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Urška Čeklić ◽  
Nejc Šarabon ◽  
Žiga Kozinc

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to compare postural control between a group of young female gymnasts (n = 15; age: 11.2 ± 1.9 years) and non-trained peers (n = 15; age: 10.9 ± 2.0 years), and (b) to investigate the effect of an 8-week whole body exercise intervention program on postural control in young female gymnasts. Postural control was assessed by recording center of pressure (CoP) movements during unipedal quiet stance. Velocity and amplitude of CoP movement in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were considered. In addition to common trial-averaged CoP outcomes, we also considered the transient behavior of CoP movements, by calculating relative differences between the 1st and 2nd, and the 1st and 3rd 10-s intervals within the whole trial (DIF_21 and DIF_31, respectively). The gymnast group had lower total CoP velocity (Cohen’s d = 0.97) and AP amplitude (Cohen’s d = 0.85), compared to their non-trained peers. The gymnasts also had lower CoP AP amplitude DIF21 (Cohen’s d = 0.73), with almost constant values across all intervals. After the training ML CoP velocity was reduced for 13.12% (Cohen’s d = 0.60), while ML CoP amplitude increased (Cohen’s d = −0.89).

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Jozo Grgic ◽  
Ivan Mikulic ◽  
Pavle Mikulic

We aimed to examine the effects of mental fatigue on the Yo-Yo test and Loughborough soccer passing and shooting tests performance using a meta-analysis. The search for studies was performed through eight bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AUSPORT, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science). The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro checklist. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed for data analysis. After reviewing 599 search results, seven studies with a total of ten groups were included in the review. All studies were classified as being of good methodological quality. Mental fatigue reduced the distance covered in the Yo-Yo test (Cohen’s d: −0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66, −0.32). In the Loughborough soccer passing test, mental fatigue increased the original time needed to complete the test (Cohen’s d: −0.24; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.03), increased penalty time (Cohen’s d: −0.39; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.31), and decreased performance time (Cohen’s d: −0.52; 95% CI: −0.80, −0.24). In the Loughborough soccer shooting test, mental fatigue decreased points per shot (Cohen’s d: −0.37; 95% CI: −0.70, −0.04) and shot speed (Cohen’s d: −0.35; 95% CI: −0.64, −0.06). Overall, the findings presented in this review demonstrated that mental fatigue negatively impacts endurance-based running performance as well as soccer passing and shooting skills.

2022 ◽  
Fan Nils Yang ◽  
Weizhen Xie ◽  
Ze Wang

Importance: Adolescents nowadays often get insufficient sleep. Yet, the long-term adverse effects of sleep loss on developing brain and behavior remains unknown. Objective: To determine whether insufficient sleep leads to long-lasting impacts on mental health, cognition, and brain development in adolescents across two years. Design: This longitudinal study utilized a public dataset, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, which is an ongoing study starting from 2016. Setting: Data were collected from 21 research sites in the U.S. Participants: 11,875 9-10-year-olds were recruited using stratified sampling in order to reflect the diversity of the U.S. population. Intervention: Individuals with sufficient versus insufficient sleep (< 9 hours per day for adolescents) were compared after controlling for age (months), sex, race, puberty status, and other 7 covariates based on propensity score matching. Main Outcomes and Measures: Behavior problems, cognition, mental health assessments, resting-state functional connectivity, gray matter volume, cortical area, cortical thickness, and structural connectivity (Fractional anisotropy) were collected and preprocessed by the ABCD study. Independent-sample t-tests and meditation analysis were performed to investigate the effects of insufficient sleep. Results: 3021 matched pairs (50.7% male) were identified based on baseline assessment, with mean (SD) age of 119.5 (7.5) months. In baseline, sufficient sleep is associated less behavioral problems on 18 of 20 assessments, e.g. depress (95% CI of mean difference: -0.28 to -0.47, false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected p < .001, Cohen's d = -0.20), better cognitive performance on 7 of 10 assessments, such as crystal cognition (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.50, FDR-corrected p < .001, Cohen's d = 0.17), better functional connection between cortical regions and basal ganglia (all FDR-corrected p < .05, Cohen's d >0.15), and large structure in ACC and temporal pole (all FDR-corrected p < .05, Cohen's d >0.09). Similar patterns of effect of sufficient sleep were found in FL2 (749 pairs remained) e.g. Cohen's d of function connectivity at baseline was correlated with Cohen's d of that at FL2 (r = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.61, p < 1e-10). Mediation and longitudinal mediation analysis revealed that identified brain measures (e.g. gray matter volume of left temporal pole) at baseline mediated the effect of sufficient sleep on behavioral assessments (e.g. crystal cognition) at baseline and at FL2 (95% CI did not encompass 0, p < 0.05 on 100,000 random-generated bootstrapped samples). Conclusions and Relevance: These results provide strong population-level evidence for the long-lasting detrimental effects of insufficient sleep on mental health, cognition, and brain function and structure in adolescents. The current study identified potential neural mechanisms of adverse effect of insufficient sleep in adolescents, which might provide a theoretical grounding for sleep intervention programs to improve the long-term developmental outcomes in adolescents.

Hand ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 155894472110635
Héctor Gutiérrez-Espinoza ◽  
Jonathan Zavala-González ◽  
Rodrigo Gutiérrez-Monclus ◽  
Felipe Araya-Quintanilla

Background: No published prospective studies have reported the clinical effects of physiotherapy at 1-year follow-up in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) after distal radius fracture (DRF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate at 1-year follow-up the functional effects of physiotherapy program in elderly patients with CRPS I after extra-articular DRF. Methods: A total of 72 patients with CRPS I after DRF were prospectively recruited. All patients were treated with a 6-week supervised physiotherapy treatment. Three evaluations were performed: at the beginning, at the end of the treatment, and at 1-year follow-up. Wrist function, upper limb function, grip strength, and pain intensity were assessed with the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), Jamar dynamometer, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), respectively. Results: At 1-year follow-up, the PRWE showed a decrease of 21.6 points (Cohen’s d = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 18.6-24.6; P < .05); the DASH showed a decrease of 23.8 points (Cohen’s d = 2.9; 95% CI = 20.8-26.7; P < .05); grip strength showed an increase of 40.6% (Cohen’s d = 5.0; 95% CI = 43.5-37.6; P < .05); and the VAS showed a decrease of 2.6 cm (Cohen’s d = 1.9; 95% CI = 2.11-3.16; P < .05). Conclusion: At 1-year follow-up, a physiotherapy program showed clinically and statistically significant results in all functional outcomes in elderly patients with CRPS I after extra-articular DRF.

2021 ◽  
Haana McMurray ◽  
Laura S Kraemer ◽  
Edward Jaffe ◽  
Sorana Raiciulescu ◽  
Julia M Switzer ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction Airway obstruction is the third most common cause of preventable death on the battlefield, accounting for 1%–2% of total combat fatalities. No previous surgical cricothyroidotomy (SC) studies have analyzed the learning curve required to obtain proficiency despite being studied in numerous other surgical technique training experiments. The aims of this study were to establish expert SC performance criteria, develop a novel standardized SC curriculum, and determine the necessary number of practice iterations required by a novice to reach this pre-determined performance goal. Materials and Methods A standardized checklist and SC performance standards were established based on the performance of 12 board certified Military Health System surgeons with prior experience on performing a SC using a simulated trauma mannequin. Expert-level criteria were defined as a SC time to completion of 40 s or less and checklist score of at least 9/10, including all critical steps. Study subjects included 89 novice providers (54 active-duty first- and second-year medical students and 35 Navy corpsmen). Subjects received instruction on performing a SC using the principles of mastery learning and performed a final test of SC proficiency on a trauma mannequin within a realistic simulated MEDEVAC helicopter. The total number of subject practice attempts, checklist scores, and time to completion were measured and/or blindly scored. Learning curve and exponential plateau equations were used to characterize their improvement in mean time to SC completion and checklist scores. Results Mean pre-test knowledge scores for the entire group were 11.8 ± 3.1 out of 24 points. Total mean practice learning plateaued at checklist scores of 9.9/10 after 7 iterations and at a mean completion time of 30.4 s after 10 iterations. During the final test performance in the helicopter, 67.4% of subjects achieved expert-level performance on the first attempt. All subjects achieved expert-level performance by the end of two additional attempts. While a significantly larger proportion of medical students (79.9%) successfully completed the helicopter test on the first attempt compared to corpsmen (54.3%), there were no statistically significant differences in mean SC completion times and checklist scores between both groups (P &gt; 0.05). Medical students performed a SC only 1.3 s faster and scored only 0.16 points higher than corpsmen. The effect size for differences were small to negligible (Cohen’s d range 0.18–0.33 for SC completion time; Cohen’s d range 0.45–0.46 for checklist scores). Conclusion This study successfully defined SC checklist scores and completion times based on the performance of experienced surgeons on a simulator. Using these criteria and the principles of mastery learning, novices with little knowledge and experience in SC were successfully trained to the level of experienced providers. All subjects met performance targets after training and overall performance plateaued after approximately seven iterations. Over two-thirds of subjects achieved the performance target on the first testing attempt in a simulated helicopter environment. Performance was comparable between medical student and corpsmen subgroups. Further research will assess the durability of maintaining SC skills and the timing for introducing refresher courses after initial skill acquisition.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026921632110656
Raymond Voltz ◽  
Kathleen Boström ◽  
Thomas Dojan ◽  
Carolin Rosendahl ◽  
Leonie Gehrke ◽  

Background: Palliative patients frequently express a desire to die. Health professionals report uncertainty regarding potential risks of addressing it. Aim: We aim to evaluate effects of desire to die-conversations on palliative patients. Design: Within a prospective mixed-methods cohort study, we trained health professionals in dealing with desire to die. Afterwards, they held conversations about it with patients. Effects on depressiveness, hopelessness, wish to hasten death, death anxiety, patient-health professional-relationship, and will to live were evaluated at baseline (t0), 1 (t1), and 6 weeks afterwards (t2). Results were analyzed descriptively. Setting/participants: From April 2018 to March 2020, 43 health professionals asked 173 patients from all stationary and ambulatory palliative care settings (within 80 km radius) for participation. Complete assessments were obtained from n = 85 (t0), n = 64 (t1), and n = 46 (t2). Results: At t1, patients scored significantly lower on depressiveness (med = 8, M = 8.1, SD = 5.4) than at t0 (med = 9.5, M = 10.5, SD = 5.8) with Z = −3.220, p = 0.001 and Cohen’s d = 0.42. This was due to medium-severely depressed patients: At t1, their depressiveness scores decreased significantly (med = 9, M = 9.8; SD = 5.1) compared to t0 (med = 14, M = 15.2; SD = 3.9) with Z = −3.730, p ⩽ 0.000 and Cohen’s d = 1.2, but others’ did not. All other outcomes showed positive descriptive trends. Conclusions: Desire to die-conversations through trained health professionals do not harm palliative patients. Results cautiously suggest temporary improvement.

Jozo Grgic ◽  
Pavle Mikulic

Several studies explored the effects of attentional focus on resistance exercise, but their analysed outcomes most commonly involved surface electromyography variables. Therefore, the effects of attentional focus on resistance exercise performance remain unclear. The aim of this review was to perform a meta-analysis examining the acute effects of external focus vs. internal focus vs. control on muscular endurance. Five databases were searched to find relevant studies. The data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. In the analysis for external vs. internal focus of attention, there were seven comparisons with 14 study groups. In the analyses for external focus vs. control and internal focus vs. control, there were six comparisons with 12 study groups. An external focus of attention enhanced muscular endurance when compared with an internal focus (Cohen’s d: 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34 and 0.82) and control (Cohen’s d: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.08 and 0.76). In the analysis for internal focus vs. control, there was no significant difference between the conditions (Cohen’s d: –0.19; 95% CI: –0.45 and 0.07). Generally, these results remained consistent in the subgroup analyses for upper-body vs. lower-body exercises. From a practical perspective, the results presented in this review suggest that individuals should use an external focus of attention for acute enhancement of muscular endurance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 18-31
Наталия Б. Лутова ◽  
Ольга В. Макаревич ◽  
Виктор Д. Вид ◽  
Ксения Е. Новикова ◽  
Михаил Ю. Сорокин

Введение. Самостигматизация психически больных является актуальной проблемой психиатрии. В литературных источниках влияние личностных характеристик больных психозами на формирование внутренней стигмы остается изученным недостаточно. Целью исследования стало изучение взаимного влияния нарциссической саморегуляции и показателей самостигматизации, выявление протективных, относительно формирования внутренней стигмы, черт нарциссической регуляции. Методы. Обследован 81 пациент психиатрического стационара (62 – с диагнозом рубрики F2 и 19 – с диагнозом в рамках F3 согласно МКБ-10). Использовались: шкала интернализованной стигмы психических заболеваний (ISMI) и методика «Индекс функционирования Self-системы» (ИФСС). Применялись статистические процедуры: описательные статистики, дисперсионный анализ (U-критерий Манна – Уитни), определение размера эффектов Cohen’s d. Результаты. Анализ показателей методики ИФСС выявил статистически значимое ослабление нарциссической регуляции в обследованной выборке по всем субшкалам и интегративному показателю ИФСС (21,1 ± 4) в сравнении с нормативной величиной для идеально сильной личности (0). Общая выраженность самостигматизации у опрошенных пациентов была низкой (2,4 ± 0,24), превышение пороговых 2,5 баллов, свидетельствующих о высокой интенсивности переживания стигмы, было выявлено у 30 (37 %) обследованных. Сравнение особенностей нарциссической регуляции у больных с высоким и низким уровнем самостигматизации обнаружило существенные взаимосвязи между проявлениями внутренней стигмы и показателями силы личности. Размеры эффектов Cohen’s d для восьми субшкал (Self1, Self2, Self3, Self5, Self6, Self7, Self12, Self18) составили 1,1–1,8 при p ≤ 0,05, что свидетельствует о значимом ослаблении нарциссической регуляции у пациентов с высоким уровнем переживания самостигматизации. Обсуждение результатов. Выявленные особенности функционирования системы регуляции нарциссизма обуславливают ослабление силы личности, которое может способствовать формированию внутренней стигмы и нарастанию социальной дезадаптации. Данные об индивидуализированном профиле дефицитарности адекватных механизмов защиты личности имеют практическую ценность при проведении сфокусированных психотерапевтических вмешательств.

2021 ◽  
pp. 000486742110625
Pao-Huan Chen ◽  
Cheng-Yi Hsiao ◽  
Shuo-Ju Chiang ◽  
Ruei-Siang Shen ◽  
Yen-Kuang Lin ◽  

Objective: Over a half century, lithium has been used as the first-line medication to treat bipolar disorder. Emerging clinical and laboratory studies suggest that lithium may exhibit cardioprotective effects in addition to neuroprotective actions. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a unique chemokine associated with the pathogenesis of mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Herein we aimed to ascertain whether lithium treatment is associated with favorable cardiac structure and function in relation to the reduced CX3CL1 among patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: We recruited 100 euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder aged over 20 years to undergo echocardiographic study and measurement of plasma CX3CL1. Associations between lithium treatment, cardiac structure and function and peripheral CX3CL1 were analyzed according to the cardiovascular risk. The high cardiovascular risk was defined as (1) age ⩾ 45 years in men or ⩾ 55 years in women or (2) presence of concurrent cardiometabolic diseases. Results: In the high cardiovascular risk group ( n = 61), patients who received lithium as the maintenance treatment had significantly lower mean values of left ventricular internal diameters at end-diastole (Cohen’s d = 0.65, p = 0.001) and end-systole (Cohen’s d = 0.60, p = 0.004), higher mean values of mitral valve E/A ratio (Cohen’s d = 0.51, p = 0.019) and superior performance of global longitudinal strain (Cohen’s d = 0.51, p = 0.037) than those without lithium treatment. In addition, mean plasma levels of CX3CL1 in the high cardiovascular risk group were significantly lower among patients with lithium therapy compared with those without lithium treatment ( p = 0.029). Multiple regression models showed that the association between lithium treatment and mitral value E/A ratio was contributed by CX3CL1. Conclusion: Data from this largest sample size study of the association between lithium treatment and echocardiographic measures suggest that lithium may protect cardiac structure and function in patients with bipolar disorder. Reduction of CX3CL1 may mediate the cardioprotective effects of lithium.

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