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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
A.P. Magnoli ◽  
V. Poloni ◽  
L.A. Cristofolini ◽  
C.I. Merkis ◽  
F.M. Escobar ◽  
...  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and monensin (MONS) interaction on the liver and intestinal histological changes in poultry, and the influence of Pichia kudriavzevii RC001. One-day-old commercial line (Ross 308) broilers (n=120) were individually weighed and randomly assigned to 8 treatments (15 broilers/treatment, 5 broilers per cage and 3 replicates/treatment). The experimental diets were: Group 1: basal diet (BD); Group 2: BD + MONS (50 mg/kg); Group 3: BD + P. kudriavzevii RC001 (1 g/kg); Group 4: BD + AFB1 (100 μg/kg); Group 5: BD + MONS + P. kudriavzevii RC001; Group 6: BD + AFB1 + P. kudriavzevii RC001; Group 7: BD + AFB1 + MONS + P. kudriavzevii RC001; Group 8: BD + AFB1 + MONS. When MONS was added, the typical AFB1 macroscopic and microscopic alterations were intensified. The P. kudriavzevii RC001 cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays with Vero cells and with broiler chicken’s erythrocytes, demonstrated that P. kudriavzevii RC001 neither were non-cytotoxic nor genotoxic. When MONS was added in the presence of P. kudriavzevii RC001, the toxic effect of AFB1 on liver was not prevented. When P. kudriavzevii was present alone, the same prevention of the pathological damage was observed in the intestine of poultry fed with AFB1. The smallest apparent absorption area was obtained when AFB1 and MONS were added in the feed (P<0.05). AFB1 and MONS interaction demonstrated important toxic effects. Although P. kudriavzevii was effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of AFB1 alone on liver pathology and gut morphology, it was not able to diminish the toxic effects of AFB1 in presence of MONS. It suggests that P. kudriavzevii could be used as feed additive or counteracting the toxic effects of AFB1 in poultry production in the absence of MONS.


Author(s):  
Дмитрий Валериевич Судаков ◽  
Евгений Владимирович Белов ◽  
Олег Валериевич Судаков ◽  
Ольга Игоревна Гордеева ◽  
Оксана Александровна Андросова

В статье рассматриваются особенности своевременного выявления новой короновирусной инфекцией (НКИ) у пациентов хирургического профиля на уровне приемного отделения областной клинической больницы. Представленная работа является в настоящее время крайне актуальной, в виду продолжающейся в мире пандемии НКИ - Covid-19. Важное значение данному исследованию придает то, что оно направлено на как можно более раннюю диагностику Covid-19, уже на уровне нахождения в приемном отделении при поступлении в многопрофильный стационар. Подобные меры могут существенно помочь в сохранении здоровья медицинских работников и могут оказать положительное влияние на эпидемиологическую обстановку в целом. Интересной составляющей данного исследования является и то, что диагностика Covid-19 основывается лишь на тех лабораторных анализах, которые можно быстро определить в условиях приемного отделения. Объектами исследования послужило 200 пациентов, поступающих в приемное отделение БУЗ ВО ВОКБ №1 исключительно с хирургической патологией. Все больные были подразделены на 4 группы по 50 человек, всем им был поставлен сопутствующий диагноз Covid-19. В 1 группу вошли пациенты, поступающие в приемное отделение без сознания, сбор анамнеза и сбор жалоб у которых был невозможен. 2 группу составили пациенты, у которых НКИ была диагностирована непосредственно после оперативного вмешательства. В 3 группу вошли пациенты, у которых была выявлена НКИ, но объем оперативного вмешательства и объем поражения легких позволял им дальнейшее амбулаторное лечение. 4 группу составили пациенты, у которых Covid-19 выявлялся в течение 3 дней после оперативного вмешательства. У всех больных подробно собирался анамнез жизни и эпидемиологический анамнез (за исключением 1 группы), анализировались наиболее частые клинические проявления и показатели общего и биохимического анализа крови, обрабатывались данные КТ легких. Были определены основные клинические симптомы НКИ, такие как: повышенная температура тела, кашель, слабость и утомляемость. Наиболее важными лабораторными показателями стало определение уровня лейкоцитоза, с уровнем нейтрофилов и лимфоцитов, а также СОЭ, D-димера, С-реактивного белка. Представленная статья представляет большой интерес для врачей, работающих в условиях приемных отделений многопрофильных стационаров. По результатам работы планируется продолжение исследования с большей выборкой пациентов и большим количеством изучаемых параметров The article discusses the features of the timely detection of a new coronavirus infection (NCI) in surgical patients at the level of the admission department of a regional clinical hospital. The presented work is currently extremely relevant, in view of the ongoing NСI pandemic in the world - Covid-19. The importance of this study is attached to the fact that it is aimed at the earliest possible diagnosis of Covid-19, already at the level of being in the admission department upon admission to a multidisciplinary hospital. Such measures can significantly help preserve the health of medical workers and can have a positive impact on the epidemiological situation in general. An interesting component of this study is the fact that the diagnosis of Covid-19 is based only on those laboratory tests that can be quickly determined in the conditions of the admission department. The objects of the study were 200 patients admitted to the admission department of BUZ VO VOKB № 1 exclusively with surgical pathology. All patients were divided into 4 groups of 50 people, all of them were diagnosed with a concomitant Covid-19 diagnosis. Group 1 consisted of patients admitted to the emergency department unconscious, and it was impossible to collect anamnesis and collect complaints. Group 2 consisted of patients in whom NCI was diagnosed immediately after surgery. Group 3 included patients who had NCI, but the volume of surgery and the volume of lung lesions allowed them further outpatient treatment. Group 4 consisted of patients in whom Covid-19 was detected within 3 days after surgery. In all patients, a detailed life history and epidemiological history were collected (except for group 1), the most frequent clinical manifestations and indicators of general and biochemical blood tests were analyzed, and CT data of the lungs were processed. The main clinical symptoms of NCI were identified, such as: fever, cough, weakness and fatigue. The most important laboratory indicators were the determination of the level of leukocytosis, with the level of neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as ESR, D-dimer, C-reactive protein. The presented article is of great interest to doctors working in the admission departments of multidisciplinary hospitals. Based on the results of the work, it is planned to continue the study with a larger sample of patients and a large number of studied parameters


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jun Yong An ◽  
Jin Young Park ◽  
Jaehwa Cho ◽  
Hesun Erin Kim ◽  
Jaesub Park ◽  
...  

Abstract Background There have been few earlier studies on the efficacy of statins in the prevention of delirium. However, the results were controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the use of statins and the occurrence of delirium in a large cohort of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), considering disease severity and statin properties, which were not sufficiently considered in the previous works. Methods We obtained clinical and demographical information from 3604 patients admitted to the ICU of Gangnam Severance Hospital from January 2013 to April 2020. This included information on daily statin use and delirium state, as assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting and categorized the ICU patients into four groups based on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (group 1: 0-10 - mild; group 2: 11-20 – mild to moderate; group 3: 21-30 – moderate to severe; group 4: > 30 - severe). We analyzed the association between the use of statin and the occurrence of delirium in each group, while taking into account the properties of statins. Results Comparisons between statin and non-statin patient groups revealed that only in group 2, patients who were administered statin showed significantly higher occurrence of delirium (p=0.004, odds ratio [OR]=1.58) compared to the patients who did not receive statin. Regardless of whether statins were lipophilic (p=0.036, OR=1.47) or hydrophilic (p=0.032, OR=1.84), the occurrence of delirium was higher only in patients from group 2. Although both lipophilic and hydrophilic statins in group 2 were associated with delirium, neither showed a greater association than the other. Conclusions The use of statins may be associated with the increases in the risk of delirium occurrence in patients with mild to moderate disease severity, irrespective of statin properties, as revealed by results from a large cohort study.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yixuan Wu ◽  
Haiying Liu ◽  
Jianqiao Liu

BackgroundNo studies have been done to examine the efficacy of IVF and intrauterine insemination (IUI) for the treatment of young patients with unexplained infertility and low ovarian reserve, although it is becoming an increasingly significant indication for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). The goal of this research was to compare the efficacy of IVF with IUI on Poseidon group 3 patients with unexplained infertility (PG3&amp;UI).MethodsThis was a retrospective analysis of PG3&amp;UI patients who had IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or IUI at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University between January 1, 2015, and March 31, 2021. To equalize the baseline characteristics of the IVF/ICSI and IUI groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was utilized. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were used to compare the differences in live births. To discover variations in time to biochemical pregnancy leading to live birth, Kaplan-Meier curves were produced. To evaluate the expenses per live birth between two procedures, a cost-effective analysis was done.ResultsAccording to ITT analysis, the live birth rate for the IVF/ICSI group was substantially higher than the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) for the IUI group (22.6% (38/168) vs. 11.3% (19/168), RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.20-3.32, P = 0.006). In the PP analysis, the live birth rate was 23.0% (38/165) in the IVF/ICSI group and 11.7% (19/162) in the IUI group (RR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.18-3.26, P = 0.007). When censored at 365 days, the Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the IVF/ICSI group had a higher live birth rate than the IUI group (log-rank test χ²= 6.025; P = 0.014). However, when the two groups were censored at 180 days, the live birth rates were not substantially different (log-rank test χ²= 3.847; P = 0.05). The number of hospital visits per live birth in the IUI group was higher than in the IVF/ICSI group (85 vs. 48). The overall cost of a live birth was comparable across the two groups (¥132242 vs. ¥131611), while the medical expenses for a live delivery from IVF/ICSI were higher than those from IUI (¥118955 vs. ¥108279).ConclusionsThe livebirth rate per IVF/ICSI cycle with at most one embryo transfer is higher than the CLBR of IUI, with fewer hospital visits and similar expenses.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jasvinder A. Singh

Abstract Objective To examine patient experience, views, and opinions regarding the ineffectiveness of the current knee osteoarthritis (OA) treatments. Methods Nominal groups were conducted with consecutive clinic patients with knee OA, oversampling African Americans. Patients discussed and rank-ordered their concerns. Results Fourteen nominal groups with 48 knee OA patients were conducted with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, 9.8) and a knee OA duration of 7.8 years (sd, 5.4); 25% were men, and 54% were African American. The most frequently cited highly ranked concerns for the ineffectiveness of current knee OA treatments were as follows: (1) medication-related—(A) side effects (3 groups; 4% vote), (B) limited efficacy (5 groups; 11% vote), (C) medication not targeting underlying disease (7 groups; 16% vote), (D) lack of personalized medication use (3 groups; 4% vote), (E) temporary benefit (3 groups; 6% vote), and (F) fear of addiction/natural treatment preference (2 groups; 3% vote); (2) exercise/physical therapy-related—(G) exacerbation of joint pain (1 group; 3% vote), (H) difficulty in doing exercises (2 groups; 2% vote), (I) lack of motivation (8 groups; 12% vote), (J) technical challenges/lack of personalized exercise regimens (1 group; 1% vote), and (K) cost (2 groups; 3% vote); and (3) weight loss-related—(L) difficulty in achieving weight loss (4 groups; 6% vote) and (M) motivation (1 group; 1% vote). Conclusions A representative sample of participants with knee OA identified several barriers to the effectiveness of current knee OA treatments. This new knowledge provides insights for making the current treatment options potentially more usable and/or more effective.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kung-Hao Liang ◽  
Che-Chang Chang ◽  
Kuo-Sheng Wu ◽  
Alice L. Yu ◽  
Shian-Ying Sung ◽  
...  

AbstractMedulloblastoma is the most common embryonic brain tumor in children. We investigated a cohort of 52 Asian medulloblastoma patients aged between 0 and 19 years old, who received surgical resections and post-resection treatments in the Taipei Medical University Hospital and the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Genome-wide RNA sequencing was performed on fresh-frozen surgical tissues. These data were analyzed using the CIBERSORTx immune deconvolution software. Two external clinical and molecular datasets from United States (n = 62) and Canada (n = 763) were used to evaluate the transferability of the gene-signature scores across ethnic populations. The abundance of 13 genes, including DLL1, are significantly associated with overall survival (All Cox regression P < 0.001). A gene-signature score was derived from the deep transcriptome, capable of indicating patients’ subsequent tumor recurrence (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.645, confidence interval [CI] 1.337–2.025, P < 0.001) and mortality (HR 2.720, CI 1.798–4.112, P < 0.001). After the adjustment of baseline clinical factors, the score remains indicative of recurrence-free survival (HR 1.604, CI 1.292–1.992, P < 0.001) and overall survival (HR 2.781, CI 1.762–4.390, P < 0.001). Patients stratified by this score manifest not only distinct prognosis but also different molecular characteristics: Notch signaling ligands and receptors are comparatively overexpressed in patients with poorer prognosis, while tumor infiltrating natural killer cells are more abundant in patients with better prognosis. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining showed the DLL1 protein, a major ligand in the Notch signaling pathway, and the NCAM1 protein, a representative biomarker of natural killer cells, are present in the surgical tissues of patients of four molecular subgroups, WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4. NCAM1 RNA level is also positively associated with the mutation burden in tumor (P = 0.023). The gene-signature score is validated successfully in the Canadian cohort (P = 0.009) as well as its three molecular subgroups (SHH, Group 3 and Group 4; P = 0.047, 0.018 and 0.040 respectively). In conclusion, pediatric medullablastoma patients can be stratified by gene-signature scores with distinct prognosis and molecular characteristics. Ligands and receptors of the Notch signaling pathway are overexpressed in the patient stratum with poorer prognosis. Tumor infiltrating natural killer cells are more abundant in the patient stratum with better prognosis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexandre de Abreu Ribeiro ◽  
Christina Maeda Takiya ◽  
Vera Nunes Pannain ◽  
Mauricio Andrade Perez ◽  
Joaquim Ribeiro Filho

Abstract The increase of liver surgical indications, the expansion of the margins in hepatic resections and the lack of organ donors led to the use of more split livers from cadaver and living donors and smaller liver remnants in post-operatory patients. The use of increasingly smaller grafts associated with hepatic resections broadened the spectrum for observation of small-for size syndrome, caused by significant inflammation and early hepatic fibrosis. The small-for-size syndrome is manifested clinically by prolonged cholestasis, refractory ascites and progressive hepatic dysfunction (encephalopathy and coagulopathy). In the search for mechanisms to reduce liver damage, preconditioning is presented as a possibility of protecting the low weight remnant in experimental works. Objective: Study the hepatic tissue measuring the impact of portal preconditioning in small hepatic remnant in Wistar rats Methods: Rats weighing approximately 250g were divided in 4 groups with 7 members each. Group 1, Control group requiring only collection of the material, blood laboratory analysis and liver biopsy for pathology and immunohistochemistry; Group 2, Sham, were operated with simple laparotomy, 48 hours later they were subjected to another surgery with sample collection to do blood laboratory analysis and liver biopsy for pathology and immunohistochemistry. Group 3, hepatectomy with preconditioning. In this group was made the preconditioning procedure before the resection of 70% of the liver, 48 hours later they underwent another surgery for sample collection to do blood laboratory analysis and liver biopsy for pathology and immunohistochemistry. Group 4, hepatectomy without preconditioning. In this group the members were operated with resection of 70% of the liver, 48 hours later were reoperated with sample collection to do blood laboratory analysis and liver biopsy for pathology and immunohistochemistry. We studied and compared the impacts in morphology, laboratory, histology, immunohistochemistry.Results: There was no intraoperative mortality in the model used, there was no statistically significant difference in histological and laboratory parameters between the groups with and without preconditioning, there was an increase in the expression of PCNA with statistical significance in the hepatic remnant of the group submitted to preconditioning. Conclusion: Liver preconditioning can provide an increase in cell proliferation in small volume liver remnant.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 111-115
Author(s):  
Shradha Suman ◽  
◽  
Prakash Lokhande ◽  
Dhanyakumar N.M ◽  
Siddheswaran V. ◽  
...  

Context: A proper isolation technique plays a key role in the success of restoration of carious tooth. Aim Of The Study: The aim of this in-vivo study was to evaluate efficacy of addition silicone dam coverage technique with conventional isolation methods in restorative procedures and endodontic treatment. Settings And Design: Forty-Five patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected for the study. Materials And Methods: All the participants underwent clinical procedures using 3 different isolation techniques. Group-1: Clinical procedures were carried out using traditional cotton roll isolation. Group-2: Clinical procedures were carried out using conventional rubber dam isolation procedure. Group-3: Clinical procedures were carried out using addition silicone dam coverage technique. The efficacy of isolation in terms of clinician usage and patient comfort is evaluated by a single evaluator. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: IBM SPSS (version 21.0) software was used. Chi-square test was performed, considering P < 0.05 for statistical significance. Results: All the groups demonstrated satisfactory clinical performance. Upon inter and intra-group comparison of the isolation methods, there was statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It is important to achieve an aseptic environment in clinical restorative and endodontic procedures. Addition silicone dam coverage technique is a chair side modified design which is user friendly with improved treatment efficacy. However, long-term clinical studies must be needed for further evaluation.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bo Jiang ◽  
Qianqian Hu ◽  
Tao Li ◽  
Man She ◽  
Xiaodong Zhou

Abstract Objective To investigate the manifestation of dry eye and its relationship with CXCR3 and CCR5 expression in patients with ocular acid burns. Methods This is a case-control study. A total of 27 eyes of 22 cases ocular with acid burns of I-V degrees from Jan.2020 to Feb.2021 in this hospital were selected as observation group, and 8 eyes of 8 cases of normal people were selected as control group. The followed up time was 3 months. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure, BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test, corneal thickness and tear meniscus height (TMH) were observed at 1 day, 1 and 3 months after injury. The protein expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 were examined by ELISA and were compared among groups at each time point. Results BUT and Schirmer I tests value in the observation group were lower than those in the control group 3 months after injury (all p < 0.05). The corneal thickness and the tear meniscus height 1 day after injury were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05), and also higher than those at 1 month and 3 months after injury (p < 0.05). The expression levels of CXCR3 and CCR5 protein were significantly negatively correlated with BUT (p < 0.05), and CXCR3 and CCR5 were also significantly negatively correlated with Schirmer I test value (p < 0.05). Conclusion Ocular acid burns can cause dry eye, and the expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 protein in tears may be related to the occurrence of dry eye after ocular acid burn.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 50
Author(s):  
Latief Mooduto ◽  
Ari Subiyanto ◽  
Shafa Prasita

Background: Calcium hydroxide is a gold standard for root canal sealing material. However, there are many defects in calcium hydroxide that have prompted many researchers to look for alternative materials, including natural origin ingredients. Red pine (Pinus densiflora) is often used in dentistry for its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The mixture of calcium hydroxide and red pine has never been achieved before. One of the criteria for material sealing is that the channel should be fully sealed with high flow ability and low viscosity. Therefore, this research is performed to analyze the viscosity value of the mixture of calcium hydroxide and red pine (Pinus densiflora). Purpose: Knowing the difference in viscosity of the combination of calcium hydroxide and red pine with a ratio of 1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2. Methods: This study used four treatment groups, with each group consisting of 8 replications. Group 1 was a combination of calcium hydroxide and red pine with a 1: 1, group 2 the ratio was 1: 1.5, group 3 had the ratio 1: 2, and the positive control group used calcium hydroxide and a sterile aquadest. Calcium hydroxide in powder form and an extract of red pine in liquid form are mixed according to the ratio. The viscosity value is measured using a viscosity tester, namely the Brookfield Viscometer. Results: The control group had a lower viscosity than group 3, group 3, and group 2 than group 1. Conclusion: Combination of calcium hydroxide and red pine with a ratio of 1:2, the lowest viscosity was obtained compared to the ratio of 1: 1 and 1: 1.5


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