neutral protamine hagedorn
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Jecko Thachil

AbstractProtamine is now well recognized as a key heparin neutralizing agent. However, protamine was discovered over a century ago, during experiments performed to uncover the secrets behind heritability. Although protamine was discovered as a highly charged protein, it did not receive the attention it deserved until the dawn of insulin era, when it was used to create the neutral protamine Hagedorn formulation. Based on the same principles, protamine was identified to neutralize heparin and has since been used successfully for many years in cardiothoracic surgery. More recently, its clinical applications have extended to gene therapy. In this historical sketch, the journey from the discovery of protamine, onwards to heparin neutralization, and up to its utilization in genetic modulatory treatments is detailed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Sung-Chun Tang ◽  
Shyang-Rong Shih ◽  
Shin-Yi Lin ◽  
Chih-Hao Chen ◽  
Shin-Joe Yeh ◽  

AbstractThis pilot, randomized, open-label controlled study compared the basal–bolus regimens of insulin glargine (IG) and neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in stroke patients with hyperglycemia receiving intensive care. The study recruited acute stroke patients requiring intensive care within 72 h (h) of onset and had blood glucose > 200 mg/dL. 50 patients received IG (n = 26) or NPH (n = 24) with added short-acting prandial regular insulin over a 72-h period. The primary end point was the percentage of glucose within 80–180 mg/dL assessed through continuous glucose monitoring. The baseline characteristics were comparable, except the IG had higher glucose pre-randomization than the NPH (290.69 ± 82.31 vs. 246.04 ± 41.76 mg/dL, P = 0.021). The percentage of time with glucose between 80 and 180 mg/dL was 45.88 ± 27.04% in the IG and 53.56 ± 22.89% in the NPH (P = 0.341) and the percentage of glucose reduction was 31.47 ± 17.52% in the IG and 27.28 ± 14.56% in the NPH (P = 0.374). The percentage of time with glucose < 60 mg/dL was 0.14 ± 0.49% in the IG and 0.47 ± 1.74% in the NPH. Poststroke outcomes were not significantly different. In conclusion, IG is safe and equally effective as an NPH-based basal-bolus regimen for acute stroke patients with hyperglycemia receiving intensive care.Trial registration, NCT02607943. Registered 18/11/2015,

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