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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Panigrahi M.K ◽  

The aim of the work is to use industrial waste as resource materials for formulating useful product for society. Materials are prepared using Fly ash as main ingredient through sintered process via solid state route. Different materials are prepared using various sintering temperature. The crystal structural and phases are explored by XRD analysis. Mulite phase are investigated, which is indicated the insulating properties of the materials. Surface topography of the prepared materials is analyzed by FESEM characterization. EDS analysis is also done during the FESEM characterization and is assessed the various chemical compositions. Identification of different chemical groups in the processed Fly Ash is carried out by FTIR analysis. Highest electrical resistivity is estimated and is found to be 35.1 MΩ, which indicates the very good insulating property.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 644
Maria Harja ◽  
Carmen Teodosiu ◽  
Dorina Nicolina Isopescu ◽  
Osman Gencel ◽  
Doina Lutic ◽  

Fly ash wastes (silica, aluminum and iron-rich materials) could be smartly valorized by their incorporation in concrete formulation, partly replacing the cement. The necessary binding properties can be accomplished by a simple procedure: an alkali activation process, involving partial hydrolysis, followed by gel formation and polycondensation. The correlations between the experimental fly ash processing conditions, particle characteristics (size and morphology) and the compressive strength values of the concrete prepared using this material were investigated by performing a parametric optimization study to deduce the optimal processing set of conditions. The alkali activation procedure included the variation of the NaOH solutions concentration (8–12 M), temperature values (25–65 °C) and the liquid/solid ratio (1–3). The activation led to important modifications of the crystallography of the samples (shown by powder XRD analysis), their morphologies (seen by SEM), particle size distribution and Blaine surface values. The values of the compressive strength of concrete prepared using fly ash derivatives were between 16.8–22.6 MPa. Thus, the processed fly ash qualifies as a proper potential building material, solving disposal-associated problems, as well as saving significant amounts of cement consumed in concrete formulation.

P Subramani ◽  
M Sathishkumar ◽  
M Manikandan ◽  
S Senthil Kumaran ◽  
V Sreenivasulu ◽  

Abstract Thermal barrier coating plays a vital role in protecting materials' surfaces from high-temperature environment conditions. This work compares the demeanour of uncoated and air plasma sprayed Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coated X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 substrates subjected to air oxidation and molten salt (Na2SO4 + 60%V2O5) environment condition at 900°C for 50 cycles. Coating characteristics have been analyzed through microstructure, thickness, porosity, hardness, and bond strength. SEM, EDS and XRD analysis were used to analyze corrosion's product at the end of the 50th cycle. Coating microstructures showed a uniform laminar structure that is adherent and denser with a coating thickness of 150 ± 20 μm and porosity less than 3.5%. The Microhardness of both the coated substrates were higher than that of the bare substrate. Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coating bond strength was 38.9 MPa and 42.5 MPa. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the parabolic rate law of oxidation for all the substrates in both environments. In the molten salt environment, all the substrates exhibited higher weight gain compared to the air oxidation environment. In both environmental conditions, the uncoated X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 alloy exhibited higher weight gain than the coated substrates. The formation of Cr2O3, NiO and spinel oxide NiCr2O4 offers good resistance to corrosion to all the substrates in both the environmental condition. However, the presence of Mo and Nb significantly accelerated the corrosion of the substrate, thereby increasing the weight of the NiCrMoNb substrate. It is observed that Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coating over the X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 substrate significantly protected the substrate against the hot corrosion than the bare alloy exposed to similar environmental conditions.

Inorganics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Matteo Savastano ◽  
Valeria Monini ◽  
Carla Bazzicalupi ◽  
Antonio Bianchi

Iodine-dense polyiodide phases are interesting materials for a number of potential uses, including batteries and solid-state conductors. The incorporation of transition metal cations is considered a promising way to enhance the stability, tune the properties, and influence the architecture of polyiodides. However, several interesting metals, including Cu(II), may suffer redox processes, which generally make them not compatible with the I2/I− redox couple. Herein L, a simple derivative of cyclen, is proposed as a Cu(II) ligand capable of protecting the +2 oxidation state of the metal even in the presence of polyiodides. With a step by step approach, we report the crystal structure of free L; then we present spectrophotometric verification of Cu(II) complex stability, stoichiometry, and formation kinetic in DMF solution, together with Cu(II) binding mode elucidation via XRD analysis of [Cu(L)Cl]ClO4∙CH3CN crystals; afterwards, the stability of the CuL complex in the presence of I− is demonstrated in DMF solution, where the formation of a Cu:L:I− ternary complex, rather than reduction to Cu(I), is observed; lastly, polyiodide crystals are prepared, affording the [Cu(L)I]2I3I5 crystal structure. This layered structure is highly peculiar due to its chiral arrangement, opening further perspective for the crystal engineering of polyiodide phases.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 245
Nugroho Pranyoto ◽  
Yuni Dewi Susanti ◽  
Immanuel Joseph Ondang ◽  
Artik Elisa Angkawijaya ◽  
Felycia Edi Soetaredjo ◽  

The fast depletion of fossil fuels has attracted researchers worldwide to explore alternative biofuels, such as biodiesel. In general, the production of biodiesel is carried out via transesterification processes of vegetable oil with the presence of a suitable catalyst. A mixed metal oxide has shown to be a very attractive heterogeneous catalyst with a high performance. Most of the mixed metal oxide is made by using the general wetness impregnation method. A simple route to synthesize silane-modified mixed metal oxide (CaO-CuO/C6) catalysts has been successfully developed. A fluorocarbon surfactant and triblock copolymers (EO)106(PO)70(EO)106 were used to prevent the crystal agglomeration of carbonate salts (CaCO3-CuCO3) as the precursor to form CaO-CuO with a definite size and morphology. The materials show high potency as a catalyst in the transesterification process to produce biodiesel. The calcined co-precipitation product has a high crystallinity form, as confirmed by the XRD analysis. The synthesized catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The mechanism of surface modification and the effects of the catalytic activity were also discussed. The biodiesel purity of the final product was analyzed by gas chromatography. The optimum biodiesel yield was 90.17% using the modified mixed metal oxide CaO-CuO/C6.

Jinjing Liu ◽  
Xin Long ◽  
Hongmei Zhu ◽  
Weihua Zhu ◽  
Zhiyong Chen ◽  

Abstract In the present work, 5wt%CaB6/HA bioceramic coatings with different La2O3contents (0-0.6wt%) have been fabricated by a laser cladding technique on Ti-6Al-4V. The effects of La2O3 contents on microstructure and properties of the laser-cladded 5wt%CaB6/HA coatings have been carefully investigated. The results show that the microstructure is obviously refined, and the structure is relatively uniform after doping 0.2-0.4 wt% La2O3. As the La2O3 content increases, the corrosion resistance are found to increase firstly and then gradually decrease. The XRD analysis confirms that the amount of HA and TCP in the coating reaches maximum after doping 0.2wt% La2O3. The La2O3-doped coatings show a significantly higher bone-like apatite precipitation after immersion in SBF compared with La2O3-free coating. In vitro experiment also shows that 5wt%CaB6/HA bioceramic coatings with 0.2-0.4wt% La2O3 are more suitable for the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells, exhibiting superior bioactivity and biocompatibility.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 549
Katarzyna Borek ◽  
Przemysław Czapik

This paper aims to investigate the possibility of using waste glass of different colours as a complete substitute for quartz sand in autoclaved silica–lime samples. On the one hand, this increases the possibility of recycling waste glass; on the other hand, it allows obtaining autoclaved materials with better properties. In this research, reference samples with quartz sand (R) and white (WG), brown (BG), and green (GG) waste container glass were made. Parameters such as compressive strength, bulk density, and water absorption were examined on all samples. The samples were examined using a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectroscopy detector (SEM/EDS) and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The WG samples showed 187% higher compressive strength, BG by 159%, and GG by 134% compared to sample R. In comparison to the reference sample, volumetric density was 16.8% lower for sample WG, 13.2% lower for BG, and 7.1% lower for GG. Water absorption increased as bulk density decreased. The WG sample achieved the highest water absorption value, 15.84%. An X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of calcite, portlandite, and tobermorite phases. Depending on the silica aggregate used, there were differences in phase composition linked to compressive strength. Hydrated calcium silicates with varying crystallisation degrees were visible in the microstructure image.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 103-108
Abd Hakim S

This study aims to characterize the tungsten-urea analyte indicator electrode. The method used is biosensor potentiometry with urease enzyme immobilization technique. This indicator electrode was coated with PVA-enzyme coated with glutaraldehyde (GA) 2.9% coated with PVC-KTpClPB- o-NPOE with o-NPOE variation of 61% and 66%. Characterization of coated indicator electrodes using SEM-EDS, FTIR and XRD analysis. A1-4 61% indicator electrode sample coated PVA-enzyme 1x coated with glutaraldehyde (GA) 2.9% 1x coated PVC-KTpClPB- o-NPOE 1x, with o-NPOE 61%. A3-4 61% indicator electrode sample coated PVA-enzyme 3x coated with glutaraldehyde (GA) 2.9% 1x coated PVC-KTpClPB- o-NPOE 1x, with o-NPOE 61%. Likewise, the reasoning of samples A1-4 66% and A3-4 66%. There are four indicator electrodes made with the notation A1-4 61%, A1-4 66%, A3-4 61% and A3-4 66%. The best results were obtained at the indicator electrode sample A1-4 61%, contributing to the urea sensor of the potentiometer cell

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 69
Diana Maria Vranceanu ◽  
Elena Ungureanu ◽  
Ionut Cornel Ionescu ◽  
Anca Constantina Parau ◽  
Adrian Emil Kiss ◽  

The current research aim is to biofunctionalize pure titanium (Ti, grade IV) substrate with titania nanotubes and Zn doped hydroxyapatite-based coatings by applying a duplex electrochemical treatment, and to evaluate the influence of Zn content on the physico-chemical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp). The obtained nanostructured surfaces were covered with HAp-based coatings doped with Zn in different concentrations by electrochemical deposition in pulsed galvanostatic mode. The obtained surfaces were characterized in terms of morphology, elemental and phasic composition, chemical bonds, roughness, and adhesion. The nanostructured surface consisted of titania nanotubes (NT), aligned, vertically oriented, and hollow, with an inner diameter of ~70 nm. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the nanostructured surface consists of an anatase phase and some rutile peaks as a secondary phase. The morphology of all coatings consisted of ribbon like-crystals, and by increasing the Zn content the coating became denser due to the decrement of the crystals’ dimensions. The elemental and phase compositions evidenced that HAp was successfully doped with Zn through the pulsed galvanostatic method on the Ti nanostructured surfaces. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of HAp in all coatings, while the adhesion test showed that the addition of a high quantity leads to some delamination. Based on the obtained results, it can be said that the addition of Zn enhances the properties of HAp, and through proper experimental design, the concentration of Zn can be modulated to achieve coatings with tunable features.

M. V. Rudenko ◽  
N. V. Gaponenko ◽  
E. B. Chubenko ◽  
E. I. Lashkovskaya ◽  
K. V. Shustsikava ◽  

Erbium-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3:Er) xerogel film with a thickness of about 500 nm was formed on the porous strontium titanate (SrTiO[Formula: see text] xerogel film on Si substrate after annealing at 800[Formula: see text]C or 900[Formula: see text]C. The elaborated structures show room temperature upconversion luminescence under 980 nm excitation with the photoluminescence (PL) bands at 523, 546, 658, 800 and 830 nm corresponding to 2H[Formula: see text]4I[Formula: see text], 4S[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text], 4F[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text] and 4I[Formula: see text]4I[Formula: see text] transitions of trivalent erbium. Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of BaTiO3:Er\porous SrTiO3\Si structure showed the presence of perovskite phases. Its excellent up-conversion optical performance will greatly broaden its applications in perovskite solar cells and high-end anti-counterfeiting technologies.

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