: To study the prevalence of DFU among diabetic patients and the management of DFU among diabetic patients.: Prospective observational study. : The study was conducted in inpatients with diabetes of all departments and inpatients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) of surgical department of age 20 to 80 of both genders with sample size 150 were included from September 2019 to march 2020. The prevalence of DFU among diabetic patients was 16%. Among them more diabetic cases were seen in age group of 50-59 and DFU in 40-49 and More diabetic cases are observed in male compared to female. DFU observed equally and the most common causative organism for DFU was staphylococcus aureus followed by proteus species, klebsiella and pseudomonas aeruginosa and more cases of DFU were noticed in diabetic patients with duration of 6-10 years. As the main cause of DFU is infection the primary treatment is anti microbial therapy and the most prescribed class of antibiotics is cephalosporins followed by nitroimidazoles, penicillins, oxazolidinones, lincosamides etc. surgical procedures like debridement, amputation and sometimes both were done in 9,14,1 patients respectively. : Our study revealed the information regarding the prevalence of DFU among diabetic patients is due to lack of knowledge and uncontrolled diabetes may develop poor circulation which leads to wound that may heal slowly which leads to DFU.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading infectious killers in the world, infecting approximately a quarter of the world’s population with the causative organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) is the most severe form of TB, with high mortality and residual neurological sequelae even with effective TB treatment. In CNS-TB, recruited neutrophils infiltrate into the brain to carry out its antimicrobial functions of degranulation, phagocytosis and NETosis. However, neutrophils also mediate inflammation, tissue destruction and immunopathology in the CNS. Neutrophils release key mediators including matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) which degrade brain extracellular matrix (ECM), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α which may drive inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive cellular necrosis and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), interacting with platelets to form thrombi that may lead to ischemic stroke. Host-directed therapies (HDTs) targeting these key mediators are potentially exciting, but currently remain of unproven effectiveness. This article reviews the key role of neutrophils and neutrophil-derived mediators in driving CNS-TB immunopathology.
The Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii is the causative organism of the zoonosis Q fever and is known for its resistance toward various intra- and extracellular stressors. Infected ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats can shed the pathogen in their milk. Pasteurization of raw milk was introduced for the inactivation of C. burnetii and other milk-borne pathogens. Legal regulations for the pasteurization of milk are mostly based on recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius. As described there, C. burnetii is considered as the most heat-resistant non-spore-forming bacterial pathogen in milk and has to be reduced by at least 5 log10-steps during the pasteurization process. However, the corresponding inactivation data for C. burnetii originate from experiments performed more than 60 years ago. Recent scientific findings and the technological progress of modern pasteurization equipment indicate that C. burnetii is potentially more effectively inactivated during pasteurization than demanded in the Codex Alimentarius. In the present study, ultra-high heat-treated milk was inoculated with different C. burnetii field isolates and subsequently heat-treated in a pilot-plant pasteurizer. Kinetic inactivation data in terms of D- and z-values were determined and used for the calculation of heat-dependent log reduction. With regard to the mandatory 5 log10-step reduction of the pathogen, the efficacy of the established heat treatment regime was confirmed, and, in addition, a reduction of the pasteurization temperature seems feasible.
Brucellosis an important zoonotic disease worldwide, which frequently presents as an undifferentiated febrile illness with otherwise varied and non-specific clinical manifestations. Despite its importance, there are few reports on its awareness among frontline health workers. This study aimed at assessing the baseline knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) related to detection and management of brucellosis among frontline health workers (FHWs) namely; healthcare workers (HWs) and community health workers (CHWs).
A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2019 to January 2020 in Kilosa and Chalinze districts of Tanzania. Data on demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding brucellosis were collected from the study participants using a structured questionnaire. Interviews were conducted with 32 HWs and 32 CHWs who were systematically selected in study districts. Chi square/fisher Exact was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and those related to knowledge, attitude and practices.
Overall, a total of 30 (93.8%) HWs and nine (28.1%) CHWs from the study districts heard about brucellosis, with (34.4%) of HWs having knowledge about the causative organism. Overall, knowledge showed almost half (46.9%) HWs and (28.1%) CHWs were aware of the symptoms, clinical signs, diagnosis and control regarding brucellosis. Knowledge difference was statistically significant with HWs’ age (p = 0.016). Almost half (46.9%) HWs and less than quarter (12.5%) CHWs had good practices regarding brucellosis control. Almost three quarters (71.9%) of HWs and (21.9%) CHWs had positive attitude regarding brucellosis control; overall attitude was statistically significant with CHWs age (p = 0.028) and education level (p = 0.024). Lack of awareness and unavailability of diagnostic tools were the main challenges faced by FHWs in the two districts.
The majority of participants were not aware of human brucellosis. Moreover, their overall knowledge was inadequate and the common practices were diagnostic tools, and adequate knowledge to manage brucellosis cases. These findings highlight the need to strengthen frontline health workers knowledge, practices and diagnostic capacities related to brucellosis.
Emphysematous prostatic abscess (EPA) is an extremely rare but potentially fatal urinary tract infection (UTI). Here, we describe a case (a 69-year-old male with prediabetes) of ruptured EPA caused by a hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) K1-ST23 strain, presenting as motor aphasia. Our patient presented with ruptured EPA concurrent with various severe systemic pyogenic complications (e.g., urethro-prostatic fistula, ascending UTIs, epididymal and scrotal abscesses, and liver, lung, and brain abscesses). Whole-body computed tomography (CT) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were useful for the detection of ruptured EPA and its systemic complications, and for identification of K1-ST23 hvKp strains, respectively. Subsequently, the infections were successfully treated with aggressive antimicrobial therapy and multiple surgical procedures. This case highlights the significance of awareness of this rare entity, the clinical importance of CT for the early diagnosis of EPA and the detection of its systemic complications in view of hvKp being an important causative organism of severe community-acquired UTI, and the usefulness of NGS to identify hvKp strains.
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common disease with a high burden on the healthcare industry. A systematic exploration is necessary of the organisms that cause UTIs, to improve empirical management of patients with acute illness before culture results are obtained. The prevalence of these organisms, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients in Saudi Arabia, needs further clarification.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis reviewing the charts of patients visiting the emergency department of, and those admitted to, a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia during the month of July-August 2021.
RESULT: The total number of participants was 199, with a mean age of 55.8 years (SD=20.02), ranging from 14 to 97 years. 61.8% of patients were immunocompromised, and one-third were from the oncology wards. 40.7% (n=81) were diabetics and 8.54% (n=17) had CKD/ESRD. Females were 25% more likely than males to acquire Candida infections, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 26.7% more prevalent in males. Nevertheless, mixed gram-negative bacteria caused the most UTIs, in 40.20% (n=80) of cases, followed by Candida, 16.1% (n=32), and then mixed gram-positive bacteria, in 14.57% (n=29). This was also observed among immunocompromised patients and the subsegment of oncology patients on active chemotherapy, although with variable percentages.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that patients’ immune status is the main determinant of the causative organism of UTIs. The treatment threshold for Candida in diabetic patients and those with CKD/ESRD should be lower, especially when they require admission.
There are insufficient data about the presence of E. albertii as a causative organism in urinary tract infection in pediatric patients. Objective: The present study aimed to detect E. albertii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of uidA, mdh, and lysP genes among isolated E.coli from children with urinary tract infection.
The present study was a cross-sectional retrograde study which was carried out on 100 isolates of phenotypically confirmed E.coli detected in urine samples of children suffering from urinary tract infection. The isolates were subjected to molecular identification by PCR for uidA, mdh, and lysP genes.
E. albertii was identified by PCR in 7% of the isolates and E.coli was identified in 93% of the isolates. Two mdh and lysP genes were detected for E. albertii and the uidA gene for E. coli. E. albertii isolates had marked resistance to gentamicin (71.4%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (57.1%), meropenem and imipenem (42.9% each) and ESBL activity by double discs method was reported in 57.1% of the isolates. However, none of the isolates had shown resistance to nalidixic acid and only one isolate had resistance to norfloxacin. There was a statistically insignificant difference between resistance to the used antibiotics such as aztreonam (P=0.083), ampicillin/clavulanate (P=0.5), ciprofloxacin (P=0.69), gentamicin (P=0.3) and ceftazidime (P=1.00).
The present study highlights the emergence of E. albertii as a pathogen associated with urinary tract infections in children. There is marked antibiotic resistance of this pathogen, especially toward extended spectrum beta-lactams antibiotics. The identification method depends mainly on genetic studies. Further longitudinal studies with large number of patients are required to verify the accurate prevalence of this bacterium.
Sepsis is a global health issue that is commonly encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Available data regarding sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is lacking compared to higher income countries, especially using updated sepsis definitions. The lack of recent data on sepsis in Jordan prompted us to investigate the burden of sepsis among Jordanian ICU patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Jordan University Hospital, a tertiary teaching hospital in the capital, Amman. All adult patients admitted to the adult ICUs between June 2020 and January 2021 were included in the study. Patients’ clinical and demographic data, comorbidities, ICU length of stay (LOS), medical interventions, microbiological findings, and mortality rate were studied. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data from patients with and without sepsis. We observed 194 ICU patients during the study period; 45 patients (23.3%) were diagnosed with sepsis using the Sepsis-3 criteria. Mortality rate and median ICU LOS in patients who had sepsis were significantly higher than those in other ICU patients (mortality rate, 57.8% vs. 6.0%,
value < 0.001, resp., and LOS 7 days vs. 4 days,
value < 0.001, resp.). Additionally, sepsis patients had a higher combined number of comorbidities (2.27 ± 1.51 vs. 1.27 ± 1.09,
value < 0.001). The use of mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and blood transfusions were all significantly more common among sepsis patients. A causative organism was isolated in 68.4% of sepsis patients with a prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria in 77.1% of cases. While the occurrence of sepsis in the ICU in Jordan is comparable to other regions in the world, the mortality rate of sepsis patients in the ICU remains high. Further studies from LMIC are required to reveal the true burden of sepsis globally.
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Subdural empyema is a neurosurgical emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. There is a debate between the benefits and risks of starting early antibiotics prior to surgical drainage as this is purported to reduce the rate of microbiological diagnosis. Here, we describe our experience of treating this potentially life-threatening condition, advocating for the early commencement of antibiotics and importance of source control in its treatment. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Retrospective review of a prospectively collected electronic departmental database included all patients who were admitted to our unit with a diagnosis of subdural empyema over an 11-year period (2008–2018). Basic demographic data were collected. Further data pertaining to mode of presentation, surgical approach, causative organism, post-operative antibiotic regime, anti-seizure medications, length of hospital stay, further surgery, and neurological outcomes were extracted. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Thirty-six children underwent 44 operations for subdural empyema at our institution during the study period. Median age was 11.0 (range 0.2–15.8); 47.2% (17/36) were female. Over time, there was decreasing use of burr holes and increasing use of craniectomy as the index surgery. Using a combination of extended culture and polymerase chain reaction, a microbiological diagnosis was achieved in all 36 cases; the commonest causative microorganism was of the <i>Streptococcus anginosus</i> group of bacteria. Seven patients underwent repeat surgery, and 4 patients underwent a concurrent ENT procedure. No risk factors were significant in predicting the likelihood of re-operation (location of subdural empyema, age, index surgery type, inflammatory markers, concurrent ENT procedure, and microorganism) although it was notable that none of the patients undergoing a concurrent ENT procedure underwent repeat surgery (<i>p</i> = 0.29). Median length of stay was 12 days (range 3–74), and there were no inpatient or procedure-related mortalities. Clinical outcomes were good with 94.4% (34/36) categorized as modified Rankin Scale 0–3 at discharge and there were 2 cranioplasty-related complications. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> We observed an evolution of practice from limited surgical approaches towards more extensive index surgery over the study period. Given that a microorganism was isolated in all cases using a comprehensive approach, initiation of antibiotic therapy should not be delayed on presentation. Concurrent ENT surgery may be an important factor in providing aggressive source control thereby reducing the need for repeat surgery.
In India, Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major community health problems.Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a respiratory disease. Causative organism for this is acid fast bacilli known as . It is the most ordinary disease affecting the lower socio-economic class in developing countries. Microbiological diagnosis is the heart for the effective treatment of pulmonary TB (PTB). The look forrapid and efficient method has resulted in several staining techniques. Objective of the study was to compare the results of ZN stain (RNTCP) with fluorescent stain by use of microscopy. The study was carried out in Microbiology Department, SMCGH, Amreli. 350 sputum samples (Spot and early morning sample) collected from 175 suspected case of the pulmonary tuberculosis. All 350 samples were processed by ZN stain and Fluorescent stain to detect acid fast bacilli. By use of microscope, the results of the stained smears were given according to RNTCP guideline.Out of 350 sputum smears, 52 (14.85%) and 61 (17.4%) were positive by ZN and FM staining respectively. Males are predominantly affected than females. Majority of the patients were in age above 50 years. Early morning samples were more reliable than spot samples for detection of acid fast bacilli for ZN stain, but not for fluorescent stain.Fluorescent staining with LED microscopy was more efficient than ZN staining for detection of acid fast bacilli from sputum smear.