rolling circle
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Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Benjamin D. Lee ◽  
Eugene V. Koonin

Viroids are a unique class of plant pathogens that consist of small circular RNA molecules, between 220 and 450 nucleotides in size. Viroids encode no proteins and are the smallest known infectious agents. Viroids replicate via the rolling circle mechanism, producing multimeric intermediates which are cleaved to unit length either by ribozymes formed from both polarities of the viroid genomic RNA or by coopted host RNAses. Many viroid-like small circular RNAs are satellites of plant RNA viruses. Ribozyviruses, represented by human hepatitis delta virus, are larger viroid-like circular RNAs that additionally encode the viral nucleocapsid protein. It has been proposed that viroids are direct descendants of primordial RNA replicons that were present in the hypothetical RNA world. We argue, however, that much later origin of viroids, possibly, from recently discovered mobile genetic elements known as retrozymes, is a far more parsimonious evolutionary scenario. Nevertheless, viroids and viroid-like circular RNAs are minimal replicators that are likely to be close to the theoretical lower limit of replicator size and arguably comprise the paradigm for replicator emergence. Thus, although viroid-like replicators are unlikely to be direct descendants of primordial RNA replicators, the study of the diversity and evolution of these ultimate genetic parasites can yield insights into the earliest stages of the evolution of life.

2022 ◽  
Xiaoxia Han ◽  
Yue-Ying Li ◽  
Zi-Yue Wang ◽  
Ling-Zhi Liu ◽  
Bing-Jie Liu ◽  

We develop for the first time a label-free fluorescent method for sensitive detection of fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) activity using MazF-mediated primer generation rolling circle amplification. This method...

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Elvira Tarasova ◽  
Reza Khayat

Rolling circle replication (RCR) is ubiquitously used by cellular and viral systems for genome and plasmid replication. While the molecular mechanism of RCR has been described, the structural mechanism is desperately lacking. Circular-rep encoded single stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses employ a viral encoded replicase (Rep) to initiate RCR. The recently identified prokaryotic homologues of Reps may also be responsible for initiating RCR. Reps are composed of an endonuclease, oligomerization, and ATPase domain. Recent structural studies have provided structures for all these domains such that an overall mechanism of RCR initiation can begin to be synthesized. However, structures of Rep in complex with its various DNA substrates and/or ligands are lacking. Here we provide a 3D bioinformatic review of the current structural information available for Reps. We combine an excess of 1590 sequences with experimental and predicted structural data from 22 CRESS-DNA groups to identify similarities and differences between Reps that lead to potentially important functional sites. Experimental studies of these sites may shed light on how Reps execute their functions. Furthermore, we identify Rep-substrate or Rep-ligand structures that are urgently needed to better understand the structural mechanism of RCR.

Vyacheslav N. Ivanov

If a circle rolls around another motionless circle then a point bind with the rolling circle forms a curve. It is called epicycloid, if a circle is rolling outside the motionless circle; it is called hypocycloid if the circle is rolling inside the motionless circle. The point bind to the rolling circle forms a space curve if the rolling circle has the constant incline to the plane of the motionless circle. The cycloid curve is formed when the circle is rolling along a straight line. The geometry of the curves formed by the point bind to the circle rolling along some base curve is investigated at this study. The geometry of the surfaces formed when the circle there is rolling along some curve and rotates around the tangent to the curve is considered as well. Since when the circle rotates in the normal plane of the base curve, a point rigidly connected to the rotating circle arises the circle, then an epihypocycloidal cyclic surface is formed. The vector equations of the epihypocycloid curve and epihypocycloid cycle surfaces with any base curve are established. The figures of the epihypocycloids with base curves of ellipse and sinus are got on the base of the equations obtained. These figures demonstrate the opportunities of form finding of the surfaces arised by the cycle rolling along different base curves. Unlike epihypocycloidal curves and surfaces with a base circle, the shape of epihypocycloidal curves and surfaces with a base curve other than a circle depends on the initial rolling point of the circle on the base curve.

M. Pilar Garcillán-Barcia ◽  
Radoslaw Pluta ◽  
Fabián Lorenzo-Díaz ◽  
Alicia Bravo ◽  
Manuel Espinosa

Plasmids are self-replicative DNA elements that are transferred between bacteria. Plasmids encode not only antibiotic resistance genes but also adaptive genes that allow their hosts to colonize new niches.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Hongke Qu ◽  
Chunmei Fan ◽  
Mingjian Chen ◽  
Xiangyan Zhang ◽  
Qijia Yan ◽  

AbstractThe cyclic signal amplification technology has been widely applied for the ultrasensitive detection of many important biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), metal ions, exosome, etc. Due to their low content in the complex biological samples, traditional detection methods are insufficient to satisfy the requirements for monitoring those biomolecules. Therefore, effective and sensitive biosensors based on cyclic signal amplification technology are of great significance for the quick and simple diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Fluorescent biosensor based on cyclic signal amplification technology has become a research hotspot due to its simple operation, low cost, short time, high sensitivity and high specificity. This paper introduces several cyclic amplification methods, such as rolling circle amplification (RCA), strand displacement reactions (SDR) and enzyme-assisted amplification (EAA), and summarizes the research progress of using this technology in the detection of different biomolecules in recent years, in order to provide help for the research of more efficient and sensitive detection methods. Graphical Abstract

2021 ◽  
Emil Laust Kristoffersen ◽  
Matthew Burman ◽  
Agnes Noy ◽  
Philipp Holliger

RNA-catalysed RNA replication is widely considered a key step in the emergence of life's first genetic system. However, RNA replication can be impeded by the extraordinary stability of duplex RNA products, which must be dissociated for re-initiation of the next replication cycle. Here we have explored rolling circle synthesis (RCS) as a potential solution to this strand separation problem. RCS on small circular RNAs - as indicated by molecular dynamics simulations - induces a progressive build-up of conformational strain with destabilisation of nascent strand 5′ and 3′ ends. At the same time, we observe sustained RCS by a triplet polymerase ribozyme on small circular RNAs over multiple orbits with strand displacement yielding concatemeric RNA products. Furthermore, we show RCS of a circular Hammerhead ribozyme capable of self-cleavage and re-circularisation. Thus, all steps of a viroid-like RNA replication pathway can be catalysed by RNA alone. Our results have implications for the emergence of RNA replication and for understanding the potential of RNA to support complex genetic processes.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 2385
Aamir Lal ◽  
Yong-Ho Kim ◽  
Thuy Thi Bich Vo ◽  
I Gusti Ngurah Prabu Wira Sanjaya ◽  
Phuong Thi Ho ◽  

Fraxinus rhynchophylla, common name ash, belongs to the family Oleaceae and is found in China, Korea, North America, the Indian subcontinent, and eastern Russia. It has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Korea and various parts of the world due to its chemical constituents. During a field survey in March 2019, mild vein thickening (almost negligible) was observed in a few ash trees. High-throughput sequencing of libraries of total DNA from ash trees, rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allowed the identification of a Fraxinus symptomless virus. This virus has five confirmed open reading frames along with a possible sixth open reading frame that encodes the movement protein and is almost 2.7 kb in size, with a nonanucleotide and stem loop structure identical to begomoviruses. In terms of its size and structure, this virus strongly resembles begomoviruses, but does not show any significant sequence identity with them. To confirm movement of the virus within the trees, different parts of infected trees were examined, and viral movement was successfully observed. No satellite molecules or DNA B were identified. Two-step PCR confirmed the virion and complementary strands during replication in both freshly collected infected samples of ash tree and Nicotiana benthamiana samples agro-inoculated with infectious clones. This taxon is so distantly grouped from other known geminiviruses that it likely represents a new geminivirus genus.

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