Bone Density
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2427-2434
Zexue Zhao ◽  
Pengfei Wu ◽  
Jiwei Tian ◽  
Yifan Yu

Our study assessed the role of Wnt signaling inhibitor (SM04690) in fracture healing and the underlying mechanism. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish a fracture model which was then separated into SM04690 group which received SM04690 (50 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection once a day for one week, and control group which received saline once a day. After rats were sacrificed, the fractured femurs were harvested to measure femoral strength by stress testing, bone density and volume by CT. Femurs were sliced for immunohistochemical staining. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial cells, osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts were detected by flow cytometer and EFNB1 expression was detected by immunoblotting and PCR. In addition, MSCs were treated with SM04690 (5 uM), followed by detection of EFNB1 expression. SM04690 treatment significantly inhibited EFNB1 expression and reduced bone volume and callus volume as well as decreased ultimate load of bones. Immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry analysis showed no difference of osteoclast numbers at the fracture site between two groups, but proportion of osteoclasts in the cartilage tissue of SM04690 group was significantly decreased. In addition, the number of osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells and endothelial cells was significantly decreased after treatment. Under the conditions favoring osteogenic differentiation, the production of minerals by osteogenic cells was significantly decreased along with upregulated TAZ phosphorylation and downregulated Osterix in SM04690 group. In conclusion, SM04690 delays fracture healing by inhibiting EpRunB1 in osteoprogenitor cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Sheng-Feng Lin ◽  
Yen-Chun Fan ◽  
Wen-Harn Pan ◽  
Chyi-Huey Bai

Purpose: Bone and lean mass loss and cognitive impairment are prevalent in elder adults and have been hypothesized to share a potential link.Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study systemically sampled elder adults aged ≥65 years and conducted the door-to-door survey. The causal diagrams help to decide which covariates were included in the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). The structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed for the validation.Results: A total of 535 participants were enrolled and categorized into the normal (67.3%), mild cognitive impairment (18.3%), and dementia groups (14.4%). With increasing in the severity of cognitive impairment, the bone marrow density and lean mass consistently showed the trend of decreasing values. In the GLMMs, a significant association existed between the decrease of the bone mineral density (BMD) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (β = 5.819 scores per g/cm2 decrease, p = 0.0305) with adjustment of the age, sex, and physical activity. The SEM models confirmed that the MMSE was significantly and directly predicted by the age (β = 0.1363, p = 0.0003) and BMD (β = 0.1251, p = 0.0006) independently and indirectly predicted by lean mass (β = 0.1138, p = 0.0003) through the bone density path.Conclusion: In conclusion, an independent association between bone loss and cognitive impairment was existed rather than the confounding effect and the decrease of lean mass indirectly contributed to cognitive impairment by influencing the bone density.

2021 ◽  
Narriane Chaves Pereira de Holanda ◽  
Vanessa Mayana Alves Baad ◽  
Louise Rayra Bezerra ◽  
Silvane Katarine Medeiros de Lima ◽  
Joao Modesto Filho ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yongping Yuan ◽  
Jiajia Zhao ◽  
Nv He

Objective. To investigate the curative effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) combined with bone grafting and improve the aesthetic appearance of patients’ gingiva. Methods. A total of 86 patients with periodontal intraosseous defects were selected from February 2019 to February 2021. All the patients were divided into a control group and an observation group according to the random number table, with 43 patients in each group. Bone grafting was performed in the control group, while GTR was additionally used in the observation group on the basis of the control group. The surgical data and follow-up data were collected and organized. The alveolar bone mineral density, the change in the height of the bone defect, plaque index (PLI), sulcus hemorrhage index (SBI), PD, gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and other relevant data of the two groups in 6 months before and after surgery were compared. Six months after surgery, the cosmetic morphology of the patient's gums in the soft tissues around her teeth was evaluated. Results. Six months after surgery, the alveolar bone density of patients in two groups increased compared with that before surgery, and the height of the bone defect decreased compared with that before surgery. The alveolar bone density of the observation group was higher than that of the control group, and the height of the bone defect was lower than that of the control group ( P < 0.05 ). Six months after surgery, the PLI, SBI, PD, and CAL of patients in both groups were lower than those before surgery, while the GR was higher than that before surgery. PD and CAL values in the observation group were lower than those in the control group, and GR was higher than that in the control group ( P < 0.05 ). Six months after surgery, there was no significant difference in PLI and SBI scores between the two groups ( P < 0.05 ). Six months after surgery, the gingival cosmetic scores of the two groups of patients were higher than those before surgery. The observation group was higher than the control group ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. GTR combined with bone grafting has a good effect in the repair of periodontal intraosseous defects and can effectively promote the reconstruction and recovery of periodontal intraosseous defects in patients. At the same time, it can significantly improve the aesthetic appearance of patients’ gums, with good clinical application value.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (13) ◽  
pp. e203101320978
Gustavo Augusto Grossi-Oliveira ◽  
Stéfany Barbosa ◽  
Eduardo Dallazen ◽  
Ana Maira Pereira Baggio ◽  
Stefani Caroline Ferrioli ◽  

              Posterior mandible region is considered a highly predicable place for primary stability during dental implant placement. Although, this region can present a significant decrease in bone density, which can lead to implant dislocation during insertion. The present case reports an unusual dislocation of dental implant in a 59 old healthy patient's mandible and a secure solution for this kind of complication. During the drilling, bone quality type IV was observed. In sequence, implant was abruptly inserted in the perforation site and dropped into the bone marrow. Panoramic radiograph showed the implant inside bone marrow, close to mandibular base. The implant was removed through the surgical site. The screw of the implant prosthesis transfer was used to reach the displaced implant. A second implant with the same dimensions as the first one, differing by the external hexagon, was inserted into the same implant site. Therefore, the authors strongly recommend the use of the presented technique prior to osteotomy on mandibular body, reserving the second in the impossibility of reaching the internal connection of the displaced implant.

2021 ◽  
Zheng Xu ◽  
Ming Xiang ◽  
Jinsong Yang ◽  
Xu Gao ◽  
Yi Cao

Abstract Objective: To investigate the relationship between fracture line morphology, bone quality and fracture morphology of the posterior medial humeral calcar in proximal humeral fractures METHODS: CT data of patients with proximal humeral fractures diagnosed in our hospital from 06/2019 to 06/2021 were retrospectively analyzed to describe the map and coordinate analysis of the posterior medial humeral calcar fracture based on three-dimensional reconstruction, to create varus, valgus and normal groups according to the inclination angle of the humeral head, and to measure the bone mass of the posterior medial humeral calcar and perform statistical analysis.RESULTS: Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria, aged 15 to 72 years, there were 21 varus, 24 valgus and 17 normal types. Epiphyseal extension occurred most frequently posteriorly and medially, with the fracture line ending mostly posterior to the greater tuberosity. The thickness of the varus was (2.33 ± 0.47), valgus was (2.59 ± 0.33) and normal type was (2.69 ± 0.53). The T-test showed that the thickness of the bone in the varus was less than the other two types, and bone density and pinch angle were no statistically significant.CONCLUSION: There is no correlation between the trend of the posterior medial fracture line of the humeral calcar, bone density and internal, external rotation of the humeral head. The medial bone thickness after varus is less than that of valgus and normal fractures. The fracture line endpoint is mostly located posterior to the greater tuberosity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Alaa Abdelqader Altaweel ◽  
Abdel Aziz Baiomy Abdullah Baiomy ◽  
Hazem Shawky Shoshan ◽  
Hisham Abbas ◽  
Ahmed Abdel-Shakour Abdel-Hafiz ◽  

Abstract Background This randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate osteogenic potential of Cissus quadrangularis in alveolar distraction to facilitate implant installation. Material and methods Twenty patients with atrophic ridge were treated by alveolar distraction. After completing distractor activation, patients were randomly divided into two equal groups according to administered drug (placebo and Cissus quadrangularis group). After a consolidation period, distractors were removed and implants were inserted. Clinical evaluation was done to assess wound healing, and distractor and implant stability. Histological evaluation was performed at time of implant insertion. Radiographic evaluation was performed to assess bone volume and density after distraction, as well as, density and bone loss around implant. Results Radiographic and histological results showed that bone formation and maturation of study group were faster than that of control group. There was a significant increased bone density in distracted area and around implant in study group than control group. A significant bone loss at end of consolidation period, and around implant at end of the study was reported in control group than study group. Conclusion Cissus quadrangularis administration during the consolidation period is associated with increased osteogenic potential of distracted bone. The histological and radiographic findings of current study proved that Cissus quadrangularis not only enhances rate of new bone formation, but also bone density to withstand the biomechanical requirements of implant placement in a shorter time. Trial registration This study was retrospectively registered on NCT04669795-17\12\2020.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hanan Aljohani ◽  
Linda T. Senbanjo ◽  
Mohammed Al Qranei ◽  
Joseph P. Stains ◽  
Meenakshi A. Chellaiah

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compound that effectively treats multiple degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis and acute pancreatitis. Our previous studies have demonstrated the ability of MSM to differentiate stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous (SHED) teeth into osteoblast-like cells. This study examined the systemic effect of MSM in 36-week-old aging C57BL/6 female mice in vivo by injecting MSM for 13 weeks. Serum analyses showed an increase in expression levels of bone formation markers [osteocalcin (OCN) and procollagen type 1 intact N-terminal propeptide (P1NP)] and a reduction in bone resorption markers [tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collag (CTX-I)] in MSM-injected animals. Micro-computed tomographic images demonstrated an increase in trabecular bone density in mandibles. The trabecular bone density tended to be higher in the femur, although the increase was not significantly different between the MSM- and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-injected mice. In mandibles, an increase in bone density with a corresponding decrease in the marrow cavity was observed in the MSM-injected mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses of the mandibles for the osteoblast-specific marker – OCN, and the mesenchymal stem cell-specific marker – CD105 showed a significant increase and decrease in OCN and CD105 positive cells, respectively. Areas of bone loss were observed in the inter-radicular region of mandibles in control mice. However, this loss was considerably decreased due to stimulation of bone formation in response to MSM injection. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the ability of MSM to induce osteoblast formation and function in vivo, resulting in increased bone formation in the mandible. Hence, the application of MSM and stem cells of interest may be the right combination in alveolar bone regeneration under periodontal or other related diseases that demonstrate bone loss.

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