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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 101069
Gisele V. Baracho ◽  
Nihan Kara ◽  
Stephanie Rigaud ◽  
Evelyn Lo ◽  
Stephanie J. Widmann ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 630-633
Chencheng Ding ◽  
Yunjie Zheng ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Min Zhu ◽  
Yong Zhu

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seriously threatens human health and life quality. Natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in liver immune function. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) exosomes (Exo) participate in tissue damage. This study explored BMSC-Exo’s effect on NK cells’ anti-tumor activity. NK cells were isolated from the livers of mice with liver cancer. NK cells with or without BMSC-Exo treatment were co-cultured with liver cancer cells to assess cell proliferation. Administration of BMSC-Exo into mice with liver cancer significantly suppressed liver cancer cell growth. In addition, BMSC-Exo treatment significantly improved NK cells’ anti-tumor effect whic was related to BMSC-Exo-induced up-regulation of miR-1925. Implantation of BMSC-Exo into mice with liver cancer at different time periods can significantly suppress liver cancer cell growth. At the same time, BMSC-Exo implantation inhibited the expression of cell proliferation marker protein(Ki67). In vitro study found that BMSC-Exo treatment significantly increased miR-1925 level and the toxicity of NK cells to HCC cells. In addition, miR-1925 overexpression in NK cells significantly increased NK cells’ anti-tumor activity. In conclusion, this study proved that up-regulation of miR-1925 by BMSC can inhibit the growth of liver cancer by promoting the anti-tumor activity of NK cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Reza Hosseini ◽  
Hamzeh Sarvnaz ◽  
Maedeh Arabpour ◽  
Samira Molaei Ramshe ◽  
Leila Asef-Kabiri ◽  

AbstractTumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play pivotal roles in several aspects of cancer biology. It is now evident that TDEs also favor tumor growth by negatively affecting anti-tumor immunity. As important sentinels of immune surveillance system, natural killer (NK) cells can recognize malignant cells very early and counteract the tumor development and metastasis without a need for additional activation. Based on this rationale, adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded NK cells/NK cell lines, such as NK-92 cells, has attracted great attention and is widely studied as a promising immunotherapy for cancer treatment. However, by exploiting various strategies, including secretion of exosomes, cancer cells are able to subvert NK cell responses. This paper reviews the roles of TDEs in cancer-induced NK cells impairments with mechanistic insights. The clinical significance and potential approaches to nullify the effects of TDEs on NK cells in cancer immunotherapy are also discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sina Fuchs ◽  
Andrea Scheffschick ◽  
Iva Gunnarsson ◽  
Hanna Brauner

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)- associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by inflammation of small- and medium-sized vessels. The three main types of AAV are granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). A growing number of studies focus on natural killer (NK) cells in AAV. NK cells are innate lymphoid cells with important roles in anti-viral and anti-tumor defense, but their roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity is less well established. In this review, we will present a summary of what is known about the number, phenotype and function of NK cells in patients with AAV. We review the literature on NK cells in the circulation of AAV patients, studies on tissue resident NK cells and how the treatment affects NK cells.

Gerontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Amanda Veiga Sardeli ◽  
Marcelo A. Mori ◽  
Janet M. Lord

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Highly differentiated, senescent lymphocytes are pro-inflammatory and contribute to age-related systemic inflammation, called inflammageing. There are several reports of acute changes in senescent lymphocyte counts post exercise, which potentially have consequences for systemic inflammation. However, there is little consensus since the studies differ with respect to participants, exercise protocols, cellular markers assessed, and the time point of assessment post exercise. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of exercise on senescent lymphocyte counts in blood immediately, 1 h and 2 h post exercise. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The search was performed in PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane, on January 11, 2021. The 13 studies selected tested aerobic exercise effects, mainly in young men. They assessed the counts of lymphocytes (CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells), with the following immune cell marker combinations: KLRG1+, CD57+ (only NK cells), EMRA T cells (CD45RA+CCR7−CD28−CD27−), CD28−CD27−, KLRG1+CD28−, and CD28−. Independent extraction of articles was done by 2 researchers. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between baseline and post exercise showed significant increase (SMD &#x3e;0.9, <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.003) in all types of senescent lymphocytes counts immediately post exercise. At 1 h post exercise, senescent CD4 T cells returned to baseline values (<i>p</i> = 0.74), CD8 T cells were reduced (−0.26 [−0.41; −0.11], <i>p</i> = 0.001), and senescent NK cells were raised (0.62 [0.14; 1.10], <i>p</i> = 0.01) above baseline. By 2 h post exercise, senescent CD4 T cells were reduced (−0.94 [−1.40; −0.48], <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001), CD8 T cells remained below baseline (−0.53 [−1.04; −0.009], <i>p</i> = 0.04), and NK cells had returned to baseline values (−0.29 [−0.64; 0.07], <i>p</i> = 0.11). The main determinants of heterogeneity between studies were cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus and the characteristics of exercise protocols. CMV+ individuals had a higher immediate lymphocytosis and 1 h post lymphopenia than CMV− individuals. Exercise performed at higher intensities and shorter durations led to higher magnitude of change in senescent lymphocyte counts at all time-points. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The differing effects of exercise on senescent NK cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells suggest differing susceptibility to factors modulating lymphocyte extravasation such as adrenaline and exercise intensity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114134119
Shoubao Ma ◽  
Tingting Tang ◽  
Xiaojin Wu ◽  
Anthony G. Mansour ◽  
Ting Lu ◽  

The axis of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFRβ) plays prominent roles in cell growth and motility. In addition, PDGF-D enhances human natural killer (NK) cell effector functions when binding to the NKp44 receptor. Here, we report an additional but previously unknown role of PDGF-D, whereby it mediates interleukin-15 (IL-15)–induced human NK cell survival but not effector functions via its binding to PDGFRβ but independent of its binding to NKp44. Resting NK cells express no PDGFRβ and only a low level of PDGF-D, but both are significantly up-regulated by IL-15, via the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway, to promote cell survival in an autocrine manner. Both ectopic and IL-15–induced expression of PDGFRβ improves NK cell survival in response to treatment with PDGF-D. Our results suggest that the PDGF-D−PDGFRβ signaling pathway is a mechanism by which IL-15 selectively regulates the survival of human NK cells without modulating their effector functions.

2022 ◽  
Ben Nicholas ◽  
Jane Guo ◽  
Hyun-Hee Lee ◽  
Alistair Bailey ◽  
Rene de Waal Malefyt ◽  

Asthma is a disease of complex origin and multiple pathologies. There are currently very few biomarkers of proven utility in its diagnosis, management or response to treatment. Recent studies have identified multiple asthma phenotypes following biofluid analysis; however, such findings may be driven by the well-characterised alterations in immune cell populations in asthma. We present a study designed to identify cell type-specific gene signatures of severe allergic asthma in peripheral blood samples. Using transcriptomic profiling of four magnetically purified peripheral blood cell types, we identify significant gene expression changes in monocytes and NK cells but not T lymphocytes in severe asthmatics. Pathway analysis indicates dysfunction of immune cell regulation and bacterial suppression in the NK cells. These gene expression changes may be useful on their own as prognostic peripheral blood cell markers of severe asthma, but also may indicate novel cell pathways for therapeutic intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 797
Tatiana Michel ◽  
Markus Ollert ◽  
Jacques Zimmer

Despite significant progress in recent years, the therapeutic approach of the multiple different forms of human cancer often remains a challenge. Besides the well-established cancer surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapeutic strategies gain more and more attention, and some of them have already been successfully introduced into the clinic. Among these, immunotherapy based on natural killer (NK) cells is considered as one of the most promising options. In the present review, we will expose the different possibilities NK cells offer in this context, compare data about the theoretical background and mechanism(s) of action, report some results of clinical trials and identify several very recent trends. The pharmaceutical industry is quite interested in NK cell immunotherapy, which will benefit the speed of progress in the field.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ryland D. Mortlock ◽  
Chuanfeng Wu ◽  
E. Lake Potter ◽  
Diana M. Abraham ◽  
David S. J. Allan ◽  

The in vivo tissue distribution and trafficking patterns of natural killer (NK) cells remain understudied. Animal models can help bridge the gap, and rhesus macaque (RM) primates faithfully recapitulate key elements of human NK cell biology. Here, we profiled the tissue distribution and localization patterns of three NK cell subsets across various RM tissues. We utilized serial intravascular staining (SIVS) to investigate the tissue trafficking kinetics at steady state and during recovery from CD16 depletion. We found that at steady state, CD16+ NK cells were selectively retained in the vasculature while CD56+ NK cells had a shorter residence time in peripheral blood. We also found that different subsets of NK cells had distinct trafficking kinetics to and from the lymph node as well as other lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. Lastly, we found that following administration of CD16-depleting antibody, CD16+ NK cells and their putative precursors retained a high proportion of continuously circulating cells, suggesting that regeneration of the CD16 NK compartment may take place in peripheral blood or the perivascular compartments of tissues.

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