water soluble polymer
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 351
Juanming Wei ◽  
Wenfeng Jia ◽  
Luo Zuo ◽  
Hao Chen ◽  
Yujun Feng

Water-soluble polymers as drag reducers have been widely utilized in slick-water for fracturing shale oil and gas reservoirs. However, the low viscosity characteristics, high operating costs, and freshwater consumption of conventional friction reducers limit their practical use in deeper oil and gas reservoirs. Therefore, a high viscosity water-soluble friction reducer (HVFR), poly-(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonic acid), was synthesized via free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The molecular weight, solubility, rheological behavior, and drag reduction performance of HVFR were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the viscosity-average molecular weight of HVFR is 23.2 × 106 g⋅mol−1. The HVFR powder could be quickly dissolved in water within 240 s under 700 rpm. The storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) as well as viscosity of the solutions increased with an increase in polymer concentration. At a concentration of 1700 mg⋅L−1, HVFR solution shows 67% viscosity retention rate after heating from 30 to 90 °C, and the viscosity retention rate of HVFR solution when increasing CNaCl to 21,000 mg⋅L−1 is 66%. HVFR exhibits significant drag reduction performance for both low viscosity and high viscosity. A maximum drag reduction of 80.2% is attained from HVFR at 400 mg⋅L−1 with 5.0 mPa⋅s, and drag reduction of HVFR is 75.1% at 1700 mg⋅L−1 with 30.2 mPa⋅s. These findings not only indicate the prospective use of HVFR in slick-water hydrofracking, but also shed light on the design of novel friction reducers utilized in the oil and gas industry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1212 (1) ◽  
pp. 012024
A Y Fedorov ◽  
A V Levina

Abstract Traditionally, the method of liquid extraction is used to extract metals from aqueous. This work is devoted to the combination of perspective alternative for hazardous solvents (aqueous two-phase systems based on water-soluble polymers) and the novel deep eutectic solvents in the non-ferrous metals extraction processes. In this work, the synthesis of deep eutectic solvent based on a water-soluble polymer (PPG-425) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) by stirring for 10 minutes at 80° C has been shown. The obtained results showed not only the possibility of using DES in the metal extraction process, but the selectivity to the Fe(III) and Zn(III), the distribution coefficients were 71.64 and 25.17 respectively. The metal concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically using 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This work shows the perspectives of using DESs in the metal extraction processes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
pp. 80-91
Parvin Salehi Shanjani ◽  
Leila Rasoulzadeh ◽  
Hamideh Javadi

Abstract The genetic potentials of eight species of Achillea (A. millefolium, A. fillipendulla, A. biebersteinii, A. nobilis, A. eriophora), Matricaria (M. ricotita), and Anthemis (An. haussknechtii and An. tinctoria) under drought conditions during the seedling stage were measured. Non-ionic water-soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 6000) was used to simulate water stress at five osmotic potential levels (0, –0.3, –0.6, –0.9, and –1.2 MPa). An acceptable threshold value for germination was osmotic potential –0.6 MPa, and the modest osmotic potential was –1.2 MPa for studied taxa. Seedlings of germinated at two control and osmotic potential –0.6 MPa (as an acceptable threshold value for germination) treatments were sowed in a field under rainfed conditions. Genetic differentiation of control plants (CP) versus early selected plants (ESP, germinated at osmotic potential –0.6 MPa) was studied using morphological, physiological, and molecular (ISSR) markers. No significant differences were observed between morphological traits of CP and ESP in all species, however, days to full flowering shortened in ESP. The physiological results demonstrate that under rainfed conditions, the ESP, in a quick response, collect osmolytes and amplify the activity of antioxidative enzymes to survive drought. The genetic relationship in the group of genotypes, that ISSR marker set it out, is affiliated to taxon even though AMOVA showed a partial differentiation between CP and ESP groups (21%). It was concluded that the selection of tolerating individuals at the seedling stage represents a likely positive strategy to have higher drought tolerance feature in plants under rainfed conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 87 (11) ◽  
pp. 55-59
Oleksandr Krushevskyi ◽  
MiaoMiao Zhou ◽  
Oleksandr Potapenko ◽  
Anna Potapenko

Studies have shown the possibility of a long cycle of sulfur electrode with a high content of active material. The use of water-soluble binder material NV-1A leads to the realization of high current loads in the Li-S battery. Impedance spectroscopy has shown that the low coulombic efficiency in the cycling of the sulfur electrode is primarily due to the spontaneous dissolution of sulfur in the electrolyte, which requires high energy consumption when charging the Li-S battery. The reduction of the specific capacity during cycling is associated with the formation and accumulation of non-conductive films of short-chain polysulfides. On the basis of the conducted researches and the review of the literature sources ways of overcoming of this problem are offered. The ability of cycling the sulfur electrodes at the high current loads has been shown. The discharge capacity values of the sulfur electrodes at the current load 790 mA∙cm-2 are 500 і 420 mAh∙g-1 on the 5-th and 100-th cycles, accordingly. Using the method of impedance spectroscopy, it has been supposed that the formation and accumulation of unconductive Li2S2 / Li2S phases is the main process, which induce the quick capacity reduction of Li - S batteries upon cycling.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Shohei Fujita ◽  
Huaizhong Xu ◽  
Yubing Dong ◽  
Yoko Okahisa

Fibroin nanofibers (FNFs) achieved from physical treated silk can keep its original crystal structure, showing excellent mechanical properties, however, processing the FNFs into fibers is still a challenge. Herein, a brand-new environmentally friendly approach is proposed to manufacture FNFs-based composite nanofibers. The water-soluble polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA, was applied to increase the viscoelasticity of the spinning dope, and the content of FNFs can reach up to 20 wt%. The established phase image of spinning suggested that the concentrations ranging from 6 wt% to 8 wt% are premium to achieving relatively homogenous FNFs/PVA nanofibers. Random fibers were deposited on a fixed collector, while the fiber orientation intensity increased with the rotational speed of drum and started decreasing after 12 m/s. The mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers showed the similar tendency of variation of fiber orientation. In addition, chemical changes, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the composite nanofibers were further clarified by means of FTIR, DSC, and TG. As a result, high FNFs contained nanofibers with excellent thermal properties were created from an aqueous solution. This study is the first original work to realize the spinnability of FNFs, which provides a new insight of the FNFs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Gang Lu ◽  
Jikuan Zhao ◽  
Shaoqi Li ◽  
Yuquan Chen ◽  
Chunfang Li ◽  

Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was widely implemented to improve the rheological properties of displacing fluids, but the high temperature and salinity of the reservoir brine limited their applications. Herein, copolymers including HPAM, zwitterion-modified HPAM (z-HPAM), PEG-modified HPAM (p-HPAM), and zwitterion/PEG-modified HPAM (zp-HPAM) were prepared by free radical polymerization in an aqueous solution. The viscosity of these copolymers under different temperature and salinity was measured in aqueous solution. It is found that the viscosity of the HPAM under the harsh condition (90oC, 20 × 104 mg/L salinity) is only 9.6% of that value under the normal condition (25oC, pure water), while the z-HPAM can significantly improve salt resistance by the effects of salting-in effect and intermolecular electrostatic crosslinking, showing a viscosity retention of 22.9% under the harsh condition. The addition of PEG-containing monomer can strengthen hydrogen bonding between the polymer chains and form a sterically ordered structure with improved salinity and temperature resistance. The synergistic effect of zwitterion units and PEG units endows the zp-HPAM with good salinity and temperature resistance; thus, the sample viscosity under the harsh condition remains 170 mPa s, which retains 29% of the value under the normal condition. The enhanced rheology properties of the zp-HPAM under the harsh condition are significant for the enhanced oil recovery of water-soluble polymer flooding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13596
Mahendra Rai ◽  
Magdalena Wypij ◽  
Avinash P. Ingle ◽  
Joanna Trzcińska-Wencel ◽  
Patrycja Golińska

Global reports on multidrug resistance (MDR) and life-threatening pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 and Candida cruris have stimulated researchers to explore new antimicrobials that are eco-friendly and economically viable. In this context, biodegradable polymers such as nisin, chitin, and pullulan play an important role in solving the problem. Pullulan is an important edible, biocompatible, water-soluble polymer secreted by Aureobasidium pullulans that occurs ubiquitously. It consists of maltotriose units linked with α-1,6 glycosidic bonds and is classed as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA. Pullulan is known for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumor activities when incorporated with other additives such as antibiotics, drugs, nanoparticles, and so on. Considering the importance of its antimicrobial activities, this polymer can be used as a potential antimicrobial agent against various pathogenic microorganisms including the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Moreover, pullulan has ability to synthesize biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are remarkably efficacious against pathogenic microbes. The pullulan-based nanocomposites can be applied for wound healing, food packaging, and also enhancing the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. In this review, we have discussed biosynthesis of pullulan and its role as antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agent. Pullulan-based films impregnated with different antimicrobials such as AgNPs, chitosan, essential oils, and so on, forming nanocomposites have also been discussed as natural alternatives to combat the problems posed by pathogens.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7468
Xiaoqin Zhang ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Feng Pan ◽  
Xin Su ◽  
Yujun Feng

Water-soluble polymers, mainly partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), have been used in the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. However, the poor salt tolerance, weak thermal stability and unsatisfactory injectivity impede its use in low-permeability hostile oil reservoirs. Here, we examined the adaptivity of a thermoviscosifying polymer (TVP) in comparison with HPAM for chemical EOR under simulated conditions (45 °C, 4500 mg/L salinity containing 65 mg/L Ca2+ and Mg2+) of low-permeability oil reservoirs in Daqing Oilfield. The results show that the viscosity of the 0.1% TVP solution can reach 48 mPa·s, six times that of HPAM. After 90 days of thermal aging at 45 °C, the TVP solution had 71% viscosity retention, 18% higher than that of the HPAM solution. While both polymer solutions could smoothly propagate in porous media, with permeability of around 100 milliDarcy, TVP exhibited stronger mobility reduction and permeability reduction than HPAM. After 0.7 pore volume of 0.1% polymer solution was injected, TVP achieved an incremental oil recovery factor of 13.64% after water flooding, 3.54% higher than that of HPAM under identical conditions. All these results demonstrate that TVP has great potential to be used in low-permeability oil reservoirs for chemical EOR.

Maad F. Al Juboury ◽  
Muhammad Abdulredha ◽  
Basim K. Nile

Abstract This research aimed to create a novel technique for recovering fertilizers from aquaculture effluent to overcome potential non-renewable fertilizers shortages. There are two steps: Photocatalyst technique for nutrient mobilization, succeeded by solids precipitating with two natural and one synthetic flocculant. The photocatalytic degradation of organonitrogen compounds in batch experiments started under the irradiation of sunlight. Following that, photocatalytic breakdown of organonitrogen compounds produces inorganic nitrogen constituents like NH4+, NO2−, and NO3−, which could be used as manure. It was found that, after 12 h of circulating, the concentration of inorganic nitrogen become as NH4+ = 17.2 g/L, NO2− = 18.1 mg/L, and NO3− = 15.9 mg/L. The jar test was adopted to assess the capacity of two natural compounds (tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP) and tannin-based product (TBS)) and synthetic water-soluble polymer cationic polyacrylamide (SWP) to reduce turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), COD and colour. The findings reveal that with a dose of 20 mg/L of TBS, 20 mg/L of TKP, and 50 mg/L of SWP, the maximum turbidity reductions were 95, 93, and 94%, respectively. The TBS was slightly better than TKP and highly better than SWP in terms of coagulation activities with TSS, COD and colour maximum removal efficiencies.

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