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Julie Von Behren ◽  
Michelle Wong ◽  
Daniela Morales ◽  
Peggy Reynolds ◽  
Paul B. English ◽  

After the devastating wildfire that destroyed most of the town of Paradise, California in 2018, volatile organic compounds were found in water distribution pipes. Approximately 11 months after the fire, we collected tap water samples from 136 homes that were still standing and tested for over 100 chemicals. Each participant received a customized report showing the laboratory findings from their sample. Our goal was to communicate individual water results and chemical information rapidly in a way that was understandable, scientifically accurate, and useful to participants. On the basis of this process, we developed a framework to illustrate considerations and priorities that draw from best practices of previous environmental results return research and crisis communication, while also addressing challenges specific to the disaster context. We also conducted a follow-up survey on participants’ perceptions of the results return process. In general, participants found the results return communications to be understandable, and they felt less worried about their drinking water quality after receiving the information. Over one-third of the participants reported taking some kind of action around their water usage habits after receiving their results. Communication with participants is a critical element of environmental disaster research, and it is important to have a strategy to communicate results that achieves the goals of timeliness, clarity, and scientific accuracy, ultimately empowering people toward actions that can reduce exposure.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1246
Darmadi Darmadi ◽  
Cennikon Pakpahan ◽  
Riska Habriel Ruslie ◽  
Andri Rezano

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains a global health problem. COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia have a higher risk for critical illness, mostly complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. The inflammatory response is critical, and the cytokine storm increases the severity of COVID-19. Many factors could be associated with a cytokine storm but they are incompletely understood. This study presents characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explore the clinical and inflammatory parameters of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Peripheral blood was taken for laboratory examination within 24 hours of admission. Haematologic parameters, serum electrolyte, renal function, liver function, pancreas enzyme, D-dimer, inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in this study. Comparative analyses were done between sex, existing comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), and COVID-19 vaccination status. Results: A total of 80 subjects were included in the study. The most frequent comorbidities found among the subjects were obesity (36.35%) and diabetes (22.5%). Only 13.75% of subjects were vaccinated. Laboratory results indicated leucocytosis and neutrophilia, with a neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) of 7. The mean inflammatory findings (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1), D-dimer, CRP, and lipase increased. Lipase levels were higher in men (p = 0.003) and in comorbidity groups. No significant differences were found among different BMI groups. Lipase, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were significantly higher (p=0.019, <0.0001, and 0.03, respectively) in the non-vaccinated group. Conclusions: Most patients with severe COVID-19 have comorbidities and increased inflammatory markers.

Mukesh Kumar Bhaskar ◽  
Mukta Meel ◽  
Kusum Mathur ◽  
Arpita Jindal ◽  
Mohit Khandelwal

AbstractHere we report a rare case of diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT) in a 35-year-old man, who was misdiagnosed twice as having tuberculosis meningitis and later racemose neurocysticercosis. His delayed diagnosis of DLGNT might be due to prevalence of tuberculosis in our country, similarity in magnetic resonance imaging finding of prominent leptomeningeal enhancement in different cisterns of brain, and extreme rarity of DLGNT in the adults. So, it should be differentiated clinically and radiographically from granulomatous or infectious conditions. Hence, a timely histologic diagnosis through a leptomeningeal biopsy of the brain and spinal cord in case of unusual leptomeningeal enhancement with uncertain laboratory findings is essential because cytological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid in DLGNT is known to be negative.

2022 ◽  
Zahra Movahedi ◽  
Soheil Dehghani ◽  
Zoha Ali ◽  
Amirali Karimi ◽  
Shahram Arsangjang ◽  

Abstract Background: Influenza is one of the most important viruses and causes millions of infections and 290-600 thousands deaths annually. We aimed to evaluate the hospitalization rates due to complications caused by the influenza virus (pneumonia, seizures, sinusitis, otitis, myositis and encephalitis), the frequency of clinical signs, and laboratory findings in children under 15 years of age infected with Influenza.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study during the Influenza epidemic in Qom, Iran, from October 2019 to February 2020. Children under 15 years of age with the definitive diagnosis of influenza obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were included.Results: Out of 1225 patients who referred to us with flu-like symptoms; 1172 patients were referred by the emergency department and our hospital clinic but 53 patients were referred to us by other paediatricians. 375 patients (30.61%) who had a positive PCR test result for influenza and suffered from complications caused by the virus were hospitalized.The number of male hospitalized patients was 231 (61.6% of hospitalized patients) and the number of female hospitalized patients was 144 (38.4% of hospitalized patients) respectively.The highest age range of patients with pneumonia was of 13 months to 3 years with a hospitalization rate of 36.41% and the lowest hospitalization rate was of 12 years to 15 years with a hospitalization rate of 0.84%.The most serious complication observed in patients caused by the influenza virus was pneumonia; with 17 cases (4.53%) reported.89.6% of patients had fever at the time of referral causing it to be the most common clinical symptom among patients. Cough ranked second with 76.8%.Lymphopenia and leukopenia was recognized as the most common laboratory findings with a frequency of 26.33% and 21.85%.Conclusions: Complications of influenza was not uncommon in children and affected a fifth of the patients. The influenza epidemic of October 2019- February 2020 imposed a heavy burden on our hospital and the learned lessons should be implemented to further assist the physicians in future influenza epidemic.

Mikołaj Kamiński ◽  
Michał Kulecki ◽  
Paweł Lachowski ◽  
Dominika Kasprzak ◽  
Ania Kulczycka ◽  

Abstract Background Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects approximately 38% of individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Skin autofluorescence (AF) reflects skin advanced glycation end product (AGE) deposits and is a marker of long-term glycemia control. Objective The study investigates the relationship between ED and diabetes control in patients with T1DM. Methods Adult patients with T1DM visiting the Diabetology Department were cross-sectionally investigated. Medical history, anthropometric features, and laboratory findings were collected. All individuals filled the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). IIEF-5 total score < 22 represented the presence of ED. AF was measured on the volar aspect of the forearm using AGE Reader. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by the estimated glucose disposal rate. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. The adjusted covariates were general risk factors of ED. Results Of a total of n = 70 patients, n = 30 (42.9%) suffered from ED. The presence of ED was associated with higher glycated hemoglobin level (OR, 95% CI; 1.62, 1.02–2.60; p = 0.043), presence of at least one diabetic complication (3.49, 1.10–11.03; p = 0.03), and skin AF (9.20, 1.60–52.94; p = 0.01), but not with IR (0.78, 0.57–2.60; p = 0.12). Skin AF values ≥ 2.2 indicates presence of ED with a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 77.5%. Area under the curve was equal to 0.72 (95% CI: 0.60–0.85). Conclusions The presence of ED in individuals with T1DM is associated with HbA1c, the presence of at least one diabetic complication, and skin AF.

2022 ◽  
Serap Şimşek-Yavuz ◽  
Gülşah Tunçer ◽  
Özlem Altuntaş Aydın ◽  
Mehtap Aydın ◽  
Filiz Pehlivanoğlu ◽  

Abstract PurposeCOVID-19 vaccines have been shown to be highly effective; however, vaccine breakthrough infections resulting from hospitalization may still occur in a small percentage of vaccinated individuals. We investigated whether the clinical and microbiological features and outcomes were different between hospitalized COVID-19 vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients.MethodsThis multicentre, prospective, cross-sectional study was performed between April and June 2021. All hospitalized COVID-19 patients who previously had at least one dose of Coronavac were included in the study, along with some unvaccinated patients. All epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data of the patients were recorded and compared between the vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.ResultsThere were 69 fully Coronavac vaccinated and 175 unvaccinated patients. All breakthrough infections occurred in the first 3 months of vaccination. Fully vaccinated patients were older and had more comorbidities than unvaccinated patients (p<0.05). There were minor differences between the groups in the symptoms, physical and laboratory findings, anti-spike IgG positivity rate, mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody level, and severity of COVID-19. The mortality rate of fully vaccinated patients was higher than the mortality rate in unvaccinated patients; however, vaccination was not an independent risk factor for mortality.ConclusionsHospitalized patients with breakthrough COVID-19 after Coronavac vaccination were usually older with comorbidities. The severity and clinical outcomes of these cases were similar to those of unvaccinated patients. Our findings suggest that the immune response elicited by Coronovac could be insufficient to prevent COVID-19-related severe disease and death within 3 months of vaccination among elderly people with comorbidities.

Amir Emami ◽  
Fatemeh Javanmardi ◽  
Ali Akbari ◽  
Babak Shirazi Yeganeh ◽  
Tahereh Rezaei ◽  

Background: Identifying effective biomarkers plays a critical role on screening; rapid diagnosis; proper managements and therapeutic options, which is helpful in preventing serious complications. The present study aimed to compare the liver laboratory tests between alive and dead hospitalized cases for prediction and proper management of the patients. Methods: This retrospective, cross sectional study consists of all deceased patients admitted in one center in Shiraz, Iran during 19 Feb 2020 to 22 Aug 2021. For further comparison, we selected a 1:2 ratios alive group randomly. Results: Overall, 875 hospitalized cases died due to COVID-19. We selected 1750 alive group randomly. The median age was significantly higher in died group (65.96 vs 51.20). Regarding the laboratory findings during the hospitalization ALT, AST, Bili.D were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors but Albumin was less in deceased patients. It was revealed elevated levels of Albumin, AST, Bili.T and Bili.D were associated with increasing the risk of in hospital death. Moreover, the predictive effect of ALP and Bili.D had significantly more than others with high sensitivity and specify. Conclusion: We found patients with COVID-19 have reduced serum albumin level, and increase ALT and AST. The current results revealed abnormal liver chemistries is associated with poor outcome, which highlighted the importance of monitoring these patients more carefully and should be given more caution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Khatereh Khamenehpour ◽  
Abolfazl Mahyar ◽  
Fatemeh Bagherabadi ◽  
Samaneh Rouhi ◽  
Zahra Sadat Mohammadi

Background: Children are one of the most important groups at risk of catching the influenza infection. The consequences of influenza in some children, especially children with chronic and underlying diseases, can be very severe and lead to hospitalization. Objective: Purpose of this research was to determine children with influenza and their clinical and laboratory findings in Qazvin children hospital between 2015 to 2020 years. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, epidemiological and clinical finding of children hospitalized due to confirmed influenza were considered. A total of 1468 children with a suspected diagnosis to influenza were included in this study. Then, based on the Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) a total of 229 were confirmed positive to influenza. Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 23.0, Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test (p≤0.05). Results: Most of patients (53.7%) were infected with influenza H1N1 type. Most comorbidity was observed with Central Nervous System (CNS) disease and febrile seizure (each one 3.10%). Highest clinical feature was fever (83.4%). Significant relationship was observed between the season (p=0.001), sore in throat (p=0.001), febrile seizure (p=0.051), muscle and joint pain (p=0.059), rhinorrhea (p=0.006) and shiver (p=0.051) and occurrence of influenza. Also 4 children had died from influenza during hospitalization. Conclusion: Children with influenza disease were found in this study. Influenza has some side effects on children health. Due to the irreversible and dangerous effects of the influenza, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment in children is important.

Khaled Abdalla Abd-Elbaseer ◽  
Eman Ahmed Abd-Elmawgood ◽  
H. M. Qubaisy ◽  
Yaser F. Abd-Elraheem ◽  
Abdel-Rahman Abdel-Hamed El-Saied ◽  

Scorpion envenomation is a life-threatening emergency and causes serious health problems in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of this study was to correlate the serum levels of biochemical parameters at admission in children with scorpion envenomation with subsequent morbidity and mortality. It was a prospective, observational, and descriptive study conducted for scorpion-envenomed children who presented to emergency and intensive care units between April 2019 and September 2019. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings of patients were recorded and tabulated. Routine investigations were done for all patients in addition to blood levels of lactate, free fatty acids (FFA), and insulin. All patients were compared according to outcome as survivors and nonsurvivors and according to glucose level as normoglycemic and hyperglycemic groups. There were 62 scorpion sting cases; their mean age was 8.6 ± 3.2 years. Patients aged more than 6 years (74.2%), and males (66.1%) were more affected than others. As regards severity, 25.8% were suffering organ dysfunction, 40.3% suffered systemic manifestations without organ dysfunction, and (33.9%) with only local manifestations. Serum glucose and FFA were significantly higher in nonsurvivors compared with survivors. Shock, convulsion, coma, heart failure, and pulmonary edema were significantly more common in hyperglycemic than normoglycemic group. Hyperglycemia, and raised FFA were associated with severe scorpion envenomation. Raised FFA was well correlated with presence of heart failure, leucocytosis, and hyperglycemia. Adding serum glucose and FFA to monitoring parameters of scorpionism severity can help the prediction of high-risk patients.

2022 ◽  
Bijun Sun ◽  
Zeyu Zhu ◽  
Xiaoying Hui ◽  
Jinqiao Sun ◽  
Wenjie Wang ◽  

Abstract Purpose: We aimed to report the clinical and immunological characteristics of variant type X91+ CGD in a Chinese cohort.Methods: The clinical manifestations and immunological phenotypes of X91+ CGD patients were collected. Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) analysis was performed to evaluate neutrophil function. Gp91phox protein expression was determined by flow cytometry-based extracellular staining with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7D5. Results: X91+CGD patients accounted for 8% (7/85) of all patients with GCD. The median onset age in the 7 X91+ CGD patients was 4 months. Six patients received the same BCG vaccine strain, and three had probable BCG infections. Moreover, 4 patients were highly suspected of having Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Recurrent infections of the lungs and soft tissues (3/7) were the most common symptoms. Two patients had noninfectious recurrent oral ulcers and received interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment afterward. In our cohort, the stimulation index (SI) of the 7 X91+ CGD patients ranged widely from 1.9 to 67.5, while the SI ranged from 1.2 to 35.7 in patents with X910 CGD. The level of SI between these two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). CYBB mutations associated with X91+CGD were usually located in or near the FAD and NADPH binding domains. Three new X91+ CGD related mutations (c.1462-2 A>T, c.1243C>T and c.925G>A) were identified. Conclusions: Variant type X91+ CGD may have varied severities of clinical manifestations. Moreover, the laboratory findings of X91+ CGD could present with a moderate neutrophil stimulation index. We should deepen our understanding of the X91+ variant CGD to prevent missed diagnosis.

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