The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gas species used for low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma surface treatment, using various gas species and different treatment times, on zirconia surface state and the bond strength between zirconia and dental resin cement. Three groups of zirconia specimens with different surface treatments were prepared as follows: untreated group, alumina sandblasting treatment group, and plasma treatment group. Nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), argon (Ar), and air were employed for plasma irradiation. The bond strength between each zirconia specimen and resin cement was compared using a tension test. The effect of the gas species for plasma irradiation on the zirconia surface was investigated using a contact angle meter, an optical interferometer, an X-ray diffractometer, and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. Plasma irradiation increased the wettability and decreased the carbon contamination on the zirconia surface, whereas it did not affect the surface topography and crystalline phase. The bond strength varied depending on the gas species and irradiation time. Plasma treatment with N2 gas significantly increased bond strength compared to the untreated group and showed a high bond strength equivalent to that of the sandblasting treatment group. The removal of carbon contamination from the zirconia surface and an increase in the percentage of Zr-O2 on the zirconia surface by plasma irradiation might increase bond strength.
Negative ions are an important constituent of the spatial afterglow of atmospheric pressure plasmas, where the fundamental plasma-substrate interactions take place that are vital for applications such as biomedicine, material synthesis, and ambient air treatment. In this work, we use laser-induced photodetachment to liberate electrons from negative ions in the afterglow region of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet interacting with an argon-oxygen mixture, and microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS) to detect the photodetached electrons. This diagnostic technique allows for the determination of the electron density and the eﬀective collision frequency before, during and after the laser pulse was shot through the measurement volume with nanosecond time resolution. From a laser saturation study, it is concluded that O− is the dominant negative ion in the afterglow. Moreover, the decay of the photodetached electron density is found to be dominantly driven by the (re)formation of O− by dissociative attachment of electrons with O2. As a consequence, we identiﬁed the species and process responsible for the formation of negative ions in the spatial afterglow in our experiment.
While plasma-liquid interactions have been an important focus in the plasma research community, the impact of the strong coupling between plasma and liquid on plasma properties and processes remains not fully understood. In this work, we report on the impact of the applied voltage, pulse width and liquid conductivity on the plasma morphology and the OH generation for a positive pulsed DC atmospheric pressure plasma jet with He-0.1% H2O mixture interacting with a liquid cathode. We adopted diagnostic techniques of fast imaging, 2D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of OH and Thomson scattering spectroscopy. We show that plasma instabilities and enhanced evaporation occur and have a significant impact on the OH generation. At elevated plasma energies, it is found that the plasma contracts due to a thermal instability through Ohmic heating and the contraction coincides with a depletion in the OH density in the core due to electron impact dissociation. For lower plasma energies, the instability is suppressed/delayed by the equivalent series resistor of the liquid electrode. An estimation of the energy flux from the plasma to the liquid shows that the energy flux of the ions released into the liquid by positive ion hydration is dominant, and significantly larger than the energy needed to evaporate sufficient amount of water to account for the measured H2O concentration increase near the plasma-liquid interface.
To simulate the I-V diagram of plasma homogeneous and filamentary discharge with equivalent circuit model more accurately, this study employed a breaker and passive circuit components and calculated the discharge parameters, such as equivalent discharge resistances and potential distribution etc., in atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In addition, this study calculated the gas-gap and dielectric capacitances of the APPJ and added a power supply equivalent circuit. Compared with other circuit models that adopted switches or a time-controlled current source to simulate the discharges, our present circuit model used a breakdown-voltage-controlled breaker for the homogeneous discharge and resistors with high-frequency switches for the filamentary discharge. We employed potential simulation to obtain the equivalent dielectric capacitance in the APPJ and then derived the gas-gap capacitance. We also replaced the ideal sine wave power supply with the equivalent circuit of the common double-peak-waveform power supply. The MATLAB Simulink was used to construct an equivalent circuit model and the discharge area ratio, breakdown voltage and filamentary equivalent resistance were obtained via I-V waveform fitting. We measured the plasma I-V waveform with a 20-kHz frequency, various voltages (6, 12, and 15 kV), a gas flow rate of 30 SLM, and two types of gas (Ar and He). The simulated and experimental I-V waveforms were very close under different conditions. In summary, the proposed equivalent circuit model more meaningfully describes the plasma physics to simulate homogenous and filamentary discharge, achieving results that were compatible with our experimental observations. The findings can help with investigating plasma discharge mechanisms and full-model simulations of plasma.
AbstractDecompressive craniectomy is a life-saving procedure done for innumerable etiologies. Though, not a technically demanding procedure, it has its own complications. Among many, sinking flap syndrome or syndrome of the trephined or paradoxical herniation of brain is frequently underestimated. It results from the pressure difference between the atmospheric pressure and the intracranial pressure causing the brain to shift inward at the craniectomy site. This can present with either nonspecific symptoms leading to delay in diagnosis or acute neurological deterioration, memory disturbances, weakness, confusion, lethargy, and sometimes death if not treated. Cranioplasty is a time validated procedure used to treat paradoxical brain herniation with good and early neurological recovery. We, here in, are going to describe a case report in which the paradoxical herniation occurred after cranioplasty which has not been described in literature.