cytotoxic t cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 101069
Gisele V. Baracho ◽  
Nihan Kara ◽  
Stephanie Rigaud ◽  
Evelyn Lo ◽  
Stephanie J. Widmann ◽  

2022 ◽  
David G. Meckes ◽  
Monica Abou Harb ◽  
Li Sun

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) circulate throughout the body and carry cargo that can be conferred to proximal or distant cells, making them major delivery vehicles for cellular communication. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infected cells release EVs that contain viral proteins such as the major viral oncogene, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). LMP1 has been shown to regulate the cellular gene expression of programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1). PD-L1, a protein that suppresses the immune system by binding to PD-1, (a receptor found on cytotoxic T cells). PD-L1 has been recently found to be packaged into small EVs contributing to immune evasion of lung cancer cells. Recent studies establish that MVs are shed in very large amounts by tumor cells, and that elevated levels of MVs correlate to disease metastasis and cancers being more aggressive. Here, we demonstrate PD-L1 enrichment in MVs released from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and an important function of EBV LMP1 in regulating PD-L1 levels in MVs. These PD-L1+ MVs containing LMP1 likely contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in EBV-associated cancers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Justin Watts ◽  
Tara L. Lin ◽  
Alice Mims ◽  
Prapti Patel ◽  
Cynthia Lee ◽  

APVO436 is a recombinant bispecific antibody designed to direct host cytotoxic T-cells to CD123-expressing blast cells in patients with hematologic malignancies. APVO436 showed promising tolerability and single-agent activity in relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The primary purpose of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic and pharmacodynamic effects of APVO436 in 14 R/R AML/MDS patients who had failed treatment with hypomethylating agents (HMA) or venetoclax plus HMA prior to being enrolled in the APVO436 Phase 1 dose-escalation study that was recently completed. Eight of these 14 patients had R/R AML and had failed treatment with HMA (N=2) or venetoclax plus HMA (N=6). The remaining 6 patients had R/R MDS and had also failed treatment with HMA (N=5) or venetoclax plus HMA (N=1). They were treated with APVO436 at submicrogram dose levels >0.08 mcg/kg that were active in preclinical NOD/SCID mouse xenograft models of AML. APVO436 activated patients’ T-cells as evidenced by reduced numbers of circulating CD123+CD34+ and CD33+CD34+ peripheral blasts. Single-agent activity was observed at dose levels ranging from 0.1 mcg/kg to 0.7 mcg/kg in 4 R/R AML patients (50%), including 3 patients with prolonged stable disease (SD) and one patient with complete remission (CR). Likewise, 3 MDS patients had SD (50%) and 3 additional MDS patients (50%) had a marrow CR at dose levels ranging from 0.1 mcg/kg to 0.8 mcg/kg. The median survival for the combined group of 14 R/R AML/MDS patients was 282 days. This early evidence of single-agent activity of APVO436 in R/R AML/MDS patients who failed HMA with or without venetoclax provides proof of concept supporting its in vivo immunomodulatory and anti-leukemic activity and warrants further investigation of its clinical impact potential.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Grace L. Edmunds ◽  
Carissa C. W. Wong ◽  
Rachel Ambler ◽  
Emily J. Milodowski ◽  
Hanin Alamir ◽  

AbstractTumors generate an immune-suppressive environment that prevents effective killing of tumor cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL). It remains largely unclear upon which cell type and at which stage of the anti-tumor response mediators of suppression act. We have combined an in vivo tumor model with a matching in vitro reconstruction of the tumor microenvironment based on tumor spheroids to identify suppressors of anti-tumor immunity that directly act on interaction between CTL and tumor cells and to determine mechanisms of action. An adenosine 2A receptor antagonist, as enhanced by blockade of TIM3, slowed tumor growth in vivo. Engagement of the adenosine 2A receptor and TIM3 reduced tumor cell killing in spheroids, impaired CTL cytoskeletal polarization ex vivo and in vitro and inhibited CTL infiltration into tumors and spheroids. With this role in CTL killing, blocking A2AR and TIM3 may complement therapies that enhance T cell priming, e.g. anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Chia-Chin Wu ◽  
Y. Alan Wang ◽  
J. Andrew Livingston ◽  
Jianhua Zhang ◽  
P. Andrew Futreal

AbstractOwing to a lack of response to the anti-PD1 therapy for most cancer patients, we develop a network approach to infer genes, pathways, and potential therapeutic combinations that are associated with tumor response to anti-PD1. Here, our prediction identifies genes and pathways known to be associated with anti-PD1, and is further validated by 6 CRISPR gene sets associated with tumor resistance to cytotoxic T cells and targets of the 36 compounds that have been tested in clinical trials for combination treatments with anti-PD1. Integration of our top prediction and TCGA data identifies hundreds of genes whose expression and genetic alterations that could affect response to anti-PD1 in each TCGA cancer type, and the comparison of these genes across cancer types reveals that the tumor immunoregulation associated with response to anti-PD1 would be tissue-specific. In addition, the integration identifies the gene signature to calculate the MHC I association immunoscore (MIAS) that shows a good correlation with patient response to anti-PD1 for 411 melanoma samples complied from 6 cohorts. Furthermore, mapping drug target data to the top genes in our association prediction identifies inhibitors that could potentially enhance tumor response to anti-PD1, such as inhibitors of the encoded proteins of CDK4, GSK3B, and PTK2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (67) ◽  
Diyuan Xue ◽  
Benjamin Moon ◽  
Jing Liao ◽  
Jingya Guo ◽  
Zhuangzhi Zou ◽  
T Cells ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Jung Yong Hong ◽  
Hee Jin Cho ◽  
Jason K. Sa ◽  
Xiaoqiao Liu ◽  
Sang Yun Ha ◽  

Abstract Background A limited number of studies have characterized genomic properties of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Methods Herein, we performed comprehensive molecular characterization of immediate (D-42 to D-1) pre-treatment tumor biopsy specimens from 60 patients with sorafenib-failed HCC in a single-arm prospective phase II trial of pembrolizumab. Objective response rate was the primary efficacy endpoint. We used whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and correlative analysis. In addition, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results The overall response rate of pembrolizumab in sorafenib-failed HCC patients was 10% ([6/60] 95% CI, 2.4–17.6). In a univariate analysis using clinicopathological features, female gender, PD-L1 positivity, and low neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were identified as contributing factors to pembrolizumab response. Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 and genomic amplifications in MET were found only in non-responders. Transcriptional profiles through RNA sequencing identified that pembrolizumab responders demonstrated T cell receptor (TCR) signaling activation with expressions of MHC genes, indicating increased levels of T cell cytotoxicity. In single-cell sequencing from 10 pre- and post-treatment peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), patients who achieved a partial response or stable disease exhibited immunological shifts toward cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Conversely, patients with progressive disease showed an increased number of both CD14+ and CD16+ monocytes and activation of neutrophil-associated pathways. Conclusions Taken together, HCC patients with infiltration of cytotoxic T cells, along with increased active circulating CD8+ T cells during pembrolizumab treatment and down-regulation of neutrophil-associated markers, significantly benefited from pembrolizumab treatment. Trial registration NCT#03163992 (first posted: May 23, 2017)

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Hyunsung Kim ◽  
Young Hyeh Ko

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is a neoplasm of NK cells or cytotoxic T cells presenting in extranodal sites, most often in the nasal cavity. The typical immunophenotypes are cCD3+, sCD3−, CD4−, CD5−, CD8−, CD16−, and CD56+ with the expression of cytotoxic molecules. Tumor subsets express NK cell receptors, CD95/CD95L, CD30, MYC, and PDL1. Virtually all the tumor cells harbor the EBV genome, which plays a key role in lymphomagenesis as an epigenetic driver. EBV-encoded oncoproteins modulate the host-cell epigenetic machinery, reprogramming the viral and host epigenomes using host epigenetic modifiers. NGS analysis revealed the mutational landscape of ENKTL, predominantly involving the JAK–STAT pathway, epigenetic modifications, the RNA helicase family, the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, and tumor suppressors, which indicate an important role of these pathways and this group of genes in the lymphomagenesis of ENKTL. Recently, three molecular subtypes were proposed, the tumor-suppressor/immune-modulator (TSIM), MGA-BRDT (MB), and HDAC9-EP300-ARID1A (HEA) subtypes, and they are well-correlated with the cell of origin, EBV pattern, genomic alterations, and clinical outcomes. A future investigation into the function and interaction of discovered genes would be very helpful for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of ENKTL and establishing better treatment strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jinguo Zhang ◽  
Shuaikang Pan ◽  
Chen Jian ◽  
Li Hao ◽  
Jie Dong ◽  

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among females. Chemotherapy drugs remain the cornerstone of treatment of BC and undergo significant shifts over the past 100 years. The advent of immunotherapy presents promising opportunities and constitutes a significant complementary to existing therapeutic strategies for BC. Chemotherapy as a cytotoxic treatment that targets proliferation malignant cells has recently been shown as an effective immune-stimulus in multiple ways. Chemotherapeutic drugs can cause the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from dying tumor cells, which result in long-lasting antitumor immunity by the key process of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Furthermore, Off-target effects of chemotherapy on immune cell subsets mainly involve activation of immune effector cells including natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and cytotoxic T cells, and depletion of immunosuppressive cells including Treg cells, M2 macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Current mini-review summarized recent large clinical trials regarding the combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy in BC and addressed the molecular mechanisms of immunostimulatory properties of chemotherapy in BC. The purpose of our work was to explore the immune-stimulating effects of chemotherapy at the molecular level based on the evidence from clinical trials, which might be a rationale for combinations of chemotherapy and immunotherapy in BC.

2022 ◽  
Tomabu Adjobimey ◽  
Julia Meyer ◽  
Vedrana Terkeš ◽  
Marijo Parcina ◽  
Achim Hoerauf

Abstract Background Contrary to the predictions, prevalence and mortality due to COVID-19 have remained moderate on the African continent. Several factors, including age, genetics, vaccines, and co-infections, might impact the course of the pandemic in Africa. Helminths are highly endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and are renowned for their ability to modulate their host immune reactions. Methods Here we analyzed in vitro the impact of major helminth antigens on the immune reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients using flow cytometry and Luminex. Results: We observed that helminth antigens significantly reduced the frequency of SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T helper cells. In contrast, the expression of SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cells was not affected. In addition, stimulation with helminth antigens was associated with increased IL-10 and a reduction of IFNγ and TNFα. Conclusion: Our data offer a plausible explanation for the moderate incidence of COVID-19 in Africa and support the hypothesis that helper T cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are mitigated in the presence of helminth antigens, while virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses are maintained.

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