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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 559
Karim Samy El-Said ◽  
Shaimaa Hussein ◽  
Barakat M. Alrashdi ◽  
Heba A. Mahmoud ◽  
Mahrous A. Ibrahim ◽  

Heavy metals intoxication causes several health problems that necessitate finding new protective and therapeutic approaches. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Musa sp. leaves extract (MLE) on hepato-renal toxicities induced by cadmium (Cd) in male mice. The phytochemical screening, metal chelating activity (MCA), and the median lethal dose (LD50) of MLE were determined. Fifty CD-1 male mice were used and intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with MLE (1000 to 5000 mg/kg b.wt) for MLE LD50 determination. Another 50 mice were used for evaluating the effect of MLE on Cd toxicity. Blood samples were collected for hematological, liver, and kidney functions assessments. Liver tissue homogenates were used for determination of oxidant/antioxidant parameters. Liver and kidney tissues were harvested for histopathological and molecular investigations. MLE showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities. The MCA and LD50 of the MLE were 75 µg/mL and 3000 mg/kg b.wt, respectively. MLE showed beneficial therapeutic activity against hepato-renal toxicities in Cd-intoxicated mice, evidenced by improving the hematological, biochemical, histopathological, and molecular alterations.

2022 ◽  
Diana J Goode ◽  
Neal E Mecum

Chemotherapy is often dose limiting due to the emergence of a debilitating neuropathy. IL-10 and IL-4 are protective against peripheral neuropathy, yet the cell source is unknown. Using flow cytometry, we found that naïve females had a greater frequency of anti-inflammatory CD4+ T cells in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) than males. In response to paclitaxel, females had reduced hypersensitivity and a greater frequency of anti-inflammatory CD4+ T cells (FoxP3, IL-10, IL-4) in the DRG than ovariectomized and male mice. These findings support a model in which estrogen promotes anti- inflammatory CD4+ T cells in female DRG to suppress peripheral neuropathy.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Tayllon dos Anjos-Garcia ◽  
Alexandre Kanashiro ◽  
Alline Cristina de Campos ◽  
Norberto Cysne Coimbra

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Environmental enrichment (EE) is a useful and sophisticated tool that improves rodents’ well-being by stimulating social behaviour and cognitive, motor, and sensory functions. Exposure to EE induces neuroplasticity in different brain areas, including the limbic system, which has been implicated in the control of anxiety and fear. However, the effects of EE on ethologically relevant naturalistic behaviours, such as those displayed by prey in the presence of predators, remain largely unexplored. <b><i>Material and Methods:</i></b> In the present study, we investigated anxiety- and panic attack-like behaviours in a predator (cat)-prey confrontation paradigm and compared them with those in classical assays, such as the elevated plus-maze (EPM), marble-burying, and open field tests (OFTs), using C57BL/6J male mice housed in enriched or standard environments for 6 weeks. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We observed that EE exposure caused enhancement of the levels of anxiety-like behaviours in the EPM and OFTs, increasing risk assessment (an anxiety-related response), and decreasing escape (a panic attack-like response) behaviours during exposure to the predator versus prey confrontation paradigm. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Taken together, our findings suggest that enriched external environments can modify the processing of fear- and anxiety-related stimuli in dangerous situations, changing the decision-making defensive strategy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Nadine Norton ◽  
Katelyn A. Bruno ◽  
Damian N. Di Florio ◽  
Emily R. Whelan ◽  
Anneliese R. Hill ◽  

Background: Doxorubicin is a widely used and effective chemotherapy, but the major limiting side effect is cardiomyopathy which in some patients leads to congestive heart failure. Genetic variants in TRPC6 have been associated with the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, suggesting that TRPC6 may be a therapeutic target for cardioprotection in cancer patients.Methods: Assessment of Trpc6 deficiency to prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage and function was conducted in male and female B6.129 and Trpc6 knock-out mice. Mice were treated with doxorubicin intraperitoneally every other day for a total of 6 injections (4 mg/kg/dose, cumulative dose 24 mg/kg). Cardiac damage was measured in heart sections by quantification of vacuolation and fibrosis, and in heart tissue by gene expression of Tnni3 and Myh7. Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography.Results: When treated with doxorubicin, male Trpc6-deficient mice showed improvement in markers of cardiac damage with significantly reduced vacuolation, fibrosis and Myh7 expression and increased Tnni3 expression in the heart compared to wild-type controls. Similarly, male Trpc6-deficient mice treated with doxorubicin had improved LVEF, fractional shortening, cardiac output and stroke volume. Female mice were less susceptible to doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage and functional changes than males, but Trpc6-deficient females had improved vacuolation with doxorubicin treatment. Sex differences were observed in wild-type and Trpc6-deficient mice in body-weight and expression of Trpc1, Trpc3 and Rcan1 in response to doxorubicin.Conclusions: Trpc6 promotes cardiac damage following treatment with doxorubicin resulting in cardiomyopathy in male mice. Female mice are less susceptible to cardiotoxicity with more robust ability to modulate other Trpc channels and Rcan1 expression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Danielle E. Soranno ◽  
Peter Baker ◽  
Lara Kirkbride-Romeo ◽  
Sara A. Wennersten ◽  
Kathy Ding ◽  

AbstractAcute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients, causes systemic sequelae, and predisposes patients to long-term cardiovascular disease. To date, studies of the effects of AKI on cardiovascular outcomes have only been performed in male mice. We recently demonstrated that male mice developed diastolic dysfunction, hypertension and reduced cardiac ATP levels versus sham 1 year after AKI. The effects of female sex on long-term cardiac outcomes after AKI are unknown. Therefore, we examined the 1-year cardiorenal outcomes following a single episode of bilateral renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in female C57BL/6 mice using a model with similar severity of AKI and performed concomitantly to recently published male cohorts. To match the severity of AKI between male and female mice, females received 34 min of ischemia time compared to 25 min in males. Serial renal function, echocardiograms and blood pressure assessments were performed throughout the 1-year study. Renal histology, and cardiac and plasma metabolomics and mitochondrial function in the heart and kidney were evaluated at 1 year. Measured glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were similar between male and female mice throughout the 1-year study period. One year after AKI, female mice had preserved diastolic function, normal blood pressure, and preserved levels of cardiac ATP. Compared to males, females demonstrated pathway enrichment in arginine metabolism and amino acid related energy production in both the heart and plasma, and glutathione in the plasma. Cardiac mitochondrial respiration in Complex I of the electron transport chain demonstrated improved mitochondrial function in females compared to males, regardless of AKI or sham. This is the first study to examine the long-term cardiac effects of AKI on female mice and indicate that there are important sex-related cardiorenal differences. The role of female sex in cardiovascular outcomes after AKI merits further investigation.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262577
Jin Tanaka ◽  
Fuka Ishikawa ◽  
Tomoki Jinno ◽  
Motoki Miyakita ◽  
Haruka Miyamori ◽  

cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivators (CRTCs) regulate gene transcription in response to an increase in intracellular cAMP or Ca2+ levels. To date, three isoforms of CRTC have been identified in mammals. All CRTCs are widely expressed in various regions of the brain. Numerous studies have shown the importance of CREB and CRTC in energy homeostasis. In the brain, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) plays a critical role in energy metabolism, and CRTC1 and CRTC2 are highly expressed in PVH neuronal cells. The single-minded homolog 1 gene (Sim1) is densely expressed in PVH neurons and in some areas of the amygdala neurons. To determine the role of CRTCs in PVH on energy metabolism, we generated mice that lacked CRTC1 and CRTC2 in Sim1 cells using Sim-1 cre mice. We found that Sim1 cell-specific CRTC1 and CRTC2 double-knockout mice were sensitive to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Sim1 cell-specific CRTC1 and CRTC2 double knockout mice showed hyperphagia specifically for the HFD, but not for the normal chow diet, increased fat mass, and no change in energy expenditure. Interestingly, these phenotypes were stronger in female mice than in male mice, and a weak phenotype was observed in the normal chow diet. The lack of CRTC1 and CRTC2 in Sim1 cells changed the mRNA levels of some neuropeptides that regulate energy metabolism in female mice fed an HFD. Taken together, our findings suggest that CRTCs in Sim1 cells regulate gene expression and suppress excessive fat intake, especially in female mice.

Amirhossein Danafar ◽  
Arezoo Khoradmehr ◽  
Mahya Hosseini Bondarabadi ◽  
Fahime Mazaheri ◽  
Amin Tamadon ◽  

Background: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are widely used in many compounds. Recent evidence has displayed some cytotoxic effects of TiO2NPs on male reproduction. Objective: The effects of TiO2NP administration on sperm parameters and chromatin and seminiferous histopathology of male mice were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 NMRI male mice (35 ± 3 gr, 8-12-week-old) were divided into four groups (n = 8/each): treated groups were fed orally with 2.5 (group I), 5 (group II) and 10 (group III) mg/kg/day TiO2NPs for 40 days and the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Sperm parameters, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were assessed using chromomycin A3, aniline blue, toluidine blue staining and TUNEL. Hematoxylin eosin staining was performed to measure spermatogenic cells and the total diameter of seminiferous tubules. Also, sex hormone and malondyaldehyde levels were measured. Results: Abnormal sperm tails rose in group III (28.87 ± 4.91) in comparison with the control group (12.75 ± 3.95). However, chromomycin A3 staining and TUNEL showed higher levels in group III in comparison with the control group, whereas aniline blue and toluidine blue staining showed no differences. A significantly lower spermatogenesis index and lumen parameters were observed in group III. Leydig cell numbers, cellular diameters and the area of the seminiferous tubules were lower in the treated groups. The testosterone level was also lower in these groups and the percentage of malondyaldehyde in the seminal fluid was higher. Conclusion: Exact mechanisms of TiO2NPs are not clear; however, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO2NPs may relate to oxidative stress. Given their widespread use, TiO2NPs should be a public health focus of attention. Key words: Titanium dioxide, Spermatogenesis, Histology, Mouse, Chromatin, TUNEL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ida Wang Henriksen ◽  
Josue Leonardo Castro Mejia ◽  
Caroline Martha Junker Mentzel ◽  
Frederikke Lindenberg ◽  
Axel Kornerup Hansen

AbstractSeveral mammalian species are vaccinated in early life, but little is known about the effect of diet on vaccine response. Oligosaccharides are increasingly proposed as dietary supplement for young individuals due to their anti-inflammatory potential elicited through modulation of gut microbiota (GM). Also, diet, e.g. the size of the fat fraction, is known to modulate the GM. We tested if an oligosaccharide diet (Immulix) and/or increased dietary fat content affected antibody titers to a tetanus vaccine in 48 BALB/cJTac mice through GM modulation. Female mice had significantly higher IgG titers with higher variation compared to male mice. The effects of Immulix and/or increased fat content were minor. Immulix negatively affected IgG titers in male mice four weeks after secondary vaccination but upregulated Il1b gene expression in the spleen. Immulix had a downregulating effect on expression of Cd4 and Foxp3 in ileum only if the mice were fed the diet with increased fat. The diet with increased dietary fat increased Il1b but decreased Cd8a gene expression in the spleen. Immulix and diet affected GM composition significantly. Increased dietary fat content upregulated Lactobacillus animalis but downregulated an unclassified Prevotella spp. Immulix decreased Lactobacillales, Streptococcaceae and Prevotellaceae but increased Bacteroides. It is concluded that in spite of some minor influences on immune cell markers, cytokines and IgG titers Immulix feeding or increased dietary fat content did not have any biologically relevant effects on tetanus vaccine responses in this experiment in mice.

2022 ◽  
Polymnia Georgiou ◽  
Ta-Chung M Mou ◽  
Liam E Potter ◽  
Xiaoxian An ◽  
Panos Zanos ◽  

In susceptible populations, stress is a major risk factor for the development of mental disorders, including depression. Estradiol, often considered a female hormone, is distributed in the male brain via aromatization of testosterone. The role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in male stress susceptibility and depression is not well understood. We found that absence of ERβ is associated with susceptibility to stress in male mice and that activity of ERβ-projecting neurons from the basolateral amygdala to nucleus accumbens is reduced in hypogonadal mice subjected to stress, while activation of this circuit reverses stress-induced maladaptive behaviors. We identified that absence of estradiol, but not testosterone per se, underlies stress susceptibility and that brain-selective delivery of estradiol prevents the development of depression-related behaviors. Our findings provide evidence for an estrogen-based mechanism underlying stress susceptibility and offer an unexpected therapeutic strategy for treating depression in males.

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