AbstractWhite-matter abnormalities, including increases in extracellular free-water, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent advances in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable free-water levels to be indexed. However, the brain levels in patients with schizophrenia have not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to meta-analyse white-matter free-water levels in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy volunteers. We performed a literature search in EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases. Diffusion MRI studies reporting free-water in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls were included. We investigated the effect of demographic variables, illness duration, chlorpromazine equivalents of antipsychotic medication, type of scanner, and clinical symptoms severity on free-water measures. Ten studies, including five of first episode of psychosis have investigated free-water levels in schizophrenia, with significantly higher levels reported in whole-brain and specific brain regions (including corona radiata, internal capsule, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum bundle, and corpus callosum). Six studies, including a total of 614 participants met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Whole-brain free-water levels were significantly higher in patients relative to healthy volunteers (Hedge’s g = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07–0.69, p = 0.02). Sex moderated this effect, such that smaller effects were seen in samples with more females (z = −2.54, p < 0.05), but antipsychotic dose, illness duration and symptom severity did not. Patients with schizophrenia have increased free-water compared to healthy volunteers. Future studies are necessary to determine the pathological sources of increased free-water, and its relationship with illness duration and severity.
Owing to its low cost and high safety, metallic zinc has received considerable attention as an anode material for zinc aqueous batteries (ZIBs). However, the Zn metal instability as a result ultrafast of obstinate dendrite formation, free-water-induced parasite reactions, and corrosive electrolytes has detrimental effects on the implementation of ZIBs. We present an alternative stable electrolyte for ZIBs based on a zinc chloride/ethylene glycol deep eutectic solvent (DES). This electrolyte consists of abundant low-cost materials and a utilizable Zn2+ concentration of approximately 1 M. It combines the advantages of the aqueous and DES media to provide safe and reversible Zn plating/stripping with a two-fold increase in the cycling life compared to that of conventional aqueous electrolytes. With these advantages, the Zn symmetric cell operates at 0.2 mA cm−2 for 300 h. Due to its high efficiency and compositional versatility, this electrolyte enables the investigation of a non-aqueous electrolyte family for ZIBs that fulfill grid-scale electrical energy storage requirements.
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an important tool for predicting the internal qualities of fruits. Using aquaphotomics, spectral changes between linearly polarized and unpolarized light were assessed on 200 commercially grown yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Zesy002’). Measurements were performed on different configurations of unpeeled (intact) and peeled (cut) kiwifruit using a commercial handheld NIR instrument. Absorbance after applying standard normal variate (SNV) and second derivative Savitzky–Golay filters produced different spectral features for all configurations. An aquagram depicting all configurations suggests that linearly polarized light activated more free water states and unpolarized light activated more bound water states. At depth (≥1 mm), after several scattering events, all radiation is expected to be fully depolarized and interactions for incident polarized or unpolarized light will be similar, so any observed differences are attributable to the surface layers of the fruit. Aquagrams generated in terms of the fruit soluble solids content (SSC) were similar for all configurations, suggesting the SSC in fruit is not a contributing factor here.
For Fangshan granite in Beijing, the static compression and dynamic compression tests have been carried out separately under natural air drying and water saturation. It was found that the dynamic compressive strength of water-saturated granite is higher than that of air-dried granite, which is contrary to the result that the strength of water-saturated rock is lower than that of air-dried granite under static load. Furthermore, under the medium strain rate condition, when the strain rate is 85 s−1, the dynamic strength of natural air-dried granite could be increased by nearly 0.5 times compared with its static state. The dynamic strength of water-saturated granite could be increased by nearly 1–2 times compared with its static strength, which shows that water-saturated granite has stronger strain rate sensitivity than natural air-dried granite. Meanwhile, under impact loading, from the perspective of water-bearing granite the Bernoulli effect of fluid, the adhesion effect of free water and the Stefan effect of fluid in water-saturated granite were revealed, and found to be the essential reasons affecting the dynamic strength of water-saturated granite. The dynamic strength in different water-bearing states in the range of medium strain rate could then be analyzed in depth, providing a certain reference value for the strength design of water-bearing rock engineering.
AbstractTo compare free-water corrected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in the normal-appearing periependymal area between AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD and multiple sclerosis (MS) to investigate occult pathophysiology.
This prospective study included 44 patients (mean age, 39.52 ± 11.90 years; 14 men) with AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD (n = 20) and MS (n = 24) who underwent DTI between April 2014 and April 2020. Based on free-water corrected DTI measures obtained from normal-appearing periependymal voxels of (1) lateral ventricles and (2) the 3rd and 4th ventricles as dependent variables, MANCOVA was conducted to compare the two groups, using clinical variables as covariates. A significant difference was found between AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD and MS in the 3rd and 4th periependymal voxels (λ = 0.462, P = 0.001). Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity was significantly decreased and radial diffusivity was increased in AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD in post-hoc analysis, compared with MS (F = 27.616, P < 0.001, F = 7.336, P = 0.011, and F = 5.800, P = 0.022, respectively). Free-water corrected DTI measures differ in the periependymal area surrounding the diencephalon and brain stem/cerebellum between MS and NMOSD, which may suggest occult white matter injury in areas with distribution of AQP-4 in NMOSD.
In the current study, a green method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is presented as an alternative to conventional chemical and physical approaches. A biomass of Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) fungus was used as a green and renewable source of reductase enzymes and metabolites, which are capable of transforming Ag+ ions into AgNPs with a small size (mainly 2–6 nm) and narrow size distribution (2–25 nm). Moreover, extracellular biosynthesis was carried out with a cell-free water extract (CFE) of T. reesei, which allows for facile monitoring of the bioreduction process using UV–Vis spectroscopy and investigation of the effect of experimental conditions on the transformation of Ag+ ions into AgNPs, as well as the simple isolation of as-prepared AgNPs for the study of their size, morphology and antibacterial properties. In continuation to our previous results about the influence of media on T. reesei cultivation, the amount of biomass used for CFE preparation and the concentration of Ag+ ion solution, herein, we present the impact of temperature (4, 20, 30 and 40 °C), agitation and time duration on the biosynthesis of AgNPs and their properties. A high stability of AgNPs in aqueous colloids was observed and attributed to the capping effect of the biomolecules as shown by the zeta potential (−49.0/−51.4 mV) and confirmed by the hydrodynamic size of 190.8/116.8 nm of AgNPs.
Coffee is both a vastly consumed beverage and a chemically complex matrix. For a long time, an arduous chemical analysis was necessary to resolve coffee authentication issues. Despite their demonstrated efficacy, such techniques tend to rely on reference methods or resort to elaborate extraction steps. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the aquaphotomics approach, on the other hand, reportedly offer a rapid, reliable, and holistic compositional overview of varying analytes but with little focus on low concentration mixtures of Robusta-to-Arabica coffee. Our study aimed for a comparative assessment of ground coffee adulteration using NIRS and liquid coffee adulteration using the aquaphotomics approach. The aim was to demonstrate the potential of monitoring ground and liquid coffee quality as they are commercially the most available coffee forms. Chemometrics spectra analysis proved capable of distinguishing between the studied samples and efficiently estimating the added Robusta concentrations. An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the varietal discrimination of pure Arabica and Robusta, both in ground and liquid form. Robusta-to-Arabica ratio was predicted with R2CV values of 0.99 and 0.9 in ground and liquid form respectively. Aquagrams results accentuated the peculiarities of the two coffee varieties and their respective blends by designating different water conformations depending on the coffee variety and assigning a particular water absorption spectral pattern (WASP) depending on the blending ratio. Marked spectral features attributed to high hydrogen bonded water characterized Arabica-rich coffee, while those with the higher Robusta content showed an abundance of free water structures. Collectively, the obtained results ascertain the adequacy of NIRS and aquaphotomics as promising alternative tools for the authentication of liquid coffee that can correlate the water-related fingerprint to the Robusta-to-Arabica ratio.
This article presents a novel method for the detection of biofilms based on a heatable, capacitive sensor structure (CSS). Biofilms are capable of strongly binding large amounts of water to their extracellular biopolymer matrix, which is detectable via its dielectric properties. A main challenge is to determine the difference between the inherent occurring presence of moisture in the ecosystem, which is necessary to form a biofilm and an actual formed biofilm. Therefore, the CSS is carefully heated to evaporate unbound surface moisture and determine whether there is a remaining residual alternation of the capacitance in comparison to the dry state. As a reproduceable substitute for complex, real biofilms, a hygroscopic, medical hydrogel-based on polysaccharides was used and applied by spray coating. Printed circuit boards (PCB) in different geometries and materials were used as CSS and compared in terms of their performance. A layer-thickness of 20 µm for the hydrogel coating to be sufficiently detected was defined as a realistic condition based on known values for real biofilms cited in literature. For this thickness a double-meander structure proves to be preferable over interdigitating and spiral geometries. It does offer a 30% lower, yet sufficient sensitivity, but shows advantages in manufacturing (one layer instead of two) and conductive heating capability. In the experiments, free water showed virtually no residual change, while the hydrogel-coated CSS still shows an approx. 300% higher value compared to a dry capacity. Yet, the overall small capacities of about 6–30 pF in dry state are difficult to measure and therefore sensitive to interferences and noise, which results in a high deviation. The principle of measurement can be evaluated as proofed by the carried out experiments, though offering room for improvement in the design of the study. The new method might be especially useful for pipes (e.g., hydrodynamically ineffective sensors installed in a pipe wall) if they at least are not permanently flooded with an aqueous medium, but can occasionally dry. If the internal surface is still only moist, it can be dried by initial heating.