Background and Objectives: According to a recent Cochrane systematic review, renal impairment can develop in 0–84% of childhood cancer survivors in the future. The renal function impairment in this patient group can be related to nephrectomy, nephrotoxic agents therapy, abdominal radiotherapy, and combinations of these treatment methods. In this study, in a population of patients after anti-neoplastic therapy, with particular emphasis on patients after Wilms’ tumour treatment, we compared new substances which play role in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis (asymmetric dimethylarginine—ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine—SDMA) with standard renal function markers (e.g., creatinine and cystatin C in serum, creatinine in urine, etc.) to assess the usefulness of the former. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four children, without CKD, bilateral kidney tumours, congenital kidney defects, or urinary tract infections, with a minimum time of 1 year after ending anti-neoplastic treatment, aged between 17 and 215 months, were divided into three groups: group 1—patients after nephroblastoma treatment (n = 21), group 2—after other solid tumours treatment (n = 44), and group 3—after lymphoproliferative neoplasms treatment (n = 19). The patients’ medical histories were taken and physical examinations were performed. Concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cystatin C, C-reactive protein (CRP), ADMA, and SDMA in blood and albumin in urine were measured, and a general urine analysis was performed. The SDMA/ADMA ratio, albumin–creatine ratio, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated. eGFR was estimated by three equations recommended to the paediatric population by the KDIGO from 2012: the Schwartz equation (eGFR1), equation with creatinine and urea nitrogen (eGFR2), and equation with cystatin C (eGFR3). Results: Both the eGFR1 and eGFR2 values were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3 (eGFR1: 93.3 (83.1–102.3) vs. 116.5 (96.8–126.9) mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.02; eGFR2: 82.7 (±14.4) vs. 94.4 (±11.9) mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.02). Additionally, there were weak positive correlations between SDMA and creatinine (p < 0.05, r = 0.24), and cystatin C (p < 0.05, r = 0.32) and weak negative correlations between SDMA and eGFR1 (p < 0.05, r = −0.25), eGFR2 (p < 0.05, r = −0.24), and eGFR3 (p < 0.05, r = −0.32). Conclusions: The usefulness of ADMA and SDMA in the diagnosis of renal functional impairment should be assessed in further studies. eGFR, calculated according to equations recommended for children, should be used in routine paediatric practice.