Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which belongs to the family of Dioscorea, is widely naturalized throughout China, due to its high economic and medicinal value. Since 2019, water-soaked lesions were frequently observed in the underground tubers of Chinese yam located in Xinyang City, Henan Province. To identify the causal agent, ten pieces of tissue from the underground tubers with disease symptoms were collected. Those infected tissues (5×5 mm) were crushed in 500 μL sterilized water after surface sterilization and streaked onto Luria-Bertani agar plates. Pale-yellowish, rod-shaped, slimy single bacterial colonies with smooth margin were observed after 24 hours of incubation, and three bacterial colonies (named CY-1, CY-2 and CY-3) were randomly selected for further biochemical and molecular characterization. These bacteria were gram-negative with the cell length of 1.0 to 3.0 μm, width of 0.5 to 1.0 μm, and with peritrichous flagella. Subsequently, the bacteria were biochemically analyzed through BIOLOG (Hayward, CA) and identified as Pantoea agglomerans with 99% probability. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis results based on 16S rDNA, DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB), and RNA polymerase sigma factor (rpoD) showed these three isolates were most closely related to P. agglomerans. The sequence of 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoD of each strain was submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers MZ541065 MZ541066 and MZ541067 for 16S rDNA; MZ669846, MZ669847 and MZ669848 for gyrB; MZ669849, MZ669850 and MZ669851 for ropD. Pathogenicity test was performed to complete Koch’s postulates. Tubers of Chinese yam were wounded by sterile needle and inoculated with 500 μL 108 CFU/mL bacterial suspension. Sterilized water was used as a control. Five pots were inoculated for each isolate. Water-soaked lesions appeared after five days incubation at 25°C in a biochemical incubator and no lesions were observed on the control. Bacteria re-isolated from the lesions were similar in phenotypic and molecular characteristics to the original isolates. In brief, based on colony morphology, biochemical tests, characteristic sequence analysis, and pathogenicity verification, the pathogen responsible for the soft rot of Chinese yam in Henan Province was identified as P. agglomerans. In China, P. agglomerans has been reported to associate with bacterial soft rot on Chinese cabbage (Guo et al., 2020). To our knowledge, this work is the first report of bacterial rot caused by P. agglomerans on Chinese yam.
In this study, Chinese yam polysaccharide (CYP) was isolated from yam by hydroextraction and alcoholic precipitation. Subsequently, the chlorosulfate-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method was used to obtain the sulfated Chinese yam polysaccharide...
Leydig cell injury has been described as a primary driver of testicular dysfunction and is affected by oxidative stress. Dioscorea polystachya (Chinese yam) is used to improve testicular dysfunction in clinical and pharmacological research via its antioxidative activity, but the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of Chinese yam on testicular dysfunction and its suppression of Leydig cell oxidative damage remain unclear. In this study, we obtained a Chinese yam protein (DP1) and explored its effectiveness and possible mechanism in improving testicular dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. We established a testicular dysfunction model in rats using hydrocortisone (HCT). DP1 increased body weight and organ index, improved the deterioration in testicular morphology (including increasing the diameter of seminiferous tubules and thickness of germinal cell layers, inhibiting testicular cell apoptosis by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and impeding collagen leakage by downregulating TGF-β1 and p-SMAD2/3 expression), and restored the testosterone content. In addition, DP1 enhanced the number of Leydig cells in rats and H2O2-induced TM3 Leydig cells, and the effect of DP1 on the apoptosis, fibrosis, and testosterone content of TM3 cells was similar to that observed in vivo. These changes were dependent on the regulation of oxidative stress, including significantly reduced intracellular 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, enhanced superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased superoxide anion levels, which were confirmed via a superoxide overexpression system. Furthermore, we observed that DP1 promoted Nrf2 nuclear import and upregulated antioxidant factor expression in vivo and in vitro. However, Nrf2 silencing eliminated the ability of DP1 to increase the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, reduce the expression levels of TGF-β1 and p-SMAD2/3, and increase testosterone contents in H2O2-induced TM3 cells. In conclusion, DP1 reversed the HCT-induced testicular apoptosis and fibrosis and decreased testosterone contents by alleviating Leydig cell oxidative damage via upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway.
The Chinese yam (Dioscorea polystachya Turcz.) is an underutilized orphan tuber crop. However, in China it has been used in traditional medicine and food for centuries due to the presence of high starch, protein, fiber, and biologically active compounds. Knowledge on the metabolomic profiles of Chinese yam varieties is needed to explore the underutilized metabolites and variety specific uses. Here, the metabolome of eight Chinese yam varieties that are cultivated in different Chinese regions was profiled. A total of 431 metabolites belonging to different biochemical classes was detected. The majority of detected metabolites were classified as amino acids and derivatives. The different yam varieties offer unique uses; e.g., Hebei Ma Yam, Henan Huai Yam, and Henan Wild Yam were the most metabolically enriched and suitable as food and medicine. Yams from Hubei region had comparable nutritional profiles, which is most probably due to their geographical origin. Specifically, Henan Wild Yam had the highest concentrations of diosgenin, vitamins, and polysaccharides. Overall, this study presents a metabolome reference for D. polystachya varieties.