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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
X. Wu ◽  
G. Zhong ◽  
H. Wang ◽  
J. Zhu

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Author(s):  
Yasaman Azari ◽  
Mehdi Sadeghi Moghadam ◽  
Jafar Khodabandeh ◽  
Andishe Hamedi

Background: Animal bite is a serious and dangerous threat to human health. The highest prevalence rate of animal bite in Iran is in Golestan, Ardabil and, then Khorasan. The present study examined the epidemiological characteristics and the trend of animal bites during 2014-2018. Results: In this study, out of 3784 cases bitten by animals, 2821 happened by a sudden attack. Most reports of the animal bite were from dogs. Also, the trend of animal bite during 2014-2018 was increasing and the charts showed that the trend will continue to increase the next year. Conclusion: Due to the increasing trend of animal bites, it is necessary to take basic measures such as training endangered groups, forming a committee to eliminate stray dogs, and strengthening the care system and immunization program.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Ammara Ainee ◽  
Sarfraz Hussain ◽  
Muhammad Nadeem ◽  
Asaad R. Al-Hilphy ◽  
Azhari Siddeeg

Galactomannan from fenugreek and guar seeds were extracted, purified, and used in edible coatings, optimized via response surface methodology. The results showed that the emulsifying capacity and stability of fenugreek galactomannan (FG) and guar galactomannan (GG) increased with increase in the concentration of galactomannan up to 0.5–1%. The average optimized values of FG and GG in edible coatings were predicted to be 1.71% and 2.11% for weight loss, 0.72% and 2.14% for firmness, 1.02% and 1.44% for TSS, 0.83% and 1.36% for pH, 1.03% and 1.44% for acidity, respectively. Significant decrease in weight loss and maximum retention of firmness was observed in coated guava. The TSS increased up to a certain storage period in all treatments and decreased as the storage period progressed, whereas pH exhibited an increasing trend while a significant decrease in acidity was observed. The findings revealed that the shelf life of guava could considerably be improved by incorporating 1.24% galactomannan from GG and 1.01% from FG in the edible coating.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liliana Dell’Osso ◽  
Ivan Mirko Cremone ◽  
Ilaria Chiarantini ◽  
Alessandro Arone ◽  
Danila Casagrande ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of ON symptoms, measured by means of the ORTO-R, in a sample of University students with or without AT, specifically focusing on evaluating the role of sex and of dietary habits in the association between ON and autism spectrum. Methods: Subjects were requested to anonymously fulfil the ORTO-R and the Adult Autism Subthreshold Autism Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) through an online form. Results: 2140 students participated in the study. Subjects with significant AT reported significantly higher ORTO-R scores than subjects without AT. Females and subjects following a vegetarian/vegan diet reported significantly higher ORTO-R scores than males and than subjects following an omnivorous diet, respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between ORTO-R and AdAS Spectrum scores. A decision tree model, with sex, type of diet and presence of AT as independent variables and ORTO-R score as dependent variable, showed in the first step the presence of significantly higher ORTO-R scores among females than among males, and in the second step showed in both sexes the presence of higher ORTO-R scores among subjects with AT than in those without. A significant interaction of sex and presence/absence of AT was reported on ORTO-R score, with a higher increasing trend of ORTO-R score with the increase of AdAS Spectrum score among females than among males. Conclusions: Our results further highlighted the association between AT and ON, in particular among females.


BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Faysal Benali ◽  
Lotte J. Stolze ◽  
Anouk D. Rozeman ◽  
Wouter Dinkelaar ◽  
Jonathan M. Coutinho ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction We investigated the impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting lockdown on reperfusion treatments and door-to-treatment times during the first surge in Dutch comprehensive stroke centers. Furthermore, we studied the association between COVID-19-status and treatment times. Methods We included all patients receiving reperfusion treatment in 17 Dutch stroke centers from May 11th, 2017, until May 11th, 2020. We collected baseline characteristics, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, onset-to-door time (ODT), door-to-needle time (DNT), door-to-groin time (DGT) and COVID-19-status at admission. Parameters during the lockdown (March 15th, 2020 until May 11th, 2020) were compared with those in the same period in 2019, and between groups stratified by COVID-19-status. We used nationwide data and extrapolated our findings to the increasing trend of EVT numbers since May 2017. Results A decline of 14% was seen in reperfusion treatments during lockdown, with a decline in both IVT and EVT delivery. DGT increased by 12 min (50 to 62 min, p-value of < 0.001). Furthermore, median NIHSS-scores were higher in COVID-19 - suspected or positive patients (7 to 11, p-value of 0.004), door-to-treatment times did not differ significantly when stratified for COVID-19-status. Conclusions During the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, a decline in acute reperfusion treatments and a delay in DGT was seen, which indicates a target for attention. It also appeared that COVID-19-positive or -suspected patients had more severe neurologic symptoms, whereas their EVT-workflow was not affected.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Author(s):  
Adalet Dervisoglu

Deltas and lagoons, which contain many flora and fauna, have rich coastal ecological and biological environments, and are wetlands of vital importance for humans. In this study, the current problems in all coastal Ramsar sites in Turkey are summarized, and changes in water surface areas are investigated using Landsat and Sentinel 1/2 satellite images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform. Landsat TM and OLI images were used in the long-term analysis, and time series were created by taking annual and July to September averages between 1985 and 2020. In the short-term analysis, monthly averages were determined using Sentinel 2 images between 2016 and 2020. Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images were used in the months when optical data were not suitable for use in monthly analysis. The Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used to extract water surface areas from the optical images. Afterwards, a thresholding process was used for both optical and radar images to determine the changes. The changes were analyzed together with the meteorological data and the information obtained from the management plans and related studies in the literature. Changes in the water surface areas of all coastal Ramsar sites in Turkey were determined from 1985 to 2020 at different rates. There was a decreasing trend in the Goksu and Kızılırmak Deltas, which also have inland wetlands. The decreasing rates from 1985 to 2020 were −24.52% and −2.86%, for annual average water surfaces for the Goksu and Kızılırmak Deltas, respectively, and −21.64% and −6.34% for the dry season averages, respectively. However, Akyatan Lagoon, which also has inland wetlands, showed an increasing trend. Observing the annual average surface area from 1985 to 2020, an increase of 438 ha was seen, corresponding to 7.65%. Every year, there was an increasing trend in the Gediz Delta and Yumurtalık Lagoons, that do not have inland wetlands. The increasing rates from 1985 to 2020 were 46.01% and 17.31% for the annual average surface area, for the Gediz Delta and Yumurtalık Lagoons, respectively, and 38.34% and 21.04% for the dry season average, respectively. The obtained results reveal the importance of using remote sensing methods in formulating strategies for the sustainable management of wetlands.


Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Author(s):  
Boyu Wang ◽  
Huimin Yan ◽  
Zhichao Xue ◽  
Batunacun ◽  
Guihuan Liu

Grassland has always had a difficult economic–ecological relationship, as coordination between its ecological conservation and the sustainable development of animal husbandry is required. Nature-based Solutions (NbS), who make full use of the natural ecosystem services, have successfully solved some economic–ecological issues, but still have unclear implementation prospects for grassland management. The Xilin Gol grassland is one of the most typical pastoral areas in China; there is a village chief named Bateer, who has already used NbS for grassland management. To confirm whether the solutions employed by Bateer have been effective for both increasing economic profits and protecting grassland ecosystem, we interviewed him, and many other herdsmen, using questionnaires about their livelihood. Based on these questionnaires, we calculated and compared their income–cost ratios. Meanwhile, we analyzed the NDVI variations inside their rangelands through high-resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that the herdsmen in Bateer’s village had a much higher disposable income and income–cost ratio than others, and their rangelands also had a higher value and a more obvious increasing trend of NDVI. Bateer’s success proves that the NbS can also play a positive role in grassland management, which can provide a valuable guidance for economic–ecological coordination in pastoral areas.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 202
Author(s):  
Miranda Martinez ◽  
Anil R. Chourasia

The Ti/SnO2 interface has been investigated in situ via the technique of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thin films (in the range from 0.3 to 1.1 nm) of titanium were deposited on SnO2 substrates via the e-beam technique. The deposition was carried out at two different substrate temperatures, namely room temperature and 200 °C. The photoelectron spectra of tin and titanium in the samples were found to exhibit significant differences upon comparison with the corresponding elemental and the oxide spectra. These changes result from chemical interaction between SnO2 and the titanium overlayer at the interface. The SnO2 was observed to be reduced to elemental tin while the titanium overlayer was observed to become oxidized. Complete reduction of SnO2 to elemental tin did not occur even for the lowest thickness of the titanium overlayer. The interfaces in both the types of the samples were observed to consist of elemental Sn, SnO2, elemental titanium, TiO2, and Ti-suboxide. The relative percentages of the constituents at the interface have been estimated by curve fitting the spectral data with the corresponding elemental and the oxide spectra. In the 200 °C samples, thermal diffusion of the titanium overlayer was observed. This resulted in the complete oxidation of the titanium overlayer to TiO2 upto a thickness of 0.9 nm of the overlayer. Elemental titanium resulting from the unreacted overlayer was observed to be more in the room temperature samples. The room temperature samples showed variation around 20% for the Ti-suboxide while an increasing trend was observed in the 200 °C samples.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 162
Author(s):  
Feihe Kong ◽  
Wenjin Xu ◽  
Ruichen Mao ◽  
Dong Liang

The groundwater-dependent ecosystem in the Gnangara region is confronted with great threats due to the decline in groundwater level since the 1970s. The aim of this study is to apply multiple trend analysis methods at 351 monitoring bores to detect the trends in groundwater level using spatial, temporal and Hydrograph Analysis: Rainfall and Time Trend models, which were applied to evaluate the impacts of rainfall on the groundwater level in the Gnangara region, Western Australia. In the period of 1977–2017, the groundwater level decreased from the Gnangara’s edge to the central-north area, with a maximum trend magnitude of −0.28 m/year. The groundwater level in 1998–2017 exhibited an increasing trend in December–March and a decreasing trend in April–November with the exception of September when compared to 1978–1997. The rainfall + time model based on the cumulative annual residual rainfall technique with a one-month lag during 1990–2017 was determined as the best model. Rainfall had great impacts on the groundwater level in central Gnangara, with the highest impact coefficient being 0.00473, and the impacts reduced gradually from the central area to the boundary region. Other factors such as pine plantation, the topography and landforms, the Tamala Limestone formation, and aquifer groundwater abstraction also had important influences on the groundwater level.


Author(s):  
D. Jena ◽  
S. Mishra

Background: Odisha started a programme to revive millets in 2017. Keeping this in the background, this paper examines growth of production, area and yield and decomposition of production of millets in Odisha in the last six decades by using triennium ending data, TE1962-63 to TE2019-20. Methods: Boyce’s kinked exponential method has been used to estimate growth for production, area and yield. Production was decomposed to area, yield and interaction effects. Millets as a crop group is compared with other foodgrain groups and then analysis was carried out for four specific millet crops - ragi, jowar, bajra and small millets. Result: In Odisha, the 1960s and 1970s indicate an increasing trend in production of and area under millets. There is a reversal of these trends since 1980s. The decline started first for small millets in the 1980s and subsequently since the 1990s for the three major millets - bajra, jowar and ragi. Decomposition of millets production indicates that the decline since 1980s is largely on account of area effect, but also because of yield effect in the 1990s and 2010s.


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