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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. M. Ali ◽  
M. T. Baig ◽  
A. Huma ◽  
S. Ibrahim ◽  
S. A. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 411-418
Author(s):  
Wei Wang ◽  
Xuechun Wang ◽  
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Ru Jia ◽  
Chunjie Du ◽  
...  

Purpose: To study the pharmacokinetics of morroniside (MR) and loganin (LG) in rats after oral administration of raw and wine-processed Corni fructus by UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Methods: Arctiin (AT) was used as internal standard, and the plasma or tissue samples were extracted twice using ethyl acetate. Electrospray ionization (ESI) negative ion mode was used, and the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was set in acquisition mode. The extraction and detection method is supported by selectivity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, stability, extraction, recovery and matrix effect. The non-atrioventricular model of das2.0 software was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: The absorption rate of MR (PTmax=0.092) and LG (PTmax=0.092) in Corni Fructus after wine-processing was faster in rats. The mean residence time was longer, and distribution of MR (PMRT0~t = 0.294) and LG (PMRT0~t = 0.000) in wine-processed Corni Fructus group increased in liver and kidneys. Conclusion: The proposed method has been successfully validated and is suitable for studying the pharmacokinetics of the two analytes in rats.


Author(s):  
Esra Demirtürk ◽  
Afife Büşra Ugur Kaplan ◽  
Meltem Cetin ◽  
Kübra Akıllıoğlu ◽  
Meltem Dönmez Kutlu ◽  
...  

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 300
Author(s):  
Chidambaram Ramanathan ◽  
Thomas Lackie ◽  
Drake H. Williams ◽  
Paul S. Simone ◽  
Yufeng Zhang ◽  
...  

As a redox-sensitive coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis. Low NAD+ levels are linked to multiple disease states, including age-related diseases, such as metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, restoring/increasing NAD+ levels in vivo has emerged as an important intervention targeting age-related neurodegenerative diseases. One of the widely studied approaches to increase NAD+ levels in vivo is accomplished by using NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Oral administration of NMN has been shown to successfully increase NAD+ levels in a variety of tissues; however, it remains unclear whether NMN can cross the blood–brain barrier to increase brain NAD+ levels. This study evaluated the effects of oral NMN administration on NAD+ levels in C57/B6J mice brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that oral gavage of 400 mg/kg NMN successfully increases brain NAD+ levels in mice after 45 min. These findings provide evidence that NMN may be used as an intervention to increase NAD+ levels in the brain.


Author(s):  
Sarah M. Ozawa ◽  
David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman ◽  
Michelle G. Hawkins ◽  
Stephanie M. Diao ◽  
Acacia E. Masri ◽  
...  

Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and potential adverse effects of pimobendan after oral administration in New Zealand White rabbits (Ocytolagus cuniculi). ANIMALS 10 adult sexually intact (5 males and 5 females) rabbits. PROCEDURES 2 pilot studies were performed with a pimobendan suspension or oral tablets. Eight rabbits received 7.5 mg of pimobendan (mean 2.08 mg/kg) suspended in a critical care feeding formula. Plasma concentrations of pimobendan and O-demethylpimobendan (ODMP) were measured, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated for pimobendan by noncompartmental analysis. Body weight, food and water consumption, mentation, urine, and fecal output were monitored. RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum concentration following pimobendan administration was 15.7 ± 7.54 ng/mL and was detected at 2.79 ± 1.25 hours. The half-life was 3.54 ± 1.32 hours. Plasma concentrations of pimobendan were detectable for up to 24 hours. The active metabolite, ODMP, was detected in rabbits for 24 to 36 hours. An adverse event occurred following administration of pimobendan in tablet form in 1 pilot study, resulting in death secondary to aspiration. No other adverse events occurred. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma concentrations of pimobendan were lower than previously reported for dogs and cats, despite administration of higher doses, and had longer time to maximum concentration and half-life. Based on this study, 2 mg/kg of pimobendan in a critical care feeding formulation should maintain above a target plasma concentration for 12 to 24 hours. However, further studies evaluating multiple-dose administration as well as pharmacodynamic studies and clinical trials in rabbits with congestive heart failure are needed to determine accurate dose and frequency recommendations.


Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 147
Author(s):  
Chien-Ning Hsu ◽  
Chih-Yao Hou ◽  
Guo-Ping Chang-Chien ◽  
Sufan Lin ◽  
Hung-Wei Yang ◽  
...  

Hypertension is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gasotransmitter with vasodilator properties. We, hence, investigated whether oral administration of sodium thiosulfate (STS), a clinically applicable H2S-based therapy, can exert a protective effect against hypertension in an adenine-induced CKD rat model. Eight-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with 0.5% adenine chow for 3 weeks to induce CKD. After 1 week, the rats were divided into two groups: one without and one with STS (2 g/kg body weight/day) in drinking water for 2 weeks. Treatment with STS lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7 and 9 mm Hg, respectively. Renal H2S-generating enzyme expression was inhibited by CKD, while STS therapy increased plasma levels of H2S and thiosulfate. Additionally, restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability and rebalance of the renin–angiotensin system may contribute to the protective effects of STS. Our data suggest that the oral administration of STS improves hypertension in an adenine-induced CKD model, which brings us closer to the clinical translation of H2S-targeting therapy in CKD-induced hypertension.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fawen Dai ◽  
Yanting Liu ◽  
Meimei Zhang ◽  
Lin Tao ◽  
Chu Huashuo ◽  
...  

Abstract The administration of interferon has improved the antiviral and immunomodulatory abilities of piglets, which is conductive to conductive to the prevention of potential diseases or delay the appearance of clinical symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects from administration of recombinant interferon-alpha (IFN-α) on the daily care of piglets. The results were compared with compound Chinese herbal, which was proved to improve serum interferon level. Further, the administration routes were compared between oral administration and intramuscular injection. Forty (40) piglets with equal age and weight were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (Group C, without treatment), Group H (treated with compound Chinese herbal), Group K (administered orally with recombinant IFN-α, 1500 IU per day per piglet), and Group J (administered intramuscularly with IFN-α, 4× 106 IU per day per piglet). After the treatment of 15 days, both oral and intramuscular treatment of recombinant IFN-α significantly improved the secretion of IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) (P<0.05), and the effects of intramuscular pathway were faster. In addition, the expression levels of IFN-stimulated genes (MX1 and ISG15) were significantly enhanced (P<0.01), independently of IFN-α treatment time and serum IFN-γ level. Different from other studies, compound Chinese herbal showed weaker effects on interferon stimulation in piglets. The results indicated that oral administration of recombinant IFN-α improved interferon-induced response of piglets at both serum and molecular levels, which may be applied for improving autoimmunity of piglets.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xingchen Huo ◽  
Zhensheng Wang ◽  
Xun Xiao ◽  
Chunrong Yang ◽  
Jianguo Su

Massive mortalities caused by bacterial infections in intensive aquaculture result in serious economic losses. In this study, a novel antimicrobial peptide gcIFN-20H was efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris (GS115) and loaded on carboxylmethyl chitosan (CMCS) to prepare CMCS-20H nanoparticles. Through physical characterization assays (TEM, DLS, BCA, and Raman) and biological activity tests (antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity), CMCS-20H nanopeptide was verified to be spherical nanoparticles with sustained release, antimicrobial activity, and negligible toxicity. CMCS-20H nanoparticles are more resistant to intestinal degradation than unloaded gcIFN-20H by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Oral administration was then carried out for 42 days. Complement C3 content, lysozyme, and total superoxide dismutase activities are highest in CMCS-20H group by serum biochemistry index assays. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, the survival rate in CMCS-20H group is highest (46%), which is 64% higher than the control group (28%). Meanwhile, the tissue bacterial loads (intestine, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, hepatopancreas, muscle, and blood) in the CMCS-20H group are significantly lower than other groups. By PAS staining analysis, the number of intestinal villi goblet cells and the thickness of mucin in the CMCS-20H group obviously increased. CMCS-20H effectively enhances mRNA expressions of some important immune genes (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ2, and IgM). The minimal tissue lesions (Intestine, spleen, and trunk kidney) were seen in the CMCS-20H group by histopathological examination. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that oral CMCS-20H maintains the intestinal microbiome homeostasis in bacterial infection. The results indicate that the novel nanopeptide CMCS-20H as the immunopotentiator can remarkably boost fish immunity and precautionary effect by oral administration and address the theoretical mechanisms and insights into the promising application prospect in aquaculture.


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