bone growth
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Ashraf Marzouk El Tantawi ◽  

proper S6K /BTK and PLCγ2 are main regulations for thromboxane-A synthesis, and necessary for B-cell maturations and T-cells modulations and functions. The main factors that cause the Osteoarthritis “OA” and diabetes and linked between them are the deficiency of Ser amino acids and decreasing or down regulations of Ser phosphorylation signalling pathway which necessary for proper S6K productions, where normally the Ser phosphorylation signalling pathway is the basis of Ser /Thr phosphorylation signalling which normally necessary for proper Akt, S6K1 synthesis and necessary for RORs and IFNs synthesis and also necessary for running proper BTK and proper PLCγ2 productions , where S6K is main regulator for ATPase and for proper PLCγ1 and for PLCγ2 synthesis which necessary for bone growth and for increasing and modulating immune efficiency

HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 202-214
Rachel A. Itle ◽  
Eileen A. Kabelka ◽  
James W. Olmstead

Carotenoids serve as protective antioxidants, and function in normal vision, bone growth, cell division and differentiation, and reproduction. Winter squash (Cucurbita spp.) is an excellent dietary source of carotenoids. The range of colors from yellow to red in Cucurbita species indicates that increasing carotenoid levels through plant breeding is possible. The objective of this research was to determine the heritability of flesh color in winter squash in both Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and Cucurbita pepo L. Segregating families representing F2, BC1P1 and BC1P2 populations were created in two families of C. pepo (‘Table Gold Acorn’ × PI 314806 and ‘Table King Bush’ × PI 314806) and one family of C. moschata (‘Butterbush’ × ‘Sucrine DuBerry’). Broad-sense heritabilities were calculated for the F2, BC1P1, and BC1P2 populations within each of the three families. Heritabilities ranged from 0.19 to 0.82 for L*, 0.28 to 0.97 for chroma, and 0.12 to 0.87 for hue across all families. Transgressive segregation for color space values L* was identified in the ‘Table King Bush’ × PI 314806 C. pepo population. Our results indicate that it is possible to breed for improved flesh color in Cucurbita, but the population size and number of test locations for evaluation need to be increased to provide better heritability estimates. Cucurbita species are grown throughout the world and their availability and low price makes them an important potential source of carotenoids for human nutrition and health for all ages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 934
Rocío Fuente ◽  
María García-Bengoa ◽  
Ángela Fernández-Iglesias ◽  
Helena Gil-Peña ◽  
Fernando Santos ◽  

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most common form of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, is caused by inactivating mutations of the phosphate-regulating endopeptidase gene (PHEX). XLH is mainly characterized by short stature, bone deformities and rickets, while in hypophosphatemia, normal or low vitamin D levels and low renal phosphate reabsorption are the principal biochemical aspects. The cause of growth impairment in patients with XLH is not completely understood yet, thus making the study of the growth plate (GP) alterations necessary. New treatment strategies targeting FGF23 have shown promising results in normalizing the growth velocity and improving the skeletal effects of XLH patients. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate how this treatment affects the GP as well as its long-term effects and the impact on adult height.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 841
Shelley Griess-Fishheimer ◽  
Janna Zaretsky ◽  
Tamara Travinsky-Shmul ◽  
Irina Zaretsky ◽  
Svetlana Penn ◽  

The severe impairment of bone development and quality was recently described as a new target for unbalanced ultra-processed food (UPF). Here, we describe nutritional approaches to repair this skeletal impairment in rats: supplementation with micro-nutrients and a rescue approach and switching the UPF to balanced nutrition during the growth period. The positive effect of supplementation with multi-vitamins and minerals on bone growth and quality was followed by the formation of mineral deposits on the rats’ kidneys and modifications in the expression of genes involved in inflammation and vitamin-D metabolism, demonstrating the cost of supplementation. Short and prolonged rescue improved trabecular parameters but incompletely improved the cortical parameters and the mechanical performance of the femur. Cortical porosity and cartilaginous lesions in the growth-plate were still detected one week after rescue and were reduced to normal levels 3 weeks after rescue. These findings highlight bone as a target for the effect of UPF and emphasize the importance of a balanced diet, especially during growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 614
Frydrýšek Karel ◽  
Čepica Daniel ◽  
Halo Tomáš ◽  
Skoupý Ondřej ◽  
Pleva Leopold ◽  

Limb asymmetry can, and often does, cause various health problems. Blount bone staples (clips) are used to correct such uneven growth. This article analyzes the performance of a biomechanical staple during bone (tibia) growth arrest. The staples considered in this study were made of 1.4441 stainless steel, the model of tibia consisted of two materials representing corticalis and spongiosis. Hooke’s law was used for modeling materials’ behaviors for finite element analysis (FEA). The maxima of stress and total staple displacement were evaluated using the finite element method and verification of the results, along with the determination of the maximum loading (growing) force that the staples are capable of withstanding, was performed experimentally. The presented method can be used to determine the safety and usability of staples for bone growth arrest. According to our results, the design of Blount staples considered in this paper is safe and suitable for orthopedic treatment.

Bone ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 154 ◽  
pp. 116186
Sowmya Ramesh ◽  
Farasat Zaman ◽  
Lars Sävendahl ◽  
Vrisha Madhuri

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 211
Luis Alberto Bravo Vázquez ◽  
Mariana Yunuen Moreno Becerril ◽  
Erick Octavio Mora Hernández ◽  
Gabriela García de León Carmona ◽  
María Emilia Aguirre Padilla ◽  

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (20–24 nucleotides), highly conserved, non-coding RNA molecules whose main function is the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through sequence-specific manners, such as mRNA degradation or translational repression. Since these key regulatory molecules are implicated in several biological processes, their altered expression affects the preservation of cellular homeostasis and leads to the development of a wide range of pathologies. Over the last few years, relevant investigations have elucidated that miRNAs participate in different stages of bone growth and development. Moreover, the abnormal expression of these RNA molecules in bone cells and tissues has been significantly associated with the progression of numerous bone diseases, including osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, osteonecrosis and bone metastasis, among others. In fact, miRNAs regulate multiple pathological mechanisms, including altering either osteogenic or osteoblast differentiation, metastasis, osteosarcoma cell proliferation, and bone loss. Therefore, in this present review, aiming to impulse the research arena of the biological implications of miRNA transcriptome in bone diseases and to explore their potentiality as a theragnostic target, we summarize the recent findings associated with the clinical significance of miRNAs in these ailments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Patricia Freitas de Andrade ◽  
Jonathan Meza-Mauricio ◽  
Ricardo Kern ◽  
Marcelo Faveri

Treating patients with excessive gingival display (EGD) to provide them with a pleasant smile is a challenge to periodontists. A gummy smile can be due to excessive vertical bone growth, dentoalveolar extrusion, short upper lip, upper lip hyperactivity, or altered passive eruption (APE). In addition, many patients have a lack of lip support due to marked depression of the anterior process of the maxilla. In these cases, lip repositioning using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement could be performed. This article describes a case of EGD with subnasal depression. In the clinical examination, the presence of a marked subnasal depression was found, in which the upper lip lodged during a spontaneous smile. In addition to this, gingival exposure extending from the maxillary molar on one side of the mouth to the one on the opposite side was also found during the spontaneous smile. Therefore, the periodontal surgical intervention proposed consisted of performing a procedure to fill the subnasal depression with PMMA cement. This article describes a digital approach to plan the use of PMMA cement in lip repositioning in a patient with gummy smile and subnasal depression. The patient reported no postoperative complications. Six months after the surgery, the patient revealed a more harmonious smile than before, with reduction in the gingival exposure and new adequate support for and repositioning of the upper lip.

2021 ◽  
Vol 193 (50) ◽  
pp. E1922-E1922
Tatjana S. Brajic ◽  
Azita Goshtasebi ◽  
Tamara B.L. Goldberg ◽  
Abbey B. Berenson ◽  
Jerilynn C. Prior

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7830
Inês Francisco ◽  
Francisco Vale ◽  
Victor Martin ◽  
Maria Helena Fernandes ◽  
Pedro Sousa Gomes

(1) Background: To evaluate the effects of the direct and indirect contact of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) on bone development, in an ex vivo embryonic chick femur model. (2) Methods: Both sections of L-PRF membranes (red and yellow portions) were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical staining. The in vivo angiogenic activity was evaluated using a chorioallantoic membrane model. The osteogenic activity was assessed with an organotypic culture of embryonic chick femora through direct and indirect contact, and assessment was conducted by microtomographic and histological analysis. Descriptive statistics, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons tests were performed for datasets that presented a normal distribution, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for non-parametric datasets. A significance level of 0.05 was considered. (3) Results: The L-PRF induced angiogenesis reflected by a higher number and a larger and more complex gauge in the vessels that invaded the membrane. The physical presence of the membrane over the bone (direct contact) unleashes the full potential of the L-PRF effects on bone growth enhancement. The greatest increase in mineral content was observed in the diaphysis region. (4) Conclusion: The L-PRF direct contact group presented higher values on mineral content for bone volume, bone surface and bone mineral density than the indirect contact and control groups.

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