antigen receptor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 101309
Xiao-Hong Chen ◽  
Ruo Chen ◽  
Ming-Yan Shi ◽  
Ruo-Fei Tian ◽  
Hai Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Luyao Wang ◽  
Yurong Chen ◽  
Xinrui Liu ◽  
Ziyi Li ◽  
Xiangpeng Dai

Cancer is one of the main causes of disease-related deaths in the world. Although cancer treatment strategies have been improved in recent years, the survival time of cancer patients is still far from satisfied. Cancer immunotherapy, such as Oncolytic virotherapy, Immune checkpoints inhibition, Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy, Chimeric antigen receptor natural killer (CAR-NK) cell therapy and macrophages genomic modification, has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for different kinds of cancer. However, many patients do not respond to the cancer immunotherapy which warrants further investigation to optimize this strategy. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), as a versatile genome engineering tool, has become popular in the biology research field and it was also applied to optimize tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, CRISPR-based high-throughput screening can be used in the study of immunomodulatory drug resistance mechanism. In this review, we summarized the development as well as the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the cancer immunotherapy and discussed the potential problems that may be caused by this combination.

2022 ◽  
Judith F Ashouri ◽  
Elizabeth McCarthy ◽  
Steven Yu ◽  
Noah Perlmutter ◽  
Charles Lin ◽  

How autoreactive CD4 T cells develop to cause rheumatoid arthritis remains unknown. We used a reporter for antigen-receptor signaling in the SKG autoimmune arthritis model to profile a T cell subpopulation enriched for arthritogenic naive CD4 T cells before arthritis onset by bulk and single cell RNA and T cell antigen-receptor (TCR) sequencing. Our analyses reveal that despite their impaired proximal TCR signaling, a subset of SKG naive CD4 T cells that have recently encountered endogenous antigen upregulate gene programs associated with positive regulation of T cell activation and cytokine signaling at higher levels than wild type cells in the pre-disease state. These arthritogenic cells also induce genes associated with negative regulation of T cell activation but do so less efficiently than wild type cells. Furthermore, their TCR sequences exhibit a previously unrecognized biased peripheral TCR Vβ repertoire likely driven by endogenous viral superantigens. These particular Vβs, known to recognize endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) superantigen, are further expanded in arthritic joints. Our results demonstrate that autoreactive naive CD4 T cells which recognize endogenous viral superantigens are poised to cause disease by their altered transcriptome.

Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vera Kristin Schmid ◽  
Ahmad Khadour ◽  
Nabil Ahmed ◽  
Carolin Brandl ◽  
Lars Nitschke ◽  

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent lymphoproliferative disorder of B cells. Although inhibitors targeting signal proteins involved in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling constitute an important part of the current therapeutic protocols for CLL patients, the exact role of BCR signaling, as compared to genetic aberration, in the development and progression of CLL is controversial. To investigate whether BCR expression per se is pivotal for the development and maintenance of CLL B cells, we used the TCL1 mouse model. By ablating the BCR in CLL cells from TCL1 transgenic mice, we show that CLL cells cannot survive without BCR signaling and are lost within eight weeks in diseased mice. Furthermore, we tested whether mutations augmenting B cell signaling influence the course of CLL development and its severity. The Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is an integral part of the BCR signaling machinery and its activity is indispensable for B cell survival. It is negatively regulated by the lipid phosphatase PTEN, whose loss mimics PI3K pathway activation. Herein, we show that PTEN has a key regulatory function in the development of CLL, as deletion of the Pten gene resulted in greatly accelerated onset of the disease. By contrast, deletion of the gene TP53, which encodes the tumor suppressor p53 and is highly mutated in CLL, did not accelerate disease development, confirming that development of CLL was specifically triggered by augmented PI3K activity through loss of PTEN and suggesting that CLL driver consequences most likely affect BCR signaling. Moreover, we could show that in human CLL patient samples, 64% and 81% of CLL patients with a mutated and unmutated IgH VH, respectively, show downregulated PTEN protein expression in CLL B cells if compared to healthy donor B cells. Importantly, we found that B cells derived from CLL patients had higher expression levels of the miRNA-21 and miRNA-29, which suppresses PTEN translation, compared to healthy donors. The high levels of miRNA-29 might be induced by increased PAX5 expression of the B-CLL cells. We hypothesize that downregulation of PTEN by increased expression levels of miR-21, PAX5 and miR-29 could be a novel mechanism of CLL tumorigenesis that is not established yet. Together, our study demonstrates the pivotal role for BCR signaling in CLL development and deepens our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the genesis of CLL and for the development of new treatment strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Jan Koedam ◽  
Martin Wermke ◽  
Armin Ehninger ◽  
Marc Cartellieri ◽  
Gerhard Ehninger

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhicai Lin ◽  
Xiangzhen Liu ◽  
Tao Liu ◽  
Haixia Gao ◽  
Sitong Wang ◽  

Nonviral transposon piggyBac (PB) and lentiviral (LV) vectors have been used to deliver chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to T cells. To understand the differences in the effects of PB and LV on CAR T-cell functions, a CAR targeting CD19 was cloned into PB and LV vectors, and the resulting pbCAR and lvCAR were delivered to T cells to generate CD19pbCAR and CD19lvCAR T cells. Both CD19CAR T-cell types were strongly cytotoxic and secreted high IFN-γ levels when incubated with Raji cells. TNF-α increased in CD19pbCAR T cells, whereas IL-10 increased in CD19lvCAR T cells. CD19pbCAR and CD19lvCAR T cells showed similar strong anti-tumor activity in Raji cell-induced mouse models, slightly reducing mouse weight while enhancing mouse survival. High, but not low or moderate, concentrations of CD19pbCAR T cells significantly inhibited Raji cell-induced tumor growth in vivo. These CD19pbCAR T cells were distributed mostly in mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow of the femur, spleen, kidneys, and lungs, specifically accumulating at CD19-rich sites and CD19-positive tumors, with CAR copy number being increased on day 7. These results indicate that pbCAR has its specific activities and functions in pbCAR T cells, making it a valuable tool for CAR T-cell immunotherapy.

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