norway spruce
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2022 ◽  
Vol 506 ◽  
pp. 119950
Barbora Stříbrská ◽  
Jaromír Hradecký ◽  
Jaroslav Čepl ◽  
Ivana Tomášková ◽  
Rastislav Jakuš ◽  

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Björn Berg ◽  
Mikael Lönn

We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Azadeh Rezapour ◽  
Marika Truu ◽  
Martin Maddison ◽  
Gristin Rohula-Okunev ◽  
Arvo Tullus ◽  

Peatland drainage based on ditch systems is a widely used forestry management practice in the boreal and hemiboreal forests to improve tree growth. This study investigated the morphological variation in absorptive roots (first- and second-order roots) across the distance gradient from the ditch with four sampling plots (5, 15, 40, and 80 m) in six drained peatland forests dominated by Downy birch and Norway spruce. The dominating tree species had a significant effect on the variation in absorptive root morphological traits. The absorptive roots of birch were thinner with a higher specific root area and length (SRA and SRL), higher branching intensity (BI), and lower root tissue density (RTD) than spruce. The distance from the ditch affected the absorptive root morphological traits (especially SRA and RTD), but this effect was not dependent on tree species and was directionally consistent between birch and spruce. With increased distance from the ditch (from plot 5 to plot 80), the mean SRA increased by about 10% in birch and 5% in spruce; by contrast, the mean RTD decreased by about 10% in both tree species, indicating a potential shift in nutrient foraging. However, soil physical and chemical properties were not dependent on the distance from the ditch. We found a species-specific response in absorptive root morphological traits to soil properties such as peat depth, pH, and temperature. Our results should be considered when evaluating the importance of morphological changes in absorptive roots when trees acclimate to a changing climate.

2022 ◽  
Laura Morales ◽  
Kelly Swarts

We leveraged publicly available data on juvenile tree height of 299 Central European Norway spruce populations grown in a common garden experiment across 24 diverse trial locations in Austria and weather data from the trial locations and population provenances to parse the heritable and climatic components of tree height variation. Principal component analysis of geospatial and weather variables demonstrated high interannual variation among trial environments, largely driven by differences in precipitation, and separation of population provenances based on altitude, temperature, and snowfall. Tree height was highly heritable and genetic variation for tree height was strongly associated with climatic relationships among population provenances. Modeling the covariance between populations and trial environments based on climatic data increased the heritable signal for tree height.

Min Hu ◽  
Anders Olsson ◽  
Stephen Hall ◽  
Thomas Seifert

AbstractThe connection between branch and trunk in a tree must be strong enough to transfer all loads acting on the branch, and it is well known that such branch-stem connections are indeed very strong. In this paper, X-ray computer tomography is employed to investigate the local fibre orientation in the close surrounding of a knot in a Norway spruce specimen to better understand the origins of the mechanical strength of the branch-trunk connection. First, a wood specimen containing an entire knot from pith to bark was imaged with a voxel size of 52 µm. Subsequently, smaller specimens were cut from this original specimen and imaged again with increasingly higher resolution over four levels. With the highest resolution level (2.6 µm voxel size), the tracheids with smallest lumen were successfully traced. The results revealed how the direction of the fibre paths that start below the knot curve around it as the paths progress upwards to the region just above the knot, where the paths divide into two: one set of paths integrating with the knot on its top side and the other set continuing up along the trunk. Fibres that integrate with the knot at its top follow paths just before they continue into the knot, with a radius of curvature of only about 1 mm in both vertical and horizontal directions. No abrupt change of fibre pattern between latewood and earlywood is observed; rather, a continuous change of fibre direction across annual layers can be seen. The detailed characterisation of the local fibre structure around the knot provides new data that can explain the remarkable strength of the branch-trunk connection.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 456
Marine Guy ◽  
Manon Mathieu ◽  
Ioannis P. Anastopoulos ◽  
María G. Martínez ◽  
Frédéric Rousseau ◽  

In this work, Norway spruce bark was used as a precursor to prepare activated biochars (BCs) via chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a chemical activator. A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was conducted to evaluate and identify the optimal conditions to reach high specific surface area and high mass yield of BC samples. The studied BC preparation parameters and their levels were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (700, 800, and 900 °C), holding time (1, 2, and 3 h), and ratio of the biomass: chemical activator of 1: 1, 1.5, and 2. The planned BBD yielded BC with extremely high SSA values, up to 2209 m2·g−1. In addition, the BCs were physiochemically characterized, and the results indicated that the BCs exhibited disordered carbon structures and presented a high quantity of O-bearing functional groups on their surfaces, which might improve their adsorption performance towards organic pollutant removal. The BC with the highest SSA value was then employed as an adsorbent to remove Evans blue dye (EB) and colorful effluents. The kinetic study followed a general-order (GO) model, as the most suitable model to describe the experimental data, while the Redlich–Peterson model fitted the equilibrium data better. The EB adsorption capacity was 396.1 mg·g−1. The employment of the BC in the treatment of synthetic effluents, with several dyes and other organic and inorganic compounds, returned a high percentage of removal degree up to 87.7%. Desorption and cyclability tests showed that the biochar can be efficiently regenerated, maintaining an adsorption capacity of 75% after 4 adsorption–desorption cycles. The results of this work pointed out that Norway spruce bark indeed is a promising precursor for producing biochars with very promising properties.

Aitor Barbero-López ◽  
Viljem Vek ◽  
Ida Poljanšek ◽  
Virpi Virjamo ◽  
Yeray Manuel López-Gómez ◽  

Abstract Purpose Norway spruce log soaking water (SLSW) is considered a waste in the plywood and veneer industry but has not been characterised, and its possible uses remain unexplored. The purpose of this study is to characterise and test the possibility of using SLSW in wood preservative formulations. Methods First, the SLSW was characterised, and the presence of carbohydrates in the log soaking water was reduced with a hydrophobic adsorbent to reduce the nutrient availability for fungi in the liquids. Then, the feasibility of using SLSW and the sugar free SLSW (denoted later as EHC solution) as wood preservatives was studied by testing their antifungal and antioxidant activities and performing a mini-block test against Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Fibroporia vaillantii and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Results Several phenolic compounds were found in the SLSW. This water also had high antioxidant activity at 1000 mg/L before and after carbohydrate removal but no antifungal activity. Its impregnation in wood caused a slight reduction in mass loss of the Pinus sylvestris specimens but had no effect on the Fagus sylvatica specimens when exposed against Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Fibroporia vaillantii and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Conclusion The SLSW as a wood preservative is invalid, even after partial carbohydrate removal. However, due to the presence of wood constituents, SLSW could be a resource for other uses requiring high antioxidant activity but specific applications need further investigation. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Joachim Zhu ◽  
Anne Thimonier ◽  
Sophia Etzold ◽  
Katrin Meusburger ◽  
Peter Waldner ◽  

Leaf morphological traits (LMTs) of forest trees have been observed to vary across space and species. However, long-term records of LMTs are scarce, due to a lack of measurements and systematic leaf archives. This leaves a large gap in our understanding of the temporal dynamics and drivers of LMT variations, which may help us understand tree acclimation strategies. In our study, we used long-term LMT measurements from foliar material collections of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), performed every second year from 1995 to 2019 on the same trees within the Swiss Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research Program LWF. The 11 study plots (6 beech, 4 spruce, and 1 mixed) are distributed along gradients of elevation (485–1,650 m a.s.l.), mean annual precipitation (935–2142 mm), and mean annual temperature (3.2–9.8°C). The investigated LMTs were (i) leaf or needle mass, (ii) leaf area or needle length, and (iii) leaf mass per area or needle mass per length. We combined this unique data set with plot variables and long-term data on potential temporal drivers of LMT variations, including meteorological and tree trait data. We used univariate linear regressions and linear mixed-effects models to identify the main spatial and temporal drivers of LMT variations, respectively. For beech LMTs, our temporal analysis revealed effects of mast year and crown defoliation, and legacy effects of vapor pressure deficit and temperature in summer and autumn of the preceding year, but no clear long-term trend was observed. In contrast, spruce LMTs were mainly driven by current-year spring conditions, and only needle mass per length showed a decreasing long-term trend over the study period. In temporal models, we observed that LMTs of both species were influenced by elevation and foliar nutrient concentrations, and this finding was partly confirmed by our spatial analyses. Our results demonstrate the importance of temporal analysis for determining less recognized drivers and legacy effects that influence LMTs, which are difficult to determine across space and species. The observed differences in the temporal drivers of beech and spruce LMTs suggest differences in the adaptation and acclimation potential of the two species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 503 ◽  
pp. 119772
Ruffy Rodrigo ◽  
Joseph L. Pettit ◽  
Radim Matula ◽  
Daniel Kozák ◽  
Radek Bače ◽  

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