biochemical traits
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2022 ◽  
Vol 261 ◽  
pp. 107357
Seyed Morteza Zahedi ◽  
Marjan Sadat Hosseini ◽  
Naghmeh Daneshvar Hakimi Meybodi ◽  
Javier Abadía ◽  
Mateja Germ ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 201
Tahereh Ashrostaghi ◽  
Sasan Aliniaeifard ◽  
Aida Shomali ◽  
Shiva Azizinia ◽  
Jahangir Abbasi Koohpalekani ◽  

Low temperatures are a substantial limitation in the geographic distribution of warm-season crops such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Tolerance to low temperatures varies among different plant species and genotypes when changes in environmental cues occur. Therefore, biochemical and biophysical events should be coordinated to form a physiological response and cope with low temperatures. We examined how light intensity influences the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis and some biochemical traits. We used chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and polyphasic fluorescence transient to analyze cold stress damage by 4 °C. Photosynthetic Photon Flux Densities (PPFDs) of 0, 300, and 600 μmol m−2 s−1, in four accessions of cucumber, were investigated. The results show that the negative effects of cold stress are PPFD-dependent. The adverse effect of cold stress on the electron transport chain is more pronounced in plants exposed to 600 μmol m−2 s−1 than the control and dark-exposed plants, indicated by a disturbance in the electron transport chain and higher energy dissipation. Moreover, biochemical traits, including the H2O2 content, ascorbate peroxidase activity, electrolyte leakage, and water-soluble carbohydrate, increased under low temperature by increasing the PPFD. In contrast, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased under low temperature through PPFD elevation. Low temperature induced a H2O2 accumulation via suppressing ascorbate peroxidase activity in a PPFD-dependent manner. In conclusion, high PPFDs exacerbate the adverse effects of low temperature on the cucumber seedlings.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Konstantinos V. Arsenopoulos ◽  
Eleftherios Triantafillou ◽  
Athanasios I. Gelasakis ◽  
Elias Papadopoulos

Fly infestation remains a universal problem for dairy cattle herds, affecting the animals’ health and welfare status. Pre-weaned dairy calves are significantly challenged by the direct and indirect consequences of severe fly infestation, heat-stress and their interaction, which contribute to a stressful and fatiguing environment. Among several physiological, behavioral, clinical and biochemical traits, serum cortisol (SC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well as feed consumption can be used as valid indicators of potential stressful and fatiguing conditions and, therefore, can be efficiently used for stress analysis studies. Hence, the objective of the study was to assess the fly-repellency effect of deltamethrin on pre-weaned dairy calves exposed to heat stress conditions, as well as its association with SC, CK concentrations and feed consumption. Two commercial dairy cattle herds of the Holstein breed in Central Macedonia (Greece) were involved in the study during summer months and under heat stress conditions. Deltamethrin administration resulted in (i) a decreased fly population (100% Musca domestica) landing on pre-weaned dairy calves, (ii) a reduced SC (stress indicator) and CK (fatigue indicator) concentration, and (iii) an increased consumption of feedstuff in deltamethrin treated animals compared to the untreated ones.

Anand Kumar ◽  
Lokendra Singh ◽  
Prashant Kaushik

: Using line × tester analysis, the current research analyses parental genotypes and their combinations in normal conditions and identifies the genes influencing yield characteristics. In the present study, 15 diverse genotypes, including 10 lines, 5 testers, and 50 F1s hybrids, were evaluated for 13 morphological and 2 biochemical traits. A suitable location was taken to study the effect of 15 characters. The results exposed that ability mean squares were significant for all studied additive and non-additive components. In this direction, the general combining ability of PBW-343, DBW-39, K-402, K-1317, KRL-210, and K-68 were higher than the remaining parents. For morphological traits like yield, the top five crosses were described based on SCA effects, namely, HD-3086 × HD-3171, K-402 × K-9107, K-1317 × K-9107, HD-2967 × K-0307 and K-402 × K-68 in F1 generation. In addition, the high value of heritability was estimated for plant height (77.32%), spike length (32.26%), biological yield/plant (59.52%), and grain yield/plant (68.76%). However, the moderate values of heritability were estimated for days to maturity (22.78%) and phenol color reaction (18.00%). The higher genetic advance was not found for recorded characters; however, a moderate genetic advance was recorded for grain yield per plant (13.15%) and harvest index (11.72%). High heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance was recorded for two characters grain yield per plant and harvest index in F1 and F2 generations.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262099
Md Jahirul Islam ◽  
Md Jalal Uddin ◽  
Mohammad Anwar Hossain ◽  
Robert Henry ◽  
Mst. Kohinoor Begum ◽  

Drought tolerance is a complex trait controlled by many metabolic pathways and genes and identifying a solution to increase the resilience of plants to drought stress is one of the grand challenges in plant biology. This study provided compelling evidence of increased drought stress tolerance in two sugar beet genotypes when treated with exogenous putrescine (Put) at the seedling stage. Morpho-physiological and biochemical traits and gene expression were assessed in thirty-day-old sugar beet seedlings subjected to drought stress with or without Put (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) application. Sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress exhibited a significant decline in growth and development as evidenced by root and shoot growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression. Drought stress resulted in a sharp increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (89.4 and 118% in SBT-010 and BSRI Sugar beet 2, respectively) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (35.6 and 27.1% in SBT-010 and BSRI Sugar beet 2, respectively). These changes were strongly linked to growth retardation as evidenced by principal component analysis (PCA) and heatmap clustering. Importantly, Put-sprayed plants suffered from less oxidative stress as indicated by lower H2O2 and MDA accumulation. They better regulated the physiological processes supporting growth, dry matter accumulation, photosynthetic pigmentation and gas exchange, relative water content; modulated biochemical changes including proline, total soluble carbohydrate, total soluble sugar, and ascorbic acid; and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PCA results strongly suggested that Put conferred drought tolerance mostly by enhancing antioxidant enzymes activities that regulated homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. These findings collectively provide an important illustration of the use of Put in modulating drought tolerance in sugar beet plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 1059-1066
Ram Kumar ◽  
PP Sing ◽  
Md Abbas Ahmad

Response of morphological and biochemical traits against okra shoot and fruit borer in different okra varieties were studied. Among the fifteen okra varieties under test Kashi Satdhari was the most superior variety as it showed lowest (2.60) per cent shoot damage followed by D-1-87-5 (3.62%) and Pusa A-4 (4.24%). On the contrary, in Pusa Sawani highest level of shoot infestation (16.23%) followed by SB-2 (13.74%) as against Kashi Pragati (check) 10.08 per cent were recorded. Further, okra variety Kashi Satdhari (7.87%) showed lowest fruit infestation and was considered as least susceptible variety which was at par with NO-136 (8.77%), D-1-87-5 (9.12%) and Kashi Leela (9.38%). Amongst all the okra varieties evaluated for their susceptibility to fruit infestation, Pusa Sawani and VRO-03 showed relatively higher fruit infestation i.e. 35.17 and 33.41 per cent, respectively and registered as the most inferior varieties against (26.12%) Kashi Pragati (check). The correlation study between fruit infestation and morphological factors implied that primary branching and trichome length adversely affect the borer infestation. Further, phenol and phosphorus availability in host plant also showed negative effect on shoot and fruit borer infestation. Bangladesh J. Bot. 50(4): 1059-1066, 2021 (December)

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 343-348
Manish K. Yadav ◽  
Lipsa Das ◽  
V. Ramalakshmi ◽  
Nihal R. Sunil ◽  
Sudhanshu Bala Nayak ◽  

Investigation undertaken with eight chickpea genotypes (Vallabh Kallar Channa 1, Ankur (CSJ 140), JGK-2, Ganguar (GNG 1581), Jawahar Gram-1 (JGK 1), WCG-10 (Pant G-10), Avrodhi and ICC 506-EB as resistant check) for their morphological and biochemical traits of resistance to Helicoverpa armigera, indicated trichome number, length and density, and nitrogen, total chlorophyll and potassium content as influencing the resistance/ susceptibility levels in chick pea.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2802
Diaa Abd El-Moneim ◽  
Eman I. S. ELsarag ◽  
Salman Aloufi ◽  
Asmaa M. El-Azraq ◽  
Salha Mesfer ALshamrani ◽  

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic crop that can withstand a variety of abiotic stresses, including salt. The present research examined the mechanisms of salt tolerance in five different quinoa genotypes at four different salinity levels (control (60), 80, 120, and 160 mM NaCl). ISSR and SCoT analysis revealed high polymorphism percentages of 90.91% and 85.26%, respectively. Furthermore, ISSR 1 and SCoT 7 attained the greatest number of polymorphic amplicons (27 and 26), respectively. Notably, LINE-6 and M-28 genotypes demonstrated the greatest number of unique positive and negative amplicons (50 and 42) generated from ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Protein pattern analysis detected 11 bands with a polymorphism percentage 27.27% among the quinoa genotypes, with three unique bands distinguishable for the M-28 genotype. Similarity correlation indicated that the highest similarity was between S-10 and Regeolone-3 (0.657), while the lowest similarity was between M-28 and LINE-6 (0.44). Significant variations existed among the studied salinity treatments, genotypes, and the interactions between them. The highest and lowest values for all the studied morpho-physiological and biochemical traits were recorded at 60 and 160 mM NaCl concentrations, respectively, except for the Na and proline contents, which exhibited the opposite relationship. The M-28 genotype demonstrated the highest values for all studied characteristics, while the LINE-6 genotype represented the lowest in both seasons. On the other hand, mRNA transcript levels for CqSOS1 did not exhibit differential expression in roots and leaf tissues, while the expression of CqNHX1 was upregulated more in both tissues for the M-28 genotype than for the LINE-6 genotype, and its maximum induction was seen in the leaves. Overall, the genotypes M-28 and LINE-6 were identified as the most and least salinity-tolerant, respectively.

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