similarly, the mean cloning efficiency was significantly reduced to 0.15% and 0.14%, respectively. None of the recombinant cytokines (interleukin 1 [IL-1] to IL-7, tumor necrosis factor, alpha and gamma-interferon, B-cell growth factor, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) alone or in combination with each other could entirely replace the stimulatory effect of the activated T cells. These data suggest that clinical progression of B-CLL is associated with a loss of clonogenic potential in the circulating pool of neoplastic cells, which require as yet undefined factors provided by activated T cells and CM.

Blood ◽  
1986 ◽  
Vol 67 (2) ◽  
pp. 279-284 ◽  
O Ayanlar-Batuman ◽  
E Ebert ◽  
SP Hauptman

Abstract The present studies were designed to investigate the mechanism(s) of the defective T cell proliferative response to various stimuli in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-CLL. In 14 patients with advanced B-CLL (stage III or IV) we found the T cell response in the autologous (auto) and allogeneic (allo) mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) to be 35.7% and 30% of the controls, respectively. Proliferation in the MLR depends upon the production of and response to interleukin 2 (IL 2), a T cell growth factor. IL 2 production in eight B-CLL patients was 22% of the control. The response to IL 2 was measured by the increase in the T cell proliferation in the MLR with the addition of IL 2. T cell proliferation in both the auto and allo MLR of CLL patients was significantly lower than in the controls after the addition of IL 2. The proliferative response of normal T cells to stimulation by CLL B cells was 50% of the control. This latter response was increased to control levels when cultures were supplemented with exogenous IL 2, suggesting that CLL B cells could stimulate IL 2 receptor generation in normal T cells in an allo MLR, but not IL 2 production. The presence of IL 2 receptors on activated T cells was directly determined using anti- Tac, a monoclonal antibody with specificity for the IL 2 receptor. Of the mitogen- or MLR-activated T cells in CLL patients, 6% and 10%, respectively, expressed Tac antigen, whereas identically stimulated control T cells were 60% and 47% Tac+, respectively. Our findings suggest that T cells in B-CLL are defective in their recognition of self or foreign major histocompatibility antigens as demonstrated by their impaired responsiveness in the MLR. Thus, these cells are unable to produce IL 2 or generate IL 2 receptors.

Blood ◽  
1978 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-35 ◽  
RA Rudders ◽  
JP Howard

Abstract The immunologic surface markers on lymphocytes and clinical characteristics of 35 patients with established (stages 0–4) CLL with absolute lymphocyte counts greater than 15,000/cu mm were compared to those of a group of 25 patients with CLL in an early or preleukemic phase (counts of less than 15,000/cu mm). We found a monoclonal B cell proliferation in most cases in the latter group, in spite of the paucity of clinical and laboratory findings. Furthermore, early CLL can readily be distinguished from benign lymphocytosis by surface marker criteria. In untreated CLL, surface marker characteristics are stable with time and predominantly reflect expansion of clones expressing only B cell markers; however, small increase of blood T cells are often seen. Surface markers are a simple and clinically useful tool for definding and characterizing the preleukemic phase of CLL and its ultimate progression to established CLL.

Blood ◽  
1988 ◽  
Vol 71 (5) ◽  
pp. 1470-1474 ◽  
DE Hammerschmidt ◽  
C Jeanneret ◽  
M Husak ◽  
M Lobell ◽  
HS Jacob

Abstract A nonanemic chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient with nearly 500,000 lymphocytes/microL underwent leukapheresis when she presented with CNS symptoms and retinal vascular engorgement. Respiratory distress developed during the cell separator run, which led us to ask whether the procedure could have changed the adhesive properties of her cells. C5a desarginine, N-f-Met-Leu-Phe, adenosine diphosphate, and collagen all failed to aggregate her lymphocytes in vitro, but arachidonic acid, excess free calcium, and 4 mumol/L epinephrine did aggregate the cells. Arachidonate-induced aggregation appeared to be a toxic phenomenon: the ED50 for aggregation was statistically indistinguishable from that for cytotoxicity, and aspirin only mildly blunted the response. In contrast, epinephrine-induced aggregation was not associated with lactic dehydrogenase release or the loss of trypan blue exclusion and was blunted by propranolol; radiopindolol-binding studies confirmed the presence of a beta-adrenergic receptor. There were approximately 3,000 receptors/cell, with no statistically significant difference between normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells or between B cells and T cells (separated by rosetting techniques). The Kd for the B cells' receptor, however, was less than that for T cells by a factor of ten (P less than .01). We conclude that B cells may aggregate when stimulated and that they--like T cells--have beta-adrenergic receptors. Adrenergically mediated changes in B cell adhesiveness may play a role in regulating lymphocyte traffic; in the rare patient with truly enormous B cell counts, we postulate that they may be an occasional cause of morbidity.

Blood ◽  
1999 ◽  
Vol 93 (6) ◽  
pp. 1992-2002 ◽  
Raymund Buhmann ◽  
Annette Nolte ◽  
Doreen Westhaus ◽  
Bertold Emmerich ◽  
Michael Hallek

Although spontaneous remissions may rarely occur in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), T cells do generally not develop a clinically significant response against B-CLL cells. Because this T-cell anergy against B-CLL cells may be caused by the inability of B-CLL cells to present tumor-antigens efficiently, we examined the possibility of upregulating critical costimulatory (B7-1 and B7-2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and LFA-3) on B-CLL cells to improve antigen presentation. The stimulation of B-CLL cells via CD40 by culture on CD40L expressing feeder cells induced a strong upregulation of costimulatory and adhesion molecules and turned the B-CLL cells into efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs). CD40-activated B-CLL (CD40-CLL) cells stimulated the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, stimulation of allogeneic versus autologous T cells resulted in the expansion of different effector populations. Allogeneic CD40-CLL cells allowed for the expansion of specific CD8+cytolytic T cells (CTL). In marked contrast, autologous CD40-CLL cells did not induce a relevant CTL response, but rather stimulated a CD4+, Th1-like T-cell population that expressed high levels of CD40L and released interferon-γ in response to stimulation by CD40-CLL cells. Together, these results support the view that CD40 activation of B-CLL cells might reverse T-cell anergy against the neoplastic cell clone, although the character of the immune response depends on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) background on which the CLL or tumor antigens are presented. These findings may have important implications for the design of cellular immunotherapies for B-CLL.

Blood ◽  
2004 ◽  
Vol 104 (11) ◽  
pp. 2519-2519 ◽  
Chia-Huey Lin ◽  
Thomas Kerkau ◽  
Christine Guntermann ◽  
Martin Trischler ◽  
Niklas Beyersdorf ◽  

Abstract B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is characterised by an accumulation of malignant B cells, and impaired humoral and cellular immune responses. Evasion strategies of leukemic cells appear to involve down-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules as well as increased resistance to apoptosis. Here we provide data supporting a novel concept to treat B-CLL with a humanized, superagonistic monoclonal antibody specific for CD28 (TGN1412). Superagonistic anti-CD28 antibodies have been shown to activate human T cells in vitro without requirement for engagement of the T cell antigen receptor (Luhder et al., J. Exp. Med. 2003. 197(8):955–66). Indicative of their activation, TGN1412-triggered T cells from healthy donors upregulate, among other activation markers, CD40L, that has been reported to promote anti-leukemic effects when ectopically expressed on B-CLL cells (Wierda et al., Blood. 2000. 96 (9): 2917–2924). In this report, the responses of PBMCs from B-CLL patients to soluble TGN1412 were examined. We show that in a dose-dependent fashion, polyclonal T cell activation was induced by TGN1412 including proliferation, cytokine production and induction of activation markers such as CD25, CD71, CD134 (Ox40), CTLA-4 (CD152) and CD154 (CD40L). Significantly, modulation of malignant B-CLL cells was also observed. MHC class II molecules (HLA-DR), CD95 and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, but not the proliferation marker Ki-67, were strongly up-regulated upon TGN1412 stimulation. These data suggested that improved antigen-presenting functions of B-CLL cells were induced by TGN1412. Accordingly, preliminary data indicate that B-CLL cells isolated from TGN1412 stimulated cultures induced enhanced proliferation of both allogeneic and autologous T cells, and importantly, TGN1412 activated T cells exhibited enhanced CTL-activity against B-CLL cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that TGN1412 induces polyclonal T cell expansion and activation as well as increased APC function of B-CLL cells. They imply that TGN1412 may have future therapeutic benefit for B-CLL patients.

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