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Aérica C. Nazareno ◽  
Iran J. O. da Silva ◽  
Eduardo F. Delgado ◽  
Miguel Machado ◽  
Luiz O. Pradella

ABSTRACT The inclusion of environmental enrichment in conventional broiler rearing can increase mobility, bone mass and muscle. This research aimed to evaluate the use of environmental enrichment in the rearing of broilers at different ages and its influence on performance, morphometry, yield and weight of the parts. It was used the completely randomized design in split-plot scheme, being the plots the treatments presence (T1) and absence (T2) of environmental enrichment and the subplots the broiler ages (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days), with 56 chicks in each treatment (T1 and T2). Data obtained were analyzed by the linear effect model of fixed effects and compared by Tukey’s test of means. The animals were raised in a controlled environment, divided into four boxes with dimensions: 1.5 × 1.0 × 0.7 m, containing rice straw bed. In T1 a ladder with a perch on top was used, distributed every 1.5 m2. Environmental enrichment used did not influence broiler’s zootechnical performance. Broilers’ morphometric properties, parts weight and body weight increased due to environmental enrichment and, improvement was observed in chicks rearing’s final phase. The environmental enrichment was beneficial for muscle and bone mass gain in the main commercial parts of the chicken carcass, in addition to reducing the allometric coefficient of the breasts in chickens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Le Li ◽  
Yulong Xiong ◽  
Zhao Hu ◽  
Yan Yao

Objective:The effect of renal denervation (RDN) on heart rate (HR) in patients with hypertension had been investigated in many studies, but the results were inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of RDN on HR control.Methods:Databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and, were searched until September 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or non-RCTs of RDN in hypertensive patients with outcome indicators, such as HR, were selected. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated for evaluating the changes in HR from baseline using fixed-effects or random-effects models. The Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to identify the relationship between the changes of HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP).Results:In the current meta-analysis, 681 subjects from 16 individual studies were included. This study showed that RDN could reduce office HR in patients with hypertension [WMD = −1.93 (95% CI: −3.00 to −0.85, p < 0.001)]. In addition, 24-h HR and daytime HR were decreased after RDN [WMD = −1.73 (95% CI: −3.51 to −0.31, p = 0.017) and −2.67 (95% CI: −5.02 to −0.32, p = 0.026) respectively], but nighttime HR was not significantly influenced by RDN (WMD = −2.08, 95% CI: −4.57 to 0.42, p = 0.103). We found that the reduction of HR was highly related to the decrease of SBP (r = 0.658, p < 0.05).Conclusion:Renal denervation could reduce office, 24-h, and daytime HR, but does not affect nighttime HR. And the effect is highly associated with blood pressure (BP) control.Systematic Review Registration:, identifier: CRD42021283065.

B M Lozinski ◽  
B Frederick ◽  
Y Li ◽  
M Saqui-Salces ◽  
G C Shurson ◽  

Abstract An experiment was conducted to determine effects of providing drinking water of differing qualities on growth performance and health of nursery pigs. Weanling pigs (n = 450; 150 pigs/group; 10 pigs/pen) were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups consisting of three water sources of varying quality: 1) Water source A containing 1,410 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 1,120 ppm sulfates, and 1,500 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS); 2) Water source B containing 909 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 617 ppm sulfates, and 1,050 ppm TDS; and 3) Water source C containing 235 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 2 ppm sulfates, and 348 ppm TDS. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to their respective water sources for the duration of the study which began at weaning (21 d of age) and ended 40 d later (61 d of age). Individual pig weights were recorded weekly along with feed intake on a pen basis. Occurrences of morbidity and mortality were recorded daily. Subjective fecal scores were assigned on a pen basis and blood samples were used to evaluate blood chemistry, cytokine concentrations, and phagocytic activity. A differential sugar absorption test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Fecal grab samples were used to establish diet digestibility, and drinking behavior was video-recorded to assess pigs’ acceptance of water sources provided. The statistical model considered fixed effects of water source, room, and their interaction with the random effect of pen. A repeated measures analysis was conducted to determine effects of water quality over time. There were no differences (P > 0.440) among water sources in average daily gain (A, 0.46 kg/d; B, 0.46 kg/d; C, 0.47 kg/d) or average daily feed intake (A, 0.68 kg/d; B, 0.69 kg/d; C, 0.71 kg/d). Overall mortality of pigs was 0.44% and did not differ across the three water sources. There were no differences in apparent total tract digestibility of the diet, intestinal permeability, immune parameters, or blood chemistry attributable to quality of water consumed by pigs. Pigs did not show an aversion to the water sources provided, because total time pigs spent at the drinker did not differ (P > 0.750) among water sources on d 1 through 3 of the experiment. These data indicate that the water sources of differing quality studied did not affect growth performance or health of nursery pigs.

2022 ◽  
Yuxin Feng ◽  
Zhiru Zhou ◽  
Quanming Fei ◽  
Ying Wang

Abstract IntroductionTo evaluate the association between mobile/cellular phone use and risk of three intracranial tumors (glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma) based on case-control studies through pooling the published data .MethodsWe conducted a systematic literature search in databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to September 2021. The primary outcome was the risk of tumors by mobile/cellular phone use, which was measured by pooling each odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). The random- or fixed-effects model was applied to combine the results depending on the heterogeneity of the analysis.ResultsWe ultimately included 6 articles for glioma, 6 articles for meningioma and 8 for acoustic neuroma from 1999 to 2015 . There was no significant association between mobile/cellular phone use and risk of glioma (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81-1.17; I²=76.9%, p=0.001) and acoustic neuroma (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.76-1.25; I²=60.7%, p=0.013). And no statistical significance was observed between any subgroup of duration of use and these two type of cancer. Howerver, mobile phone use was associated with decrease the risk of meningioma, especially when the time since first use was between 0-5 years (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.90; I²=39.5%, p=0.142) and 5-10 years (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.93; I²=32.3%, p=0.194), while the protective effect disappeared in longer term (more than 10/11 years)(OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.03; I²=0.0%, p=0.870). ConclusionEvidence from our study mobile/cellular phone use may decreased risk of meningioma. Further studies are needed to explore the possible influence of long-term use of mobile phone and underlying mechanism.

2022 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-221915
Farzin Khosrow-Khavar ◽  
Seoyoung C Kim ◽  
Hemin Lee ◽  
Su Been Lee ◽  
Rishi J Desai

ObjectivesRecent results from ‘ORAL Surveillance’ trial have raised concerns regarding the cardiovascular safety of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We further examined this safety concern in the real-world setting.MethodsWe created two cohorts of patients with RA initiating treatment with tofacitinib or tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFI) using deidentified data from Optum Clinformatics (2012–2020), IBM MarketScan (2012–2018) and Medicare (parts A, B and D, 2012–2017) claims databases: (1) A ‘real-world evidence (RWE) cohort’ consisting of routine care patients and (2) A ‘randomised controlled trial (RCT)-duplicate cohort’ mimicking inclusion and exclusion criteria of the ORAL surveillance trial to calibrate results against the trial findings. Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score fine stratification weighting were used to estimate HR and 95% CIs for composite outcome of myocardial infarction and stroke and accounting for 76 potential confounders. Database-specific effect estimates were pooled using fixed effects models with inverse-variance weighting.ResultsIn the RWE cohort, 102 263 patients were identified of whom 12 852 (12.6%) initiated tofacitinib. The pooled weighted HR (95% CI) comparing tofacitinib with TNFI was 1.01 (0.83 to 1.23) in RWE cohort and 1.24 (0.90 to 1.69) in RCT-duplicate cohort which aligned closely with ORAL-surveillance results (HR: 1.33, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.94).ConclusionsWe did not find evidence for an increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes with tofacitinib in patients with RA treated in the real-world setting; however, tofacitinib was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes, although statistically non-significant, in patients with RA with cardiovascular risk factors.Trial registration numberNCT04772248.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Sandi Knez ◽  
Goran Šimić ◽  
Anica Milovanović ◽  
Sofia Starikova ◽  
Franc Željko Županič

Abstract Background The prices of energy resources are important determinants of sustainable energy development, yet associated with significant unknowns. The estimates of the impact of prices of energy products in the domestic market (for domestic consumers) are rare—hence the importance and novelty of this research. Therefore, the main goal of the paper is to assess the impact of domestic prices of gasoline, gas, coal, and solar energy on sustainable and secure energy future. Methods The research includes 14 countries (of which 7 are developed and 7 are developing countries) and a period of 5 years (2014–2018). The model also includes discrete variables: level of development (developing or developed), and the fact as to whether the country is an energy exporter or not. For the purposes of analysis, the following elements were used: Panel Data Analysis, Linear regression (with random and fixed effects), Durbin–Wu–Hausman test, and Honda test, with the use of R-studio software for statistical computing. Results The research showed that the biggest negative impact on energy sustainability was recorded by an increase in the price of coal and the smallest one by an increase in the price of solar energy. An increase in the price of gasoline has a positive impact, while an increase in the price of gas has no impact. The basic methodological result showed that the fixed effects linear model is more accurate than the random effect model. Conclusions The results of the paper, important as a sustainable energy policy recommendation, showed that the impact of changes in energy product prices is significantly greater in developing countries, but that the status of the country as an energy exporter has no significance. In addition, the paper points to the need to intensify the research on the assessment of the impact of energy product prices for domestic consumers on their ability to pay that price, because with a certain (so far undefined) increase in energy product prices, a certain group of domestic consumers moves into a category that is not in line with sustainable energy development and is extremely undesirable in every respect—energy poverty.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0272989X2110699
Thomas Allen ◽  
Dorte Gyrd-Hansen ◽  
Søren Rud Kristensen ◽  
Anne Sophie Oxholm ◽  
Line Bjørnskov Pedersen ◽  

Background Many physicians are experiencing increasing demands from both their patients and society. Evidence is scarce on the consequences of the pressure on physicians’ decision making. We present a theoretical framework and predict that increasing pressure may make physicians disregard societal welfare when treating patients. Setting We test our prediction on general practitioners’ antibiotic-prescribing choices. Because prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics does not require microbiological testing, it can be performed more quickly than prescribing for narrow-spectrum antibiotics and is therefore often preferred by the patient. In contrast, from a societal perspective, inappropriate prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics should be minimized as it may contribute to antimicrobial resistance in the general population. Methods We combine longitudinal survey data and administrative data from 2010 to 2017 to create a balanced panel of up to 1072 English general practitioners (GPs). Using a series of linear models with GP fixed effects, we estimate the importance of different sources of pressure for GPs’ prescribing. Results We find that the percentage of broad-spectrum antibiotics prescribed increases by 6.4% as pressure increases on English GPs. The link between pressure and prescribing holds for different sources of pressure. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there may be societal costs of physicians working under pressure. Policy makers need to take these costs into account when evaluating existing policies as well as when introducing new policies affecting physicians’ work pressure. An important avenue for further research is also to determine the underlying mechanisms related to the different sources of pressure.JEL-code: I11, J28, J45 Highlights Many physicians are working under increasing pressure. We test the importance of pressure on physicians’ prescribing of antibiotics. The prescribed rate of broad-spectrum antibiotics increases with pressure. Policy makers should be aware of the societal costs of pressured physicians. [Formula: see text]

2022 ◽  
pp. 095892872110561
Kristina Goldacker ◽  
Janna Wilhelm ◽  
Susanne Wirag ◽  
Pia Dahl ◽  
Tanja Riotte ◽  

This study investigates how parental leave policies and uptake may impact heterosexual couples’ relationship satisfaction. It focuses on Germany as an example of a country with a history of familialist policies and long maternal leaves that has recently undergone a significant policy shift. We extend the literature by examining the effects of maternal and paternal leave duration on both partners’ relationship satisfaction while distinguishing between the length of solo, joint and overall leave. The study applies two different methods on data from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam). First, the study applies fixed-effects regression models ( n = 1046 couples) to investigate the impact of parental leave duration on the change in mothers’ and fathers’ satisfaction over the child’s early years. Second, drawing on exogenous variation as a result of the parental leave reform of 2007, which shortened paid leave for mothers and incentivised fathers’ leave take-up, difference-in-difference analyses ( n = 1403 couples) analyse reform effects on relationship satisfaction of parents with 3-year-old children. The fixed-effects models indicated a consistent negative impact of maternal – especially solo – leave duration on both mothers’ and fathers’ relationship satisfaction. No significant effects of paternal leave length were found. The difference-in-difference approach revealed a positive reform effect on mothers’ relationship satisfaction. In combination, these results suggest that the reduction in maternal leave as part of the reform has had a greater impact on couples’ relationship quality than the relatively short duration of leave taken by most fathers after the introduction of the individual leave entitlement.

Sylvia E. Twersky ◽  
Adam Davey

Increases in life expectancy mean that an unprecedented number of individuals are reaching centenarian status, often with complex health concerns. We analyzed nationally representative hospital admissions data (200–2009) from the National Inpatient Study (NIS) for 52,618 centenarians (aged 100–115 years, mean age 101.4). We predicted length of stay (LOS) via negative binomial models and total inflation adjusted costs via fixed effects regression analysis informed by descriptive data. We also identified hospitalizations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions defined by AHRQ Prevention Quality Indicators. Mean LOS decreased from 6.1 to 5.1 days, while over the same time period the mean total adjusted charges rose from USD 13,373 to USD 25,026 in 2009 dollars. Black, Hispanic, Asian, or other race centenarians had higher cost stays compared to White, but only Black and Hispanic centenarians had significantly greater mean length of stay. Comorbidities predicted greater length of stay and higher costs. Centenarians admitted on weekends had higher costs but shorter length of stay. In total, 29.4% of total costs were due to potentially preventable hospitalizations for total charges (2000–2009) of USD 341.8M in 2009 dollars. Centenarian hospitalizations cost significantly more than hospitalization for any other group of elderly in the U.S.

2022 ◽  
Abhisit Prawang ◽  
Naphatsawan Chanjamlong ◽  
Woranattha Rungwara ◽  
Wichai Santimaleeworagun ◽  
Taniya Paiboonvong ◽  

Abstract Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant bacteria that is difficult to treat in hospitals around the world. It has become a public health issue, as well as being linked to a high mortality rate. Several studies have shown a variety of treatment and clinical outcomes; however, the efficacy of combination therapy remains limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of monotherapy and combination therapy for S. maltophilia infections on mortality outcome.Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of combination therapy versus monotherapy in the treatment of S. maltophilia infections on mortality as a clinical outcome. Electronic databases, including Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE,, Scopus, and OpenGrey, were systematically searched from the inception of the database until September 3, 2021. Results: Of which 6,524 articles identified, a total of 13 studies and 2 cohort studies were included for systematic review of combination therapy and meta-analysis, respectively. The systematic review of combination antimicrobial therapy had been showed clinically desirable outcome on mortality in S. maltopholia infection, especially in complex or severe infection. In the fixed-effects meta-analysis of the cohort study, monotherapy was surprisingly shown to have statistically significant effects on the decreased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.94). Conclusions: Our results found that the combination antimicrobial therapy had been showed clinically desirable outcome on mortality in S. maltopholia infection and monotherapy has a trend toward improved better outcome than combination therapy on mortality for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections. A longitudinal study that further explores this association is warranted. Trial registration: This study was registered with the trial registration number ID: 210843 under the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO:

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