extracellular vesicle
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elisa Pesce ◽  
Nicola Manfrini ◽  
Chiara Cordiglieri ◽  
Spartaco Santi ◽  
Alessandra Bandera ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has rapidly spread across the globe starting from February 2020. It is well established that during viral infection, extracellular vesicles become delivery/presenting vectors of viral material. However, studies regarding extracellular vesicle function in COVID-19 pathology are still scanty. Here, we performed a comparative study on exosomes recovered from the plasma of either MILD or SEVERE COVID-19 patients. We show that although both types of vesicles efficiently display SARS-CoV-2 spike-derived peptides and carry immunomodulatory molecules, only those of MILD patients are capable of efficiently regulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. Accordingly, by mass spectrometry, we show that the proteome of exosomes of MILD patients correlates with a proper functioning of the immune system, while that of SEVERE patients is associated with increased and chronic inflammation. Overall, we show that exosomes recovered from the plasma of COVID-19 patients possess SARS-CoV-2-derived protein material, have an active role in enhancing the immune response, and possess a cargo that reflects the pathological state of patients in the acute phase of the disease.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Premanshu Kumar Singh ◽  
Aarti Patel ◽  
Anastasia Kaffenes ◽  
Catherine Hord ◽  
Delaney Kesterson ◽  

Advances in cancer research over the past half-century have clearly determined the molecular origins of the disease. Central to the use of molecular signatures for continued progress, including rapid, reliable, and early diagnosis is the use of biomarkers. Specifically, extracellular vesicles as biomarker cargo holders have generated significant interest. However, the isolation, purification, and subsequent analysis of these extracellular vesicles remain a challenge. Technological advances driven by microfluidics-enabled devices have made the challenges for isolation of extracellular vesicles an emerging area of research with significant possibilities for use in clinical settings enabling point-of-care diagnostics for cancer. In this article, we present a tutorial review of the existing microfluidic technologies for cancer diagnostics with a focus on extracellular vesicle isolation methods.

2022 ◽  
Olga V Volpert ◽  
Eve Gershun ◽  
Katia Elgart ◽  
Vrinda Kalia ◽  
Haotian Wu ◽  

Most approaches to extracellular vesicle (EV) characterization focus on EV size or density. However, such approaches provide few clues regarding EV origin, molecular composition, and function. New methods to characterize the EV surface proteins may aid our understanding of their origin, physiological roles, and biomarker potential. Recently developed immunoassays for intact EVs based on ELISA, NanoView, SIMOA and MesoScale platforms are highly sensitive, but have limited multiplexing capabilities, whereas MACSPlex FACS enables the detection of multiple EV surface proteins, but requires significant quantities of purified EVs, which limits its adoption. Here, we describe a novel Luminex-based immunoassay, which combines multiplexing capabilities with high sensitivity and, importantly, bypasses the enrichment and purification steps that require larger sample volumes. We demonstrate the method specificity for detecting EV surface proteins using multiple EV depletion techniques, EVs of specific cellular origin isolated from culture media, and by co-localization with established EV surface markers. Using this novel approach, we elucidate differences in the tetraspanin profiles of the EVs carrying erythrocyte and neuron markers. Using size exclusion chromatography, we show that plasma EVs of putative neuronal and tissue macrophage origin are eluted in fractions distinct from those derived from erythrocytes, or from their respective cultured cells. In conclusion, our novel multiplexed assay differentiates between EVs from erythrocytes, macrophages, and neurons, and offers a new means for capture, classification, and profiling of EVs from diverse sources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Vladimir Riazanski ◽  
Gerardo Mauleon ◽  
Kilean Lucas ◽  
Samuel Walker ◽  
Adriana M. Zimnicka ◽  

AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous structures carrying transmembrane proteins and luminal cargo. Their complex cargo requires pH stability in EVs while traversing diverse body fluids. We used a filtration-based platform to capture and stabilize EVs based on their size and studied their pH regulation at the single EV level. Dead-end filtration facilitated EV capture in the pores of an ultrathin (100 nm thick) and nanoporous silicon nitride (NPN) membrane within a custom microfluidic device. Immobilized EVs were rapidly exposed to test solution changes driven across the backside of the membrane using tangential flow without exposing the EVs to fluid shear forces. The epithelial sodium-hydrogen exchanger, NHE1, is a ubiquitous plasma membrane protein tasked with the maintenance of cytoplasmic pH at neutrality. We show that NHE1 identified on the membrane of EVs is functional in the maintenance of pH neutrality within single vesicles. This is the first mechanistic description of EV function on the single vesicle level.

Ramkumar Menon ◽  
Christopher Luke Dixon ◽  
Samir Cayne ◽  
Enkhtuya Radnaa ◽  
Carlos Salomon ◽  

2022 ◽  
Sara G Dosil ◽  
Sheila Lopez-Cobo ◽  
Ana Rodriguez-Galan ◽  
Irene Fernandez-Delgado ◽  
Marta Ramirez-Huesca ◽  

Natural killer (NK) cells recognise and kill target cells undergoing different types of stress. NK cells are also capable of modulating immune responses. In particular, they regulate T cell functions. Small RNA next-generation sequencing of resting and activated NK cells and their secreted EVs led to the identification of a specific repertoire of NK-EV-associated microRNAs and their post-transcriptional modifications signature. Several microRNAs of NK-EVs, namely miR-10b-5p, miR-92a-3p and miR-155-5p, specifically target molecules involved in Th1 responses. NK-EVs promote the downregulation of GATA-3 mRNA in CD4+ T cells and subsequent T-bet de-repression that leads to Th1 polarization and IFN-γ and IL-2 production. NK-EVs also have an effect on monocyte and moDCs function, driving their activation and increased presentation and co-stimulatory functions. Nanoparticle-delivered NK-EV microRNAs partially recapitulate NK-EV effects in vivo. Our results provide new insights on the immunomodulatory roles of NK-EVs that may help to improve their use as immunotherapeutic tools.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 130
Kai Chen ◽  
Yingnan Si ◽  
Jia-Shiung Guan ◽  
Zhuoxin Zhou ◽  
Seulhee Kim ◽  

Glioblastomas, accounting for approximately 50% of gliomas, comprise the most aggressive, highly heterogeneous, and malignant brain tumors. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new targeted therapy, i.e., highly potent natural compound verrucarin A (Ver-A), delivered with monoclonal antibody-directed extracellular vesicle (mAb-EV). First, the high surface expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in glioblastoma patient tissue and cell lines was confirmed using immunohistochemistry staining, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. mAb-EV-Ver-A was constructed by packing Ver-A and tagging anti-EGFR mAb to EV generated from HEK293F culture. Confocal microscopy and the In Vivo Imaging System demonstrated that mAb-EV could penetrate the blood–brain barrier, target intracranial glioblastoma xenografts, and deliver drug intracellularly. The in vitro cytotoxicity study showed IC50 values of 2–12 nM of Ver-A. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of major organs in the tolerated dose study indicated minimal systemic toxicity of mAb-EV-Ver-A. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy study in intracranial xenograft models demonstrated that EGFR mAb-EV-Ver-A effectively inhibited glioblastoma growth, but the combination with VEGF mAb did not improve the therapeutic efficacy. This study suggested that mAb-EV is an effective drug delivery vehicle and natural Ver-A has great potential to treat glioblastoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Genevieve E. Melling ◽  
Ross Conlon ◽  
Paschalia Pantazi ◽  
Elizabeth R. Dellar ◽  
Priya Samuel ◽  

AbstractAssessing genuine extracellular vesicle (EV) uptake is crucial for understanding the functional roles of EVs. This study measured the bona fide labelling of EVs utilising two commonly used fluorescent dyes, PKH26 and C5-maleimide-Alexa633. MCF7 EVs tagged with mEmerald-CD81 were isolated from conditioned media by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterised using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), MACsPlex immunocapture assay and immunoblots. These fluorescently tagged EVs were subsequently stained with C5-maleimide-Alexa633 or PKH26, according to published protocols. Colocalisation of dual-labelled EVs was assessed by confocal microscopy and quantified using the Rank-Weighted Colocalisation (RWC) algorithm. We observed strikingly poor colocalisation between mEmerald-CD81-tagged EVs and C5-Maleimide-Alexa633 (5.4% ± 1.8) or PKH26 (4.6% ± 1.6), that remained low even when serum was removed from preparations. Our data confirms previous work showing that some dyes form contaminating aggregates. Furthermore, uptake studies showed that maleimide and mEmerald-CD81-tagged EVs can be often located into non-overlapping subcellular locations. By using common methods to isolate and stain EVs we observed that most EVs remained unstained and most dye signal does not appear to be EV associated. Our work shows that there is an urgent need for optimisation and standardisation in how EV researchers use these tools to assess genuine EV signals.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 257
Kekoolani S. Visan ◽  
Richard J. Lobb ◽  
Shu Wen Wen ◽  
Justin Bedo ◽  
Luize G. Lima ◽  

With five-year survival rates as low as 3%, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The severity of the disease at presentation is accredited to the lack of early detection capacities, resulting in the reliance on low-throughput diagnostic measures, such as tissue biopsy and imaging. Interest in the development and use of liquid biopsies has risen, due to non-invasive sample collection, and the depth of information it can provide on a disease. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) as viable liquid biopsies are of particular interest due to their potential as cancer biomarkers. To validate the use of sEVs as cancer biomarkers, we characterised cancer sEVs using miRNA sequencing analysis. We found that miRNA-3182 was highly enriched in sEVs derived from the blood of patients with invasive breast carcinoma and NSCLC. The enrichment of sEV miR-3182 was confirmed in oncogenic, transformed lung cells in comparison to isogenic, untransformed lung cells. Most importantly, miR-3182 can successfully distinguish early-stage NSCLC patients from those with benign lung conditions. Therefore, miR-3182 provides potential to be used for the detection of NSCLC in blood samples, which could result in earlier therapy and thus improved outcomes and survival for patients.

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