circular rnas
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jinjin Chu ◽  
Xianzhu Fang ◽  
Zhonghou Sun ◽  
Linlin Gai ◽  
Wenqing Dai ◽  

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third prevalent cancer worldwide, the morbidity and mortality of which have been increasing in recent years. As molecular targeting agents, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) have significantly increased the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Nevertheless, most patients are eventually resistant to anti-EGFR McAbs. With the intensive study of the mechanism of anti-EGFR drug resistance, a variety of biomarkers and pathways have been found to participate in CRC resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. More and more studies have implicated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) primarily including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are widely involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. They function as essential regulators controlling the expression and function of oncogenes. Increasing data have shown ncRNAs affect the resistance of molecular targeted drugs in CRC including anti-EGFR McAbs. In this paper, we have reviewed the advance in mechanisms of ncRNAs in regulating anti-EGFR McAbs therapy resistance in CRC. It provides insight into exploring ncRNAs as new molecular targets and prognostic markers for CRC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 930
Ba Da Yun ◽  
Ye Ji Choi ◽  
Seung Wan Son ◽  
Gabriel Adelman Cipolla ◽  
Fernanda Costa Brandão Berti ◽  

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in gastrointestinal cancers. These noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulate a variety of cellular activities by physically interacting with microRNAs and proteins and altering their activity. It has also been suggested that exosomes encapsulate circRNAs and lncRNAs in cancer cells. Exosomes are then discharged into the extracellular environment, where they are taken up by other cells. As a result, exosomal ncRNA cargo is critical for cell–cell communication within the cancer microenvironment. Exosomal ncRNAs can regulate a range of events, such as angiogenesis, metastasis, immune evasion, drug resistance, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. To set the groundwork for developing novel therapeutic strategies against gastrointestinal malignancies, a thorough understanding of circRNAs and lncRNAs is required. In this review, we discuss the function and intrinsic features of oncogenic circRNAs and lncRNAs that are enriched within exosomes.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 428
Aakash Koppula ◽  
Ahmed Abdelgawad ◽  
Jlenia Guarnerio ◽  
Mona Batish ◽  
Vijay Parashar

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are regulatory RNAs which have recently been shown to have clinical significance in several diseases, including, but not limited to, various cancers, neurological diseases and cardiovascular diseases. The function of such regulatory RNAs is largely dependent on their subcellular localization. Several circRNAs have been shown to conduct antagonistic roles compared to the products of the linear isoforms, and thus need to be characterized distinctly from the linear RNAs. However, conventional fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques cannot be employed directly to distinguish the signals from linear and circular isoforms because most circRNAs share the same sequence with the linear RNAs. In order to address this unmet need, we adapted the well-established method of single-molecule FISH by designing two sets of probes to differentiate the linear and circular RNA isoforms by virtue of signal colocalization. We call this method ‘circular fluorescent in situ hybridization’ (circFISH). Linear and circular RNAs were successfully visualized and quantified at a single-molecule resolution in fixed cells. RNase R treatment during the circFISH reduced the levels of linear RNAs while the circRNA levels remain unaltered. Furthermore, cells with shRNAs specific to circRNA showed the loss of circRNA levels, whereas the linear RNA levels were unaffected. The optimization of the in-situ RNase R treatment allowed the multiplexing of circFISH to combine it with organelle staining. CircFISH was found to be compatible with multiple sample types, including cultured cells and fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed tissue sections. Thus, we present circFISH as a versatile method for the simultaneous visualization and quantification of the distribution and localization of linear and circular RNA in fixed cells and tissue samples.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Yilin Lin ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Zhen Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as vital regulators of the initiation and progression of diverse kinds of human cancers. In this study, we explored the role of hsa_circ_0000231 and its downstream pathway in CRC. Methods The expression profile of circRNAs in 5 pairs of CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were analyzed by Microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization and Base Scope Assay were used to determine the level and prognostic values of hsa_circ_0000231. Then, functional experiments in vitro and in vivo were performed to investigate the effects of hsa_circ_0000231 on cell proliferation. Mechanistically, fluorescent in situ hybridization, dual luciferase reporter assay, RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to confirm the interaction between hsa_circ_0000231 and IGF2BP3 or has_miR-375. Results We acquired data through circRNA microarray profiles, showing that the expression of hsa_circ_0000231 was upregulated in CRC primary tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, which was indicated poor prognosis of patients with CRC. Functional analysis indicated that inhibition of hsa_circ_0000231 in CRC cell lines could suppress CRC cell proliferation as well as tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic analysis showed that hsa_circ_0000231 might, on the one hand, act as a competing endogenous RNA of miR-375 to promote cyclin D2 (CCND2) and, on the other hand, bind to the IGF2BP3 protein to prevent CCND2 degradation. Conclusions The findings suggested that hsa_circ_0000231 facilitated CRC progression by sponging miR-375 or binding to IGF2BP3 to modulate CCND2, implying that hsa_circ_0000231 might be a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker of CRC.

Feng Qiu ◽  
Qiuchen Liu ◽  
Yanfu Xia ◽  
Hengxi Jin ◽  
Yuxin Lin ◽  

Abstract Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with the angiogenesis and oncogenic phenotypes of multiple malignant tumors including bladder cancer (BCa). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are recognized as crucial regulators in the EMT. This study aims to illustrate the possible role of circular RNA_0000658 (circ_0000658) in BCa and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods The expression of circ_0000658, microRNA (miR)-498, and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) was assessed in cancer and adjacent normal tissue collected from BCa patients and human BCa cell lines (MGH-U3, T24, 5637 and SW780). BCa cells were transduced with a series of overexpression or shRNA plasmids to clarify the function of circ_0000658 and miR-498 on the oncogenic phenotypes and EMT of BCa cells. Further, we established nude mice xenografted with BCa cells to validate the roles of circ_0000658 on tumor growth in vivo. Results Circ_0000658 was highly expressed in BCa tissue samples and cell lines, which indicated a poor prognosis of BCa patients. Circ_0000658 competitively bound to miR-498 and thus restricted miR-498 expression. Meanwhile, circ_0000658 weakened the binding of miR-498 to the target gene HMGA2 and upregulated the HMGA2 expression. Circ_0000658 elevation or miR-498 knockdown augmented oncogenic phenotypes and EMT of BCa cells, corresponding to a reduction in the expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin as well as an increase in the expression of N-cadherin, Slug, Snail, ZEB1 and Twist. Inhibition of HMGA2 reversed the effects of circ_0000658 overexpression on tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion Altogether, our study uncovered the tumor-promoting role of circ_0000658 in BCa via the miR-498/HMGA2 axis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuejiao Huang ◽  
Shiyi Qin ◽  
Xinliang Gu ◽  
Ming Zheng ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  

Background: More and more studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play an essential role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Hence, they can be used as biomarkers to assist in diagnosing tumors. This study focuses on exploring the role of circular RNA (hsa_circ_0070354) in the diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Materials and Methods: First of all, high-throughput sequencing was used to find the difference in the expression of circular RNA between NSCLC and adjacent tissues. The circRNAs with higher differences in expression were selected to verify their expressions in tissues, cells, and serum using qRT-PCR. Secondly, the hsa_circ_0070354 with a significant difference was chosen as the research goal, and the molecular properties were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing, etc. Then, actinomycin D and repeated freeze-thaw were used to explore the stability and repeatability of hsa_circ_0070354. Finally, the expression of hsa_circ_0070354 in serum of 133 patients with NSCLC and 97 normal donors was detected, and its sensitivity, specificity, and prognosis as tumor markers were statistically analyzed.Results: Hsa_circ_0070354 was highly expressed in tissues, cells, and serum of NSCLC, and it has the characteristics of sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. The ROC curve indicates that hsa_circ_0070354 is superior to conventional tumor markers in detecting NSCLC, and the combined diagnosis is of more significance in the diagnosis. The high expression of hsa_circ_0070354 is closely related to the late-stage, poor differentiation of the tumor and the short survival time of the patients, which is an independent indicator of poor prognosis.Conclusion: Hsa_circ_0070354 is not only a novel sensitive index for the diagnosis of NSCLC but also a crucial marker for bad biological behavior.

2022 ◽  
Wen Li ◽  
Guohua Jin

Alzheimer\'s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia worldwide. Although the great progress on the prevention and treatment of AD, no effective therapies are available as yet. With the increasing incidence of AD, it has brought a growing burden to the family and society. Histopathologically, AD is characterized by the presence of myloid β (Aβ) plaques composed of Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, which lead to neuronal loss. However, the full spectrum of precise molecular mechanism that contribute to AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that play a vital role in post-transcriptional regulation. Recent reports showed circRNAs to be an important player in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like AD. In this chapter, we review recent progress on understanding the role of circRNAs in AD, and many studies implicating specific circRNAs in the development of the disease. Moreover, we explore the potential promise of these findings for future diagnosis and treatment.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Benjamin D. Lee ◽  
Eugene V. Koonin

Viroids are a unique class of plant pathogens that consist of small circular RNA molecules, between 220 and 450 nucleotides in size. Viroids encode no proteins and are the smallest known infectious agents. Viroids replicate via the rolling circle mechanism, producing multimeric intermediates which are cleaved to unit length either by ribozymes formed from both polarities of the viroid genomic RNA or by coopted host RNAses. Many viroid-like small circular RNAs are satellites of plant RNA viruses. Ribozyviruses, represented by human hepatitis delta virus, are larger viroid-like circular RNAs that additionally encode the viral nucleocapsid protein. It has been proposed that viroids are direct descendants of primordial RNA replicons that were present in the hypothetical RNA world. We argue, however, that much later origin of viroids, possibly, from recently discovered mobile genetic elements known as retrozymes, is a far more parsimonious evolutionary scenario. Nevertheless, viroids and viroid-like circular RNAs are minimal replicators that are likely to be close to the theoretical lower limit of replicator size and arguably comprise the paradigm for replicator emergence. Thus, although viroid-like replicators are unlikely to be direct descendants of primordial RNA replicators, the study of the diversity and evolution of these ultimate genetic parasites can yield insights into the earliest stages of the evolution of life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Deguang Zhang ◽  
Li Tao ◽  
Nizheng Xu ◽  
Xiaoxiao Lu ◽  
Jianle Wang ◽  

AbstractPapillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a common endocrine tumor with a rapidly increasing incidence in recent years. Although the majority of PTCs are relatively indolent and have a good prognosis, a certain proportion is highly aggressive with lymphatic metastasis, iodine resistance, and easy recurrence. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that are linked to a variety of tumor processes in several cancers, including PTC. In the current study, circRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed to identify alterations in circRNA expression levels in PTC tissues. circTIAM1 was then selected because of its increased expression in PTC and association with apoptosis, proliferation, and migration of PTC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circTIAM1 acted as a sponge of microRNA-646 and functioned in PTC by targeting miR-646 and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and dual-luciferase reporter assays further confirmed these connections. Overall, our results reveal an important oncogenic role of circTIAM1 in PTC and may represent a potentially therapeutic target against PTC progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Deepti Singh ◽  
Prashant Kesharwani ◽  
Nabil A. Alhakamy ◽  
Hifzur R. Siddique

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are the newly uncovered class of non-coding RNAs being cognized as profound regulators of gene expression in developmental and disease biology. These are the covalently closed RNAs synthesized when the pre-mRNA transcripts undergo a back-splicing event. In recent years, circRNAs are gaining special attention in the scientific world and are no longer considered as “splicing noise” but rather structurally stable molecules having multiple biological functions including acting as miRNA sponges, protein decoys/scaffolds, and regulators of transcription and translation. Further, emerging evidence suggests that circRNAs are also differentially expressed in multiple cancers where they play oncogenic roles. In addition, circRNAs in association with miRNAs change the expression patterns of multiple transcription factors (TFs), which play important roles in cancer. Thus, the circRNA-miRNA-TFs axis is implicated in the progression or suppression of various cancer types and plays a role in cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. In this review article, we provide an outline of the biogenesis, localization, and functions of circRNAs specifically in cancer. Also, we highlight the regulatory function of the circRNA-miRNA-TFs axis in the progression or suppression of cancer and the targeting of this axis as a potential therapeutic approach for cancer management. We anticipate that our review will contribute to expanding the knowledge of the research community about this recent and rapidly growing field of circRNAs for further thorough investigation which will surely help in the management of deadly disease cancer.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document