paraffin embedding
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2021 ◽  
Vol 78 ◽  
pp. 1-13
A. Romanov ◽  
K. Ly ◽  
B. Kirchoff

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a non-carcinogenic, water-soluble polymer of ethylene oxide that has found wide applicability in industry and medicine, and has been used to embed and section small animal and plant tissues. Here we investigate the use of PEG for the rapid embedding of larger plant tissues. Ovaries of Musa velutina, Heliconia psittacorum and eight other species were embedded with a mixture of PEG 1450 and PEG 4000. It was found that tissues up to 6.5 × 10 mm could easily be embedded and sectioned in PEG. Embedded tissues could be stored at room temperature for up to 5 days with no detrimental effects. Sections were easily cut at 8–15 μm on a rotary microtome. PEG embedding resulted in equal or better tissue differentiation, better retention of cell inclusions, and reduced shrinkage compared with paraffin embedding. The process was also faster, requiring only 3–6 h compared with the 2 days needed for paraffin embedding. PEG is a rapid-embedding medium suitable for use with even large plant tissues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Saskia Offerman ◽  
Clemens F. Prinsen ◽  
Ageeth Knol ◽  
Natalie Methorst ◽  
Jeanette Kamphorst ◽  

Abstract Background Quick and reliable testing of EGFR and KRAS is needed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to ensure optimal decision-making for targeted therapy. The Idylla™ platform was designed for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue sections but recently several studies were published that evaluated its potential for cytological specimens. This study aimed to validate the Idylla™ platform for the detection of EGFR/KRAS mutations in cytological NSCLC samples prepared as cytoblocks using AGAR and paraffin embedding. Material and methods The KRAS Idylla™ test were performed on 11 specimens with a known KRAS mutation. The EGFR Idylla™ test was performed on 18 specimens with a known primary EGFR mutation and 7 specimens with a primary EGFR-EGFR T790M resistance mutation combination. Results Concordant KRAS and primary EGFR mutations were detected for both KRAS and primary EGFR mutations. Samples with a total CQ value of < 26 could be considered negative. Samples with a total CQ value of > 26 could not be assessed (probability of false-negative). In specimens with a primary EGFR-EGFR T790M resistance mutation combination, 5/7 cases were not concordant. Conclusion Our results confirm the conclusion of recent reports that the Idylla™EGFR assay is not suitable in a resistance to EGFR TKI setting, also not in our cytological NSCLC samples prepared as cytoblocks using AGAR and paraffin embedding. KRAS and primary EGFR mutations were detected using the Idylla™ assays in virtually all cytological NSCLC samples. This analysis was rapid and time-saving compared to other mutation detection assays and may be useful if the amount of material is insufficient to perform a full set of molecular tests.

Griffin Rodgers ◽  
Christine Tanner ◽  
Georg Schulz ◽  
Alexandra Migga ◽  
Timm Weitkamp ◽  

Der Pathologe ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tim van der Lem ◽  
Merijn de Bakker ◽  
Gerhard Keuck ◽  
Michael K. Richardson

AbstractParaffin histology is one of the most important and commonly-used laboratory techniques in diagnostic histopathology. The discovery of paraffin embedding is often attributed to the pathologist Edwin Klebs. Klebs was following the lead of Stricker, who embedded embryos in a mixture of hot stearin and white beeswax. We show that Klebs experimented with paraffin wax for embedding tumour tissue. But he quickly rejected it as unsuitable because paraffin wax did not infiltrate the tissue. One of Klebs’ correspondents, embryologist Wilhelm His, Sr., learned of Klebs’ experiments and decided to try paraffin embedding. His dehydrated chicken embryos in alcohol, cleared them in lavender oil, and dripped hot paraffin wax onto them. This process allowed His to cut good sections. Here, we have replicated His’s paraffin embedding protocol in order to determine whether His had indeed made the landmark discovery of infiltration embedding with paraffin wax. We followed the protocol that he gives in his 1868 monograph on the early development of the chicken. The protocol described by His failed, in our hands, to yield sections of the quality that he illustrates in his monograph. Typically, the tissue disintegrated when sectioned due to poor infiltration of the wax. Usable sections could only be obtained if His’s protocol was modified by melting the embedded embryos in fresh paraffin wax. One explanation for our findings is that we failed to faithfully replicate His’s protocol. Another is that his protocol was incomplete. We suggest that His is likely to have discovered and perfected infiltration embedding with paraffin wax but did not publish a complete protocol.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Aiste Vitkunaite ◽  
Aida Laurinaviciene ◽  
Benoit Plancoulaine ◽  
Allan Rasmusson ◽  
Richard Levenson ◽  

AbstractIntranuclear birefringent inclusions (IBI) found in various cell types in paraffin-embedded tissue sections have long been considered to be a tissue processing artifact, although an association with biological processes has been suggested. We applied polychromatic polarization microscopy to image their spatial organization. Our study provides evidence that IBI are caused by liquid paraffin-macromolecular crystals formed during paraffin-embedding procedures within cells and potentially reflect an active transcriptional status.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Ouyang Zhanmu ◽  
Xiaoying Yang ◽  
Hui Gong ◽  
Xiangning Li

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