Diagnostic Pathology
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1746-1596, 1746-1596

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ye Zheng ◽  
Mingzhu Xu ◽  
Dong Zeng ◽  
Haitao Tong ◽  
Yuhan Shi ◽  
...  

Abstract Aims Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is the major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in East Asia. Here we aimed to further investigate the abundance of viral antigen and DNA within HBV-related HCC and surrounding tissues at histological level. Method In addition to routine histopathology, in situ hybridization (ISH) of HBV DNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of HBsAg were performed in tissues from 131 HBsAg-positive HCC patients undergoing liver resection. Serum α-fetoprotein together with basic biochemical and immunological parameter was also measured. Results Overall, the ISH of HBV DNA and IHC of HBsAg showed 31.3% and 92.9% positive rate respectively (p < 0.0001). The level of correlation between these two markers was much more significant in tumor (p < 0.0001) than in tumor-surrounding tissue (p = 0.01). HBsAg exhibited a much higher positive rate in tumor-adjacent tissue than in tumor tissue (86.6% versus 29.9%, p < 0.0001) with significantly different staining pattern. By contrast, the positive rate of HBV DNA ISH was comparable in tumor and surrounding tissue (17.6% versus 22.9%, p = 0.36). Yet the HBV DNA signal in tumor tissue showed predominant nuclear localization (87.0%) whereas staining pattern in adjacent tissue was mixed (43.3% nuclear localization, p = 0.0015). Finally, no significant association between intra-tumor HBV DNA/HBsAg positivity and major histological markers (microvascular invasion, tumor differentiation, etc.) or recurrence after surgery was observed. Conclusions These data confirmed the largely integrated state of HBV DNA, weaker expression and altered localization of surface antigen in tumor compared with surrounding tissue. The strikingly different prevalence and localization of HBsAg and HBV DNA reflected the complex and heterogeneous mechanisms leading to HBV-induced tumorigenesis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bachar Alabdullah ◽  
Amir Hadji-Ashrafy

Abstract Background A number of biomarkers have the potential of differentiating between primary lung tumours and secondary lung tumours from the gastrointestinal tract, however, a standardised panel for that purpose does not exist yet. We aimed to identify the smallest panel that is most sensitive and specific at differentiating between primary lung tumours and secondary lung tumours from the gastrointestinal tract. Methods A total of 170 samples were collected, including 140 primary and 30 non-primary lung tumours and staining for CK7, Napsin-A, TTF1, CK20, CDX2, and SATB2 was performed via tissue microarray. The data was then analysed using univariate regression models and a combination of multivariate regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Univariate regression models confirmed the 6 biomarkers’ ability to independently predict the primary outcome (p < 0.001). Multivariate models of 2-biomarker combinations identified 11 combinations with statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) (p < 0.05), of which TTF1/CDX2 had the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.983, 0.960–1.000 95% CI). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 75.7, 100, 100, and 37.5% respectively. Multivariate models of 3-biomarker combinations identified 4 combinations with statistically significant ORs (p < 0.05), of which CK7/CK20/SATB2 had the highest AUC (0.965, 0.930–1.000 95% CI). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 85.1, 100, 100, and 41.7% respectively. Multivariate models of 4-biomarker combinations did not identify any combinations with statistically significant ORs (p < 0.05). Conclusions The analysis identified the combination of CK7/CK20/SATB2 to be the smallest panel with the highest sensitivity (85.1%) and specificity (100%) for predicting tumour origin with an ROC AUC of 0.965 (p < 0.001; SE: 0.018, 0.930–1.000 95% CI).


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Vladimír Šámal ◽  
Tomáš Jirásek ◽  
Vít Paldus ◽  
Igor Richter ◽  
Ondřej Hes

Abstract Background Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a germ cell tumor. It is primarily located in the gonads but can also occur extragonadally (extragonadal yolk sac tumor - EGYST), most commonly in the pelvis, retroperitoneum or mediastinum. Only a few YSTs of the urachus have been described. Case report We present a rare case report of a 37-year-old male with episodes of macroscopic hematuria. The histological specimen obtained by transurethral resection showed a solid, and in some parts papillary infiltrative, high-grade tumor with numerous areas of marked nuclear atypia and clear invasion between the detrusor bundles. Glandular pattern has been observed in only minority of the tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed significant positivity for GPC3, SALL4 and cytokeratins AE1/AE3, while KRT7 and GATA3 were negative. We concluded that the biopsy findings were consistent with urothelial carcinoma with infrequent YST differentiation. In definitive surgical specimens we found a malignant epithelial, glandular and cystically arranged tumor of germinal appearance arising from urachus. The surrounding urothelium was free of invasive or in situ tumor changes. We reclassified the tumor as a urachal YST. Conclusion EGYST was suspected because glandular and hepatoid structures were found, but the presence of these structures should be verified by immunohistochemistry.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiangli Lu ◽  
Ming Zhao ◽  
Chenyan Wu ◽  
Chengbiao Chu ◽  
Chris Zhiyi Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background UPK2 exhibits excellent specificity for urothelial carcinoma (UC). UPK2 evaluation can be useful in making the correct diagnosis of UC. However, UPK2 detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has relatively low sensitivity. This paper aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of RNAscope and IHC for evaluation of the UPK2 status in UC. Methods Tissue blocks from 127 conventional bladder UCs, 45 variant bladder UCs, 24 upper tract UCs and 23 metastatic UCs were selected for this study. IHC and RNAscope were used to detect the UPK2 status in UCs. Then, comparisons of the two methods were undertaken. Results There was no significant difference between RNAscope and IHC for the evaluation of the UPK2 positivity rate in UC (68.0% vs. 62.6%, P = 0.141). Correlation analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation for detection of UPK2: RNAscope vs. IHC (P < 0.001, R = 0.441). Our results showed a trend toward a higher positive UPK2 rate detected by RNAscope (53.3%) than by IHC (35.6%) in variant bladder UCs. Disappointingly, the P value did not indicate a significant difference (P = 0.057). Conclusions RNAscope for UPK2 appeared to perform similarly to IHC, with a marginally higher positive rate, suggesting it could be used as an alternative or adjunct to UPK2 IHC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lei Sun ◽  
Jia-min Chen ◽  
Kun Yang ◽  
Liang Zhang ◽  
Zhi-yuan Ma ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been recognized as one of the frequently occurring opportunistic infections (OIs) reported in the patients having human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). In addition, it has been identified as the factor leading to gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorder among HIV/AIDS population. CMV exhibits broad cell tropism in different organs. This study evaluated the CMV cell tropism and clinicopathological characteristics of CMV infection in the different GI regions in HIV/AIDS cases. Methods Using nucleic acid in situ hybridization (ISH), CMV was detected in the gastrointestinal mucosal biopsy samples. The paraffin-embedded samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Results A total of 32 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled in this study. Fourteen of these patients underwent gastroscopy, while the remaining eighteen received colonoscopy. CMV-infected cells were observed at 46 GI sites. Among them, the colon was the region with the highest susceptibility to GI CMV infection (n = 12, 26.1%). The CMV giant cell inclusion bodies were detected in epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells, including histiocytes, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In the duodenum, there were markedly more positive epithelial cells than mesenchymal cells (p = 0.033). In contrast, in the esophagus (p = 0.030), cardia (p = 0.003), rectum (p = 0.019), colon (p < 0.001), and cecum (p < 0.001), there were notably less positive epithelial cells than mesenchymal cells. The expression levels of PDGFRα and Nrp2 in the mesenchymal cells were higher than the epithelial cells in cardia, cecum, colon, sigmoid, and rectum, especially in the areas with ulcers. However, Nrp2 in the epithelial cells was higher than that in the duodenum. Moreover, the positive CMV DNA in peripheral blood was related to the CMV-positive cell count, as well as the ulceration in GI tract (p = 0.035 and 0.036, respectively). Conclusions The colon has been identified as the GI site with the highest susceptibility to CMV infection. There are different CMV-infected cells in the different sites of the GI that relate to the expression level of PDGFRα and Nrp2. CMV DNA positive in the blood is related to the positive CMV cell count, as well as ulceration in the GI tract.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lu Yu ◽  
Yuting Dong ◽  
Jin Xue ◽  
Sanpeng Xu ◽  
Guoping Wang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Synaptophysin (SYN), chromogranin A (CGA), CD56 and insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) are proposed neuroendocrine (NE) markers used for diagnosis of pulmonary NE tumors. These NE markers have been identified in subsets of non-NE tumors requiring differential diagnosis, thus we sought to explore new NE markers. Methods We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of SOX11, a transcription factor involved in neurogenesis, in pulmonary NE tumors and large cell carcinomas (LCCs). Results We found that SOX11 showed a sensitivity similar to INSM1 and CGA, and less than SYN and CD56 in small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs). While SOX11 is more specific than the other four markers for diagnosis of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (HG-NECs) because 1) None of LCCs (0/63), the most challenging non-NE tumor type for differential diagnosis due to overlapped morphology with LCNECs displayed SOX11 positivity. While expression of at least one of SYN, CGA, CD56 or INSM1 was identified in approximately 60% (18/30) of LCCs. 2) SOX11 was only expressed in 1 of 37 carcinoid tumors in contrast to diffuse expression of SYN, CGA, CD56 and INSM1. In HG-NECs, we noticed that SOX11 was a good complementary marker for SCLC diagnosis as it was positive in 7 of 18 SYN−/CGA−/CD56− SCLCs and 3 of 8 SYN−/CGA−/CD56−/INSM1− SCLCs, and SOX11 positivity in 4 of 6 SYN−/CGA−/CD56− cases previously diagnosed as LCCs with NE morphology provides additional evidence of NE differentiation for reclassification into LCNECs, which was further confirmed by electromicroscopical identification of neurosecretory granules. We also found SOX11 expression cannot predict the prognosis in patients with HG-NECs. Conclusions Therefore, SOX11 is a useful complementary transcriptional NE marker for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SCLC and LCNEC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jin Jiang ◽  
Yikun Ren ◽  
Chengping Xu ◽  
Xing Lin

Abstract Background NUT (nuclear protein in testis) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rapidly progressive tumor arising from midline structures. Recent cases have reported that the poor prognosis with a median survival of 6.7 months and a 2 years overall survival of 19% due to limited treatment. Based on the effect of arotinib on inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis. We present one patient case treated with anlotinib and radiotherapy. Case presentation Here, we describe a 33-year old patient who complained of cough and chest pain and was diagnosed as a pulmonary NMC through CT scan, FISH and immunohistochemistry. In addition, we initially demonstrated that anlotinib combined with palliative radiotherapy could significantly prevent the tumor growth in a pulmonary NMC. Conclusion The report indicated that anlotinib combined with palliative radiotherapy could inhibit the tumor progression in a pulmonary NMC, which may provide a combined therapy to pulmonary NMC in the future.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Hossein Anbardar ◽  
Neda Soleimani ◽  
Dornaz Safavi ◽  
Ahad Eshraghian ◽  
Abbas Ayoub

Abstract Introduction Immunodeficient patients, including the recipients of solid organs, exhibit an increase in the incidence of neoplasms. Post-transplant smooth muscle tumor (PTSMT) is a distinct and infrequent entity of these groups of neoplasms. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is considered to be involved in the etiology of this neoplasm. Case report A 28-year-old man who underwent liver transplantation presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea for several months. He had a history of resistant systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after transplantation. Radiologic evaluation and colonoscopy revealed multiple liver, spleen, lung, and colon lesions. Microscopic assessment of colon and liver lesions using IHC study were in favor of spindle cell proliferation with mild atypia and a mild increase in mitotic rate without any necrosis, with features of smooth muscle tumor. Considering the transplantation history, EBER chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) study on paraffin blocks was requested, which demonstrated EBV RNA in tumor cell nuclei, suggesting EBV-associated smooth muscle tumor. In addition, PCR for CMV on paraffin blocks was positive. PCR for EBV and CMV viremia were negative. The dosage of immunosuppressive agents was reduced, and currently, he is being followed, with slow expansion in the size of the lesions. Conclusion Although the incidence of post-transplant smooth muscle tumors (PTSMTs) is low, it should be remained in the differential diagnosis in post-transplantation patients, especially dealing with multifocal tumors. As strong stimulant for smooth muscle tumors, close follow-up and screening for EBV and CMV infection and early treatment at the time of diagnosis are recommended to avoid these virus-induced tumors.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiayu Zhou ◽  
Qingling Li ◽  
Baihua Luo ◽  
Xiaodan Fu ◽  
Chunlin Ou ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a sporadic, highly malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. The abdomen and pelvis have been reported as the primary localization sites. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are few reports on primary DSRCT in the submandibular gland. Case presentation We report a case of a 26-year-old Chinese man with a mass in the right submandibular gland. Imaging studies showed a hypoechoic mass in the right submandibular region. Intraoperative pathology revealed that the tumor tissue was composed of small round tumor cells and a dense desmoplastic stroma. On immunostaining, the tumor cells showed markers of epithelial, mesenchymal, myogenic, and neural differentiation. The EWSR1 gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Based on the overall morphological features and immunohistochemical findings, a final diagnosis of DSRCT was made. The patient was treated with comprehensive anti-tumor therapy mainly based on radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusions DSRCT is an uncommon malignant neoplasm with rare submandibular gland involvement. In this report, we have described a case of DSRCT in the submandibular gland and reviewed the literature on DSRCT over the past 5 years. Considering the importance of differential diagnosis between DSRCT, especially with rare extra-peritoneal involvement, and small round blue cell tumors, a full recognition of the clinicopathological features will help to better diagnose this neoplasm.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Kong ◽  
Qianming Bai ◽  
Anqi Li ◽  
Xiaoyan Zhou ◽  
Wentao Yang

Abstract Background According to 2018 ASCO/CAP guideline, HER2 FISH-equivocal breast cancers will be categorized as HER2 negative except those with IHC 3+. However, whether or not HER2 FISH-equivocal breast cancers was a heterogeneous group has not been well illustrated. Methods 195 HER2 FISH-equivocal breast cancer samples were collected from 2014 to 2018. The molecular subtype was identified according to 2013 St Gallen consensus, and HER2 status was also re-determined following 2018 ASCO/CAP guideline. All samples were classified into 4 groups according to the average HER2 copy number (4.0–4.4, 4.5–4.9, 5.0–5.4, 5.5–5.9 signals/cell). The relationship between HER2 copy number and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Results 183 (93.8%) of 195 FISH-equivocal cases were classified as luminal-like subtype, while the other 12 (6.2%) were undetermined. Following 2018 ASCO/CAP guideline, all FISH-equivocal cases were recategorized as HER2 negative. Therefore, 31(15.9%) cases were luminal A-like, 152 (77.9%) were luminal B-like (HER2 negative) and 12 (6.2%) were triple negative. The average HER2 copy number showed a positive correlation with chromosome 17 polysomy, but had no significant association with other clinicopathological parameters as well as prognosis. 17 (8.7%) patients were treated with trastuzumab, but showed no difference in prognosis with those who didn’t receive targeted therapy. Conclusions In this study, all HER2 FISH-equivocal breast cancers were recategorized as HER2 negative according to 2018 ASCO/CAP guideline. Most of these patients were luminal B-like (HER2 negative). The average HER2 copy number had no significant association with clinicopathological parameters, as well as prognosis.


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